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World History I
Chapter 5 – Ancient Greece
Chapter 5 Vocabulary Definitions
Vocabulary Activity – Create Flash Cards
Section 1: Geography of Greece
Section 2: Greek Mythology
Section 3: Greek Social Structure
Section 4: Greek Wars
Section 5: The Golden Age of Greece
Section 6: Alexander the Great
Map Activities:
Appendix pg.1-4
Reading Activities: Appendix pg. 5-8
Project: Appendix pg. 9
Vocabulary Quiz
Chapter 5 Quiz
Student Signature
Teacher Signature
Peninsula - __________________________________________________
Hinduism - __________________________________________________
Reincarnation - ______________________________________________
Caste - _____________________________________________________
Buddha -____________________________________________________
Nirvana - ___________________________________________________
Isolate - ____________________________________________________
Subcontinent - _______________________________________________
Enlightened - ________________________________________________
Soul - ______________________________________________________
Society - ____________________________________________________
Chapter 5 Section 1: Geography of Greece
Directions: Use the following document to answer the questions below.
Warfare in Sparta
The expression below was supposed to be the parting cry of mothers to their sons. Mothers whose sons died in battle
openly rejoiced; mothers whose sons survived and lost hung their heads in shame.
"Come back alive with your shield – or dead on it, but never in defeat.”
1. How does this attitude reflect Spartan values [what beliefs are important to an individual or society]?
2. In what ways is this attitude still reflected in our contemporary society? (Think about who is considered a type of
Closing WHI.5a
Directions: Use your notes to answer the questions below.
1. What type of landform is Greece located on? _____________________________________________
2. What isolated the different city states? __________________________________________________
3. The mountains also made it difficult to __________________________________________________
5. Access to what Sea allowed for trade and the spread of Greek culture? _________________________
6. Name the three major city-states of ancient Greece. ________________________________________
The Geography of Greece WHI.5a
Physical Geography
Greece is located in the
heart of the
Mediterranean Basin.
Rocky Soil
Rocky Soil
Poor Farmland
Chapter 5 Section 2: Greek Mythology
Directions: Use the diagram of Greek Mythology to answer the questions below.
1. Who was the Goddess of wisdom? _________________________________
2. Poseidon was the God of the ______________________________________
3. Who was the King of the Gods as well as the sky, lightening and rain? ________
4. Ares was the God of _______________________________________________
5. What does the red lines represent? ___________________________________
6. Who was the God of the underworld? _________________________________
7. Who was Apollo’s twin sister? _______________________________________
8. Who was the messenger God? _______________________________________
9. Who was the Goddess of marriage? ___________________________________
10. What was Apollo the God of? ______________________________________
Greek Mythology
Chapter 5 Section 3 Greek Social Structure
Directions: Use the following picture to answer the questions below.
Document 4: The population in Athens, 430 B.C.E.
Adult male citizens with power to vote………………………………………………40,000
Citizens without political power (women, children, some men)……………………..80,000
Foreign-born residents of Athens………………………………………………….....80,000
Total population……………………………………………………………………...450,000
--from Bertram Linder, A world History, 1979
According to this document, which sector (part) of the population was the largest? Which sector was the
What do these two numbers tell us about who had the most power in Athenian society? (Was it a democracy
for everyone? Why or why not?)
Closing WHI.5c
Directions: Write at least FOUR facts in the chart below for each city-state.
Greek Social Structure
Chapter 5 Section 4 Greek Wars
Directions: Read the following passage and answer the question below.
Closing WHI.5d
Directions: Use your notes to complete the following Chart
Peloponnesian War
Persian War
Greek Wars
Chapter 5 Section 5 The Golden Age of Greece
Directions: Look at the following pictures and answer the questions below.
Closing WHI.5e,f
Directions: Use your notes to answer the questions below.
2. What TWO things did Pericles do as the leader of Greece?
3. What is a classic example of the new style of architecture used in Greece? __________________
4. Name the three type of Greek columns. _____________________________________________
5. Who was the writer of the Illiad and the Odyssey? _____________________________________
6. Who were considered the first historians? ___________________________________________
Golden Age of Greece
Chapter 5 Section 6 Alexander the Great
Directions: Examine the following map and answer the question below.
Closing WHI.5g
1. What years did Alexander the Great live from? ___________________________
2. Who’s son was Alexander the Great? __________________________________
3. Where did Alexander’s empire stretch from? _____________________________
4. What is Hellenistic Culture? _________________________________________
5. What helped Hellenistic Culture spread?
Alexander the Great
Appendix pg. 1 – Map Activity
Appendix pg. 2 - Map Activity
Appendix pg. 3 – Map Activity
APPENDIX PG. 4 Map Activity
Appendix pg. 5 – Reading Activity
Ancient Greece - How Did It All Begin?
By Vickie Chao
Greece has a very long and interesting history. Over the course of thousands of years, people there made
many groundbreaking discoveries that would later profoundly reshape other cultures. For example,
Archimedes figured out the law of buoyancy in the 3rd century B.C. Aristarchus was the first in the world to
claim that the Earth rotates and revolves around the sun. Socrates, Plato, and Aristotle were three great
philosophers whose schools of thought laid the foundation of Western philosophy. And, of course, there was
the famous Alexander the Great. This mighty Macedonian king defeated Egypt and eradicated the Persian
Empire. He even invaded and controlled a portion of the Indian subcontinent.
Everybody mentioned here is an iconic figure that helps to define what a magnificent civilization ancient
Greece once had. But before those people came along, Greece was already bustling with all sorts of advanced
developments, dating as far back as 3000 B.C. At the time, a group of people called the Minoans settled on the
island of Crete in the Aegean Sea. Their culture, termed the Minoan civilization, lasted nearly 2,000 years.
The Minoans, by all accounts, were fond of doing overseas business. Most of their commercial activities
revolved around making trades with other countries, such as Egypt. Since very early on, they had discovered a
way to cast bronze (an alloy traditionally composed of copper and tin) and applied that knowledge to make
metal tools and weapons. The Minoans had their own languages and sophisticated art. They loved building
palaces and enjoyed decorating them with lively frescoes. Those vibrant wall paintings told tales about what
life was like back then. Because of them, we know that "bull jumping" was one of the most popular sports at
the time. We know, too, that the Minoans had their own beliefs and practiced various religious rituals.
The Minoan civilization reached its peak around 1600 B.C. But by the middle of the 15th century B.C., it
had declined so much that it was suffering an agonizingly slow death. For years, historians have debated why
this once powerful civilization simply ceased to exist. Some said it was due to a violent volcanic eruption on a
nearby island called Thera. The eruption unleashed toxic gas, ash clouds, and quite possibly massive tsunamis
that reached Crete in no time. If that theory is correct, then any or all three of the post-disaster traumas might
have played a crucial role in the downfall of the Minoan civilization. Whatever actually happened, we will
never know. The only thing we can say with any certainty is that the Minoan civilization eventually collapsed
and was replaced by the Mycenaean civilization.
The Mycenaean civilization flourished between 1600 B.C. and 1100 B.C. Unlike its predecessor, this
thriving culture had its focus on mainland Greece. Its most famous, defining event was, undoubtedly, the
Trojan War. That conflict, according to Homer, was a battle between the Greeks and the Trojans over a
beautiful woman named Helen. After a decade of fighting, the Greeks finally won and sacked the city of Troy.
Around the 12th century B.C., the Dorians, a tribe from northern Greece, began to flex their muscles and
advance southward. Their military aggression brought the Mycenaean civilization to its knees. The invasion
marked the official end of the Bronze Age. For the next 300 years or so, the so-called Dark Ages clouded over
Greece, but details about that bleak period would be the topic of a different story.
Ancient Greece - How Did It All Begin?
1. Which of the following about the Minoans is true?
Their civilization reached its peak between 1600
B.C. and 1100 B.C.
2. What type of metals did the Minoans use to make tools and
Their civilization was a bustling culture found on
the island of Crete.
They were the first people in ancient Greece to use
Their civilization replaced the Mycenaean
3. Who brought ancient Greece into the Dark Ages?
The Mycenaeans
The Minoans
The Dorians
The Trojans
4. Which of the following about the Trojan War is correct?
It was a war between the Minoans and the
Homer said it was a war over a woman named
It was triggered by the Dorian invasion.
The Trojans won the war and sacked the city of
5. Which of the following statements about the Mycenaean
civilization is correct?
It marked the beginning of Greece's Dark Ages.
It was the last phase of Greece's Bronze Age.
It was destroyed by a volcanic eruption.
6. What was a popular sport among the Minoans?
Ice skating
Bull jumping
It reached its peak around 3000 B.C.
7. Which of the following was not a Greek philosopher?
8. Which island's volcanic eruption was the possible cause of
the fall of the Minoan civilization?
9. In which sea can we find Crete?
10. What did the Minoans use to decorate their palaces?
The Black Sea
Golden leaves
The Aegean Sea
Marble statues
The Caspian Sea
Wall paintings
The Baltic Sea
Ceramic tiles
Appendix pg. 6 – Reading Activity
By Vickie Chao
Thousands of years ago, in the heyday of the ancient Greek civilization, Athens was the center of the world. But at the onset of
the 5th century B.C., another great civilization sought to challenge that dominance. That civilization was the mighty Persian Empire.
In 492 B.C., the Persian king, Darius, launched his first attack against the Greeks, officially setting off the so-called Greco-Persian
Wars or, simply, the Persian Wars. After more than four decades of fighting, the two archenemies finally agreed to a ceasefire. In 449
B.C., a rich Athenian by the name of Callias brokered a deal, commonly known as the Peace of Callias, between the Greeks and the
Persians. After the Persians consented to the terms, they withdrew their troops and went back to their homeland, leaving the Greeks
to rebuild their cities, including Athens.
Pericles, a prominent Athenian statesman, wanted to restore Athens back to its glorious days before the conflict had destroyed it.
One area in particular that he wanted to fix was its acropolis. The acropolis, which literally means "city at the top" in Greek, was a
standard component in the layout of a Greek city. It always stood atop a hill or on elevated ground, serving the dual purposes of
defense and religious worship. When Pericles began his work on reconstructing the acropolis at Athens, he called for the boldest
design and spared no expenses. High on his to-do list was a temple dedicated to the city's patron goddess, Athena. For that
assignment, he asked two architects, Ictinus (or Iktinos) and Callicrates (or Kallikrates), to draw a blueprint. And he hired a sculptor,
Phidias, to design both the exterior and the interior of the temple. The entire construction took nine years to complete. When it was at
last unveiled to the public in 438 B.C., its magnificence took everybody's breath away! Amazingly, that marvelous building still
remains standing today in Athens. It is the world-famous Parthenon.
The Parthenon is a huge rectangular, marbled structure, with rows of columns on all four sides - eight on the east and west, and
seventeen on the north and south. Inside the building, there was once a chamber, or a cella, where a giant statue of Athena (made of
gold, ivory, and wood) stood proudly. Behind the cella, separated by a slant wall, was a treasure room for sacred objects. Light could
only come into the cella from the doorway facing east. Directly above the columns on both the east and west ends of the temple were
two triangular pediments with intricate designs. The eastern pediment showed the birth of Athena from the head of her father, Zeus,
the king of all gods and goddesses. The western pediment depicted a fierce battle between Athena and Poseidon over the land of
Attica. Dotted around the temple were numerous forceful, life-like sculptures. Phidias placed them strategically so each section told a
different tale of ancient Greece.
When Ictinus and Callicrates designed the Parthenon, they employed a secret weapon called the golden rectangle. The golden
rectangle, by definition, is one with a ratio of its length to its width equal to roughly 1.6. That particular ratio is an irrational number.
In mathematics, it is represented by the symbol of "
" or phi. The Parthenon, by itself, is a collection of many golden rectangles.
The front of the temple and the spaces between the columns are just two obvious examples. The ancient Greeks believed that a
building conforming to the golden ratio would be pleasing to look at. Well, they were certainly right! Even after 2,500 years, the
Parthenon continues to draw admiration from people around the world. It is certainly a timeless piece of art and a culmination of the
development of the Doric order. (The Doric order is the simplest and the earliest form of the three architectural orders developed by
the Greeks. The other two are the Ionic and the Corinthian orders.)
For nearly a thousand years, the Parthenon remained essentially intact. But that changed when the Romans decided to convert the
temple to a Christian church in the 5th century. They first took the statue of Athena to Constantinople (today's Istanbul, Turkey) and
destroyed it there. They then made many more updates so the newly renovated building bore little reference to the pagan god it had
once worshipped. After the Turks from the Ottoman Empire seized Athens' acropolis in 1458, they converted the Parthenon yet again
to an Islamic mosque. They did not make any significant structural change to the building. The fate of the Parthenon reached an alltime low in 1687. That year, the Venetians attacked the Turks in Athens. On September 26, they bombarded the city. One of their
bombs happened to fall on the Parthenon which the Turks were using as a gunpowder magazine. The blast destroyed a great portion
of the monument which had actually been preserved in a rather good condition until then. In the early 19th century, another disaster
struck the Parthenon. This time, with the permission of the Turks, Thomas Bruce (also known as Lord Elgin), a British ambassador at
Constantinople, removed many sculptures from the Parthenon and sold them to the British Museum in London. That final blow
literally emptied out the Parthenon, making it the skeletal building that we see in Athens today!
1. Which of the following about the Parthenon is correct?
2. Why did the Greeks build the Parthenon?
It was commissioned by an Athenian statesman
named Pericles.
In the 5th century, the Romans dismantled the
temple and rebuilt it in Constantinople.
To serve as a military fortress
To worship Athens' patron goddess, Athena
To worship the king of all Greek gods and
goddesses, Zeus
It was completely destroyed by the Venetians in
To serve as a marketplace
It was originally designed as the worship place for
3. What architectural order does the Parthenon represent?
The Doric order
4. Where can we find most of the sculptures originally placed in
the Parthenon?
The Guggenheim Museum in Venice
The Ionic order
The Louvre Museum in Paris
The Tuscan order
The British Museum in London
The Corinthian order
The Metropolitan Museum of Art in New York
5. How many religions were worshipped in the Parthenon?
6. Which of the following events happened last?
The Turks converted the Parthenon to a mosque.
The Romans destroyed the statue of Athena.
The Venetians bombarded Athens.
The Greeks and the Persians signed the Peace of
7. Which of the following about Lord Elgin is incorrect?
Lord Elgin's real name was Thomas Bruce.
Lord Elgin was once an ambassador stationed in
Lord Elgin sold many of the sculptures in the
Lord Elgin was a British.
8. Which of the following about the Parthenon is true?
The Parthenon used to have an eastern doorway
leading to the cella.
The front of the Parthenon is the only place that the
Greeks applied the golden ratio in their design.
The Parthenon used to have a cella on top of its
The Parthenon is a triangular building.
9. Which of the following had nothing to do with the original
creation of the Parthenon?
10. What is a golden rectangle?
One with its length equal to roughly 1.6 times of
its width.
One with its area equal to roughly 1.6 times of its
One with its circumference equal to roughly 1.6
times of its area.
One with its circumference equal to roughly 1.6
times of its length.
Appendix pg. 7 – Reading Activity
Ancient Greece - Olympic Games
By Ekaterina Zhdanova-Redman
Do you like sports? Or maybe you like watching sport games on TV or in a stadium? Probably, you know
that every four years the best athletes from all over the world get together to compete in the Olympic Games.
Perhaps you also know where this important event takes place, or where the games came from, and why they
are called the Olympics?
The home country of the Olympic Games is Greece. Ancient Greeks loved sport and most cities in Ancient
Greece had public gymnasiums where people gathered to train and relax. One Greek city was known to be a
very important center of athletics. The city was called Olympia and the games, held there every four years,
were so important in Greek life that they were used as the basis for the Greek calendar.
In the Greek system of telling time, the period between two Olympic Games was called Olympiad. All
events were dated from 776 BC--the beginning of the first known Olympiad. Can you figure out how to
correspond this Greek system of telling time with the European calendar, the one that we use now? The first
year of the 195th Olympiad is the first year of Christ--the first year AD!
All sport games in Ancient Greece, including those in Olympia, were part of religious festivals. They were
usually held to honor the gods. The games in Olympia honored Zeus--the king of gods and all men. On the first
day of the Olympics, sacrifices of grain, wine, and lambs were made to Zeus. The events of the Olympic
Games in Ancient Greece included races, the long jump, throwing the discus and javelin, boxing, wrestling,
chariot races, and horse races, as well as poetry and drama competitions.
The Olympic Games were so important that all the wars between the cities would stop. Special people-heralds--would travel all over Greece and pronounce the beginning of the Olympics. All the military actions
had to be stopped so that people could journey safely to the Games. Unfortunately, people of the 20th century
did not have that much respect for the Games. Instead of stopping wars, the Games themselves were stopped
by both World Wars.
All athletes competing in the ancient Olympic Games were naked. The word "naked" in Greek is
"gymnos," and this is where such words as gymnasium, gymnastics, and gymnast came from. In Ancient
Greece, to be naked was not anything to be ashamed of. It was a way for the athletes to show how hard they
were training and practicing.
All Greek men who were free citizens and had not committed murder or heresy had the right to take part in
the Olympic Games. Women were banned not only from competing but even watching the games! If a woman
was found in a stadium she had to be killed by being thrown off a cliff.
This rule was broken only once--by a woman whose father, brother, and husband were the Olympic
champions. She trained and coached her son to prepare him for the games, and went to see him in the stadium.
She cut her hair short and put on men's clothing. She was standing next to other coaches when her son was
named a champion. Overwhelmed by her feelings she ran toward him, her clothes fell off, and everybody could
see she was a woman. She, as a daughter, sister, wife, and now mother of Olympic champions was not
punished. But since then, another rule for the games was applied--not only all athletes had to be naked, but
everyone in the stadium.
There were no cash prizes at the Olympics. The winners of the games received only garlands of olive
leaves, but to be crowned meant life-long fame. However, because the winners brought such honor to their
cities, they were sometimes given money when they came back home, or even free meals for life! Poets wrote
poems honoring the winners and sculptors created their images in stone to put in the main squares of the cities.
One of the most important events of the Olympic Games was racing. Athletes ran barefoot on the racing
track covered with sand. The racing length was one "stade"-- a Greek measurement that equals about 192
meters (210 yards). The word "stade" also meant the footrace itself, and, later, a place where the race took
place. Can you now guess why the modern sport arenas are called "stadiums"?
The Olympic Games were stopped in 394--the 293d Olympiad--by the Theodosius I because he viewed
the games as pagan rites. The history of the modern Olympic Games begins in the late 19th century thanks to
the efforts of the French Baron Pierre De Coubertin and the Greek Dimitrios Vikelas. The first modern
Olympic Games took place in Athens, Greece in 1896. Different countries have hosted the games since then. In
2004, after almost 2,800 years since their beginning, the Olympic Games will be hosted by the city of Athens,
back to their home country.
Copyright © 2013 edHelper
Ancient Greece - Olympic Games
1. The home country of the Olympic Games is _____.
2. In Ancient Greece, sport games were popular only in
3. In Ancient Greece, Olympiad was _____.
4. Which Greek god did the games in Olympia honor?
The god of athletics
A period of time between two Olympic Games
A kind of a foot race
A mountain
5. The Olympic Games in Ancient Greece often started wars.
6. The word "gymnos" in Greek means _____.
7. All citizens of Ancient Greece--men and women--were
allowed to compete in the Olympic Games.
8. In Ancient Greece, the prize for the Olympic Games winner
was _____.
A garland of olive leaves
A gold crown
A gold medal
Appendix pg. 8 – Reading Activity
The Twelve Olympians
By Vickie Chao
The ancient Greeks worshipped many gods and goddesses. According to their legends, there were twelve major deities. Together,
they were called the twelve Olympians. The twelve Olympians did not rule the world from the very beginning. They had a falling-out
with the Titans. The two sides went into war that lasted for nearly ten years. When the fight was finally over, the Olympians had
won. They threw the Titans to the underworld. Then they moved to live atop Mount Olympus. They ruled the world from there.
Of the twelve Olympians, Zeus was the most powerful. He was the leader of the entire band. His word was final. No deity would
ever dare to cross him! Zeus had many wives. One of them, Hera, was actually his sister. She was also among the twelve Olympians.
Zeus and Hera had several children together. Some of them wound up in this elite group, too.
So, besides Zeus and Hera, who else made up the twelve Olympians? The ancient Greeks, apparently, could not answer the
question definitely. They had ten specific gods and goddesses that were always on the list. Then, they had four alternate ones for the
two remaining spots. Here are the fourteen deities:
Later in history, the Romans learned of the Greek deities. They adopted them as their own. They even gave them Roman names.
Apollo was the only one in the pack who kept his original identity.
The ancient Greeks wrote many tales about their deities. In those stories, they would never die, for the gods and goddesses were
immortals. But aside from that, they were no different from us, the mortals. Atop Mount Olympus, there were sibling rivalries and
family crises all the time. The Greek deities fought among themselves endlessly. Their love and hatred toward each other could
surpass the best television show's plot!
Copyright © 2013 edHelper
Name _____________________________
Date ___________________
The Twelve Olympians
1. Who was the leader of the twelve Olympians?
2. Which of the following Greek goddesses was born fullgrown from Zeus' head?
3. Which of the following Greek deities was the protector of
women in childbirth?
4. According to Greek myths, who ruled the underworld?
5. According to Greek myths, who was the mother of Cupid?
6. Which of the following about the twelve Olympians is true?
They defeated the Titans.
They lived in the underworld.
They were friends. They had no relation with one
Apollo was the leader of the pack.
7. Which deity was in charge of hunting?
8. How many deities were candidates for the twelve
Appendix pg. 9 – Chapter 4 Project Choices
Directions: Choose ONE (1) of the following projects to complete.
Choice 1 Greek Gods and Goddesses Brochure: Use your notes on the Greek Gods and Goddesses to create a
brochure. Include at least two facts about each God or Goddess and a picture.
Choice 1 Rubric
Score of 0
-Student does not
complete any of
Score of 1
- Student completes
one of the gods or
- Little effort
-No pictures
Score of 2
- Student completes
two of the gods or
- Little effort
- One picture
Score of 3
- Student completes
two of the gods or
- Some effort
- Two pictures
Score of 4
- Student completes
three of the gods or
- Good effort
- Three pictures
Score of 5
- Student completes
three of the gods or
- Great Effort
- Three pictures
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Choice 2 Map it: Recreate a map from the chapter. Use a blank sheet of paper, color pencils and the map on Appendix
pgs. 1-4 as a guide.
Choice 2 Rubric
Score of 0
-Student does not
complete any of the
Score of 1
- Student drawing
does not visually
match the picture
- lacks effort
- no color
Score of 2
- Student drawing
shows some effort
- no color
Score of 3
- Student drawing
shows good effort
- Drawing mostly
matches example
Score of 4
- Student drawing
shows good effort
- Drawing mostly
matches example
-some color
Score of 5
- Shows great effort
- Drawing matches
example given
- map is well
Choice 3 Poster: Create a poster about Greek Culture. Use any of the charts from one of your section of notes.
Score of 0
-Student does not
complete any of the
Score of 1
- Student includes
at least 1 fact from
-No Pictures
-Lacks Effort
Score of 2
- Student includes
at least 2 facts from
-No Pictures
Score of 3
- Student includes
at least 3 facts from
-1 Picture
Score of 4
- Student includes
at all 4 facts from
-2 Pictures
Score of 5
- Student includes
at all 4 facts from
- 3 Pictures
- Neat
- Well Organized
Choice 4 Design: Greek architecture is famous and is still used in buildings today. Study some pictures of Greek
architecture and draw/build/create a building that uses Greek architectural style. Decide what you would like to do and
see me for a specific rubric based on your project.