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Transcript
Warringah Aquatic Centre
Flora and Fauna Assessment
Final
Prepared for
Warringah Council
November 2015
Warringah Aquatic Centre - Flora and Fauna Assessment
DOCUMENT TRACKING
Item
Detail
Project Name
Warringah Aquatic Centre – Flora and Fauna Assessment
Project Number
2177
Jennie Powell
Project Manager
Phone (02) 8536 8656
Level 6, 299 Sussex Street, Sydney, NSW 2000
Prepared by
Belinda Failes, Jennie Powell and Ian Mullins
Reviewed by
Meredith Henderson and David Bonjer
Approved by
David Bonjer
Status
Final
Version Number
1
Last saved on
3 November 2015
Cover photo
Top Left: Existing Aquatic Centre and adjacent vegetation. Right: Canopy layer suitable for
fauna habitat. Bottom Left: Duffys Forest Ecological Community.
This report should be cited as ‘Eco Logical Australia 2015. Warringah Aquatic Centre – Flora and Fauna
Assessment. Prepared for Warringah Council.’
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
This document has been prepared by Eco Logical Australia Pty Ltd with support from Warringah
Council.
Disclaimer
This document may only be used for the purpose for which it was commissioned and in accordance with the contract between
Eco Logical Australia Pty Ltd and Warringah Council. The scope of services was defined in consultation with Warringah Council,
by time and budgetary constraints imposed by the client, and the availability of reports and other data on the subject area.
Changes to available information, legislation and schedules are made on an ongoing basis and readers should obtain up to date
information.
Eco Logical Australia Pty Ltd accepts no liability or responsibility whatsoever for or in respect of any use of or reliance upon this
report and its supporting material by any third party. Information provided is not intended to be a substitute for site specific
assessment or legal advice in relation to any matter. Unauthorised use of this report in any form is prohibited.
Template 24/07/2015
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Warringah Aquatic Centre - Flora and Fauna Assessment
Contents
Executive summary ................................................................................................................................ vi
1
Introduction ................................................................................................................................. 1
1.1
Background................................................................................................................................... 1
1.2
Location ........................................................................................................................................ 1
1.3
Terminology .................................................................................................................................. 1
1.4
Legislative context ........................................................................................................................ 2
2
Methods ....................................................................................................................................... 4
2.1
Data audit and literature review .................................................................................................... 4
2.2
Site inspection .............................................................................................................................. 4
2.2.1
Vegetation communities ............................................................................................................... 4
2.2.2
Flora surveys ................................................................................................................................ 5
2.2.3
Fauna surveys .............................................................................................................................. 5
2.2.4
Survey conditions ......................................................................................................................... 5
2.3
Survey limitations ......................................................................................................................... 5
3
Literature review ......................................................................................................................... 7
4
Ecological values ..................................................................................................................... 10
4.1
Desktop review ........................................................................................................................... 10
4.1.1
Landscape context and land use ................................................................................................ 10
4.1.2
Threatened ecological communities ........................................................................................... 13
4.1.3
Threatened flora species ............................................................................................................ 15
4.1.4
Threatened fauna species .......................................................................................................... 15
4.2
Field survey results ..................................................................................................................... 16
4.2.1
Vegetation communities within the study area ........................................................................... 16
4.2.2
Highly modified Duffys Forest..................................................................................................... 17
4.2.3
Remnant Duffys Forest ............................................................................................................... 17
4.2.4
Vegetation communities within MWWMP ................................................................................... 18
4.2.5
Flora species .............................................................................................................................. 21
4.2.6
Threatened flora species ............................................................................................................ 21
4.2.7
Fauna species and habitats ........................................................................................................ 21
4.2.8
Threatened fauna species .......................................................................................................... 24
4.2.9
Ecological connectivity ............................................................................................................... 24
5
Constraints and potential impacts ......................................................................................... 26
5.1
Potential Impacts to DFEC ......................................................................................................... 26
5.2
Potential impacts to other vegetation communities .................................................................... 27
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5.3
Potential impacts to habitat for threatened flora and fauna and other significant species ......... 27
5.4
Potential Impacts to ecological connectivity ............................................................................... 27
5.5
Recommendation ....................................................................................................................... 27
References ............................................................................................................................................. 29
Appendix A : Likelihood of occurrence .............................................................................................. 32
Appendix B : Species list ..................................................................................................................... 60
Appendix C : Anabat Results ............................................................................................................... 66
List of figures
Figure 1: Warringah Aquatic Centre study area and locality ...................................................................... 3
Figure 2: 1972 aerial photograph of landfill extent and proposed lease area overlay ............................. 11
Figure 3: 1978 aerial photograph of vegetation disturbance and proposed lease area overlay ............. 12
Figure 4: Council vegetation mapping of the locality .............................................................................. 14
Figure 5: Council vegetation mapping within study area and MWWMP ................................................. 19
Figure 6: Validated vegetation mapping and APZ for infill development ................................................. 20
Figure 7: Fauna habitat ............................................................................................................................ 25
Figure 8: Call profile for Miniopterus australis recorded at Warringah Aquatic Centre at 0249 on 10
August 2015. ............................................................................................................................................ 69
Figure 9: Probable call profile for Miniopterus schreibersii oceanensis recorded at Warringah Aquatic
Centre at 0253 on 10 August 2015. ......................................................................................................... 69
Figure 10: Possible call profile for Tadaria australis recorded at Warringah Aquatic Centre at 2111 on 9
August 2015. ............................................................................................................................................ 70
Figure 11: Call profile for Vespadelus darlingtoni recorded at Warringah Aquatic Centre at 1738 on 8
August 2015. ............................................................................................................................................ 70
List of tables
Table 1: Weather conditions during field survey (Station 066059 Terrey Hills – BOM 2015) .................... 5
Table 2: Summary of literature relevant to the project ............................................................................... 7
Table 3: Noxious weeds and WoNS present in the study area ................................................................ 21
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Table 4: Habitat features and associated fauna groups (guilds) recorded in the study area................... 22
Table 5: Areas of vegetation communities impacted for building footprint on entire lease area ............. 26
Table 6: Areas of vegetation communities impacted for amended building footprint ............................. 28
Table 7: Site 1 (Anabat01) results from two Anabat nights 8 and 9 August 2015, Warringah Aquatic
Centre. ...................................................................................................................................................... 67
Table 8: Site 2 (Anabat02) results from two Anabat nights 8 and 9 August 2015, Warringah Aquatic
Centre. ...................................................................................................................................................... 67
Abbreviations
Abbreviation
Description
APZ
Asset Protection Zone
BPA
Bushfire Protection Assessment
DA
Development Application
DFEC
Duffys Forest Ecological Community
DP&E
Department of Planning and Environment
EA
Environmental Assessment
ELA
Eco Logical Australia Pty Ltd
EPBC Act
Commonwealth Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999
EP&A
Environmental Planning and Assessment Act 1979
FFA
Flora and Fauna Assessment
MWWMP
Manly Warringah War Memorial Park
OEH
NSW Office of Environment and Heritage
PoM
Plan of Management
SMCMA
Sydney Metropolitan Catchment Management Authority
REF
Review of Environmental Factors
RMS
Roads and Maritime Services
TEC
Threatened Ecological Community
TSC Act
NSW Threatened Species Conservation Act 1995
WAC
Warringah Aquatic Centre
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Executive summary
Eco Logical Australia Pty Ltd (ELA) was engaged by Warringah Council (WC) to undertake an
Environmental Constraints Assessment (ECA) for land directly to the east and south of the existing
Warringah Aquatic Centre (WAC) located on Aquatic Drive, Frenchs Forest, NSW.
Council wish to lease this land so that it can be developed to accommodate facilities complementary to
the existing WAC and sporting fields to the east of the WAC. The ECA identifies environmental
constraints in relation to this lease area and to land to the south and west of the site which may require
vegetation clearing for bushfire asset protection zones (APZ). This report is a Flora and Fauna
Assessment which along with a Bushfire Protection Assessment and a Stage 1 Environmental Site
Assessment (Contaminated Site) will support the Environmental Constraints Assessment.
This assessment has taken a precautionary and conservative approach and concluded that the
regrowth vegetation on a previously disturbed site to the south of the WAC building is a form of highly
modified Duffys Forest vegetation. With the exception of landscape plantings on the eastern side of the
building and some modified sandstone vegetation immediately to the north of a water supply pipeline,
the remaining vegetation within the study area is a remnant form of Duffys Forest Ecological Community
(DFEC) listed as endangered under the TSC Act. Compared to remnant Duffys Forest the biodiversity
values of the highly modified Duffys Forest are low due to poor species diversity and capacity for the
vegetation to improve over time due to past disturbance of the soil seedbank and soil structure.
The Flora and Fauna Assessment has also concluded that:


Habitat for a number of threatened fauna and flora species exists within the area. One locally
significant freshwater fish, Galaxias brevipinnis (Climbing Galaxias) is known to occur within
Curl Curl Creek. This species is not listed as threatened under the Fisheries Management Act
1994 or EPBC Act, however, the Curl Curl Creek population is the northern-most distribution for
this species.
Despite the presence of major roads to the west and east, in general, the ecological
connectivity of the study area is good. The adjacent landscape in the west contains large tracts
of native vegetation which form part of a Council reserve and Garigal National Park. The
vegetation within the study area is part of a corridor with Manly Warringah War Memorial Park
(MWWMP) Reserve which includes over 377 ha of high quality native vegetation.
To avoid significant impacts to the remnant Duffys Forest Ecological Community it is recommended that
the development footprint and Asset Protection Zones are contained within the proposed lease area. If
so, the development would impact on only 0.03 ha of remnant DFEC and 0.28 ha of highly modified
DFEC. This impact is not considered to have a significant effect on DFEC with the application of an
assessment of significance under Section 5a of the EP&A Act.
The potential environmental constraints within the proposed lease area are moderate to low for
threatened fauna, flora and other significant species.
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1
Introduction
1.1
Ba c kg roun d
Eco Logical Australia Pty Ltd (ELA) was engaged by Warringah Council (WC) to undertake an
Environmental Constraints Assessment (ECA) for land directly to the east and south of the existing
Warringah Aquatic Centre (WAC) located on Aquatic Drive, Frenchs Forest, NSW.
Council wish to lease this land so that it can be developed to accommodate facilities complimentary to
the existing WAC and sporting fields to the east of the WAC. The ECA identifies environmental
constraints in relation to this lease area and land to the south and west of the site.
This FFA identified key site constraints relating to Threatened Ecological Communities (TEC),
threatened species and their habitats listed under the NSW Threatened Species Conservation Act 1995
(TSC Act) and Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999 (EPBC Act). Other
constraints associated with the possible indirect or flow-on effects to adjacent waterways and bushland
have also been considered. Of particular concern to Council and the local community is the potential
impact that construction work may have on the local flora and fauna, especially the endangered Duffys
Forest Ecological Community (DFEC) and transitional vegetation community, and local habitat for
threatened fauna such as Pseudophryne australis (Red-crowned Toadlet), the inherent as value of the
of the bushland, well as downstream impacts into the Manly Warringah War Memorial Park (MWWMP).
1.2
Loc at i on
The Warringah Aquatic Centre (WAC) is located in the northern beaches suburb of Frenchs Forest less
than 15 km north of the Sydney Central Business District. The centre is owned and operated by
Warringah Council
The WAC is accessed off Aquatic Drive to the north. To the west of the WAC is the Wakehurst
Parkway; there are sportsfields and amenities to the east and MWWMP also known as Manly Dam is
located to the south. A major water supply pipeline and associated maintenance trail on the southern
boundary is managed by Sydney Water and separates the Aquatic Reserve area from MWWMP. The
Aquatic Reserve sportsfields are part of reclaimed land on a former municipal land fill waste site from
1970s. A separate contamination lands assessment of the former landfill site has been prepared for the
EA.
1.3
T erm ino log y
The following terminology has been used for this report and is consistent with the NSW Threatened
Species Assessment Guidelines (DPI 2008):



Subject site – refers to the area directly affected by the proposal (i.e. the development
footprint and APZ clearing).
Study area – refers to the subject site and any additional areas, which are likely to be
affected by the proposal, either directly or indirectly (this area may include adjacent
waterways and bushland).
Locality - the same meaning as ascribed to local population of a species or local
occurrence of an ecological community.
Additional terms used in this report are defined below:
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Warringah Aquatic Centre - Flora and Fauna Assessment



1.4
Lease area – a potential footprint of land that may be developed to accommodate facilities
complementary to the existing WAC and sporting fields to the east of the WAC
Special Fire Protection Purpose Asset Protection Zone – an area maintained to
minimal fuel loads to protect a development defined as a Special Fire Protection Purpose
from fire hazard. These are generally developments designed for occupants that are more
vulnerable to bush fire attack due to reduced mobility capacity, less educated regarding
bush fire impacts, organisational difficulties for relocation, have communication barriers
and logistical arrangements
Infill development – development of vacant or under-used land parcels within existing
urban areas that are already largely developed; in the context of development that may
occur within the lease area an asset protection zone for infill development will have a
smaller extent than an asset protection zone for a special fire protection purpose
development.
Leg is l at iv e cont e xt
The legislative context of the assessment is covered in Section 3 of the main constraints assessment
report.
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Warringah Aquatic Centre - Flora and Fauna Assessment
Figure 1: Warringah Aquatic Centre study area and locality
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Warringah Aquatic Centre - Flora and Fauna Assessment
2
Methods
2.1
Dat a au dit a nd lit e r at ur e r ev iew
Database records and relevant literature pertaining to the ecology of the study area and surrounding
areas were reviewed. The material reviewed included:











2.2
NSW BioNet, Atlas of NSW Wildlife database search (5 km) (Accessed 3 August 2015)
EPBC Protected Matters Search tool (5 km) (Accessed 4 August 2015)
OEH threatened species profile database
Sydney Metropolitan Catchment Authority vegetation mapping (OEH 2013)
Vegetation mapping for Warringah Council (Smith and Smith 2010)
Soil Landscapes of Sydney 1:100 000 Sheet (Chapman and Murphy 1989)
Manly Warringah War Memorial Park Plan of Management (Gondwana Consulting Pty Ltd.
2014)
Mona Vale Road upgrades – Stage 3 (Sinclair Knight Merz 2013)
Biodiversity Assessment Report – Northern Beaches Hospital Stage 2 (SMEC 2015)
Preliminary Species Impact Statement - Manly Vale Public School (Kleinfelder 2015)
Aerial photography.
Si te in sp e ct i on
The site inspection for the flora and fauna assessment was conducted on 6, 8 and 12 August 2015 by
Ecologists Jennie Powell and Matthew Dowle. The site inspection was conducted to:




Validate existing vegetation mapping (OEH 2013 and Smith & Smith 2010) and determine the
condition of vegetation communities present and / or presence of any endangered ecological
communities.
Determine the presence of any threatened flora and fauna species.
Identify habitat features for potential threatened flora and fauna species within the study area.
Acquire field information to facilitate a bushfire assessment.
2.2.1 Vegetation communities
The random meander method (Cropper 1993) was used to confirm the boundaries of vegetation
communities and species assemblages within the study area. Where the boundaries of vegetation
communities differed from existing vegetation mapping, these were modified on hard copy maps and
marked with a hand-held GPS.
Two biometric vegetation plots (20 m x 50 m) were undertaken to assist with the determination of
vegetation types within the study area. The floristic data was compared with the “Duffys Forest index”
(DFI) which was developed by Smith and Smith (2000) to differentiate this community from other similar
vegetation communities. The test uses positive and negative diagnostic species for DFEC and two
closely associated vegetation communities (Sydney Sandstone Ridgetop Woodland and Sydney
Sandstone Gully Forest). A second diagnostic vegetation community test using positive and negative
diagnostic plant species from a range of vegetation communities lists from Tozer 2010 was also
applied.
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2.2.2 Flora surveys
Targeted flora surveys were conducted simultaneously while validating the vegetation communities. A
list of potential threatened flora species likely to occur was identified during literature review (Section
2.1). Field surveys focused on suitable habitat for threatened flora species. A list of opportunistic
observations was also recorded.
2.2.3 Fauna surveys
General
The presence of threatened fauna species identified as having the potential to occur in the study area
was determined through a habitat assessment. Where threatened species or important habitat features
were observed, such as hollow-bearing trees, their locations were marked using a hand-held GPS.
However, the locations of all important habitat features (e.g. rock outcrops, significant logs and location
of all winter flowering eucalypts) observed were not recorded, but rather a qualitative assessment was
conducted for each feature was conducted.
Surveys also included a search for ephemeral drainage lines within the study area which may provide
suitable habitat for threatened amphibians (namely the Red-crowned Toadlet). Opportunistic sightings
of all fauna present within the study area were recorded.
Microbat echolocation call recording and identification
Two anabat ultrasonic recording devices were deployed within the study area between the 8 to 12
August and set to record all night. A total of eight recording nights were completed. Calls were
analysed and identified by Danielle Adams-Bennett.
2.2.4 Survey conditions
Field surveys were conducted when morning temperatures were cold and daytime temperatures
0
reaching a maximum of 17.8 C on two days (Table 1). No rain fell during the field survey, or had fallen
during the previous week.
Table 1: Weather conditions during field survey (Station 066059 Terrey Hills – BOM 2015)
0
0
Max
Date
Min temp. ( C)
Max temp. ( C)
Rainfall (mm)
6 August 2015
5.7
15.2
0
WSW 33km/hr
8 August 2015
6.2
15.0
0
SSW 30
9 August 2015
5.0
17.0
0
NNE 20
10 August 2015
7.7
18.2
0
NW 22
11 August 2015
.7
19.2
0
W 26
12 August 2015
6.8
15.6
0
WNW 43km/hr
2.3
wind
speed/direction
Su rv e y li mit at ion s
The initial field survey was conducted at the beginning of spring, and may be outside of the optimal
survey period for some flora and fauna. Thus, it is possible that flora and fauna species that may occur
in the study area were not recorded due to the life cycle and behaviour of species and seasonal
considerations. Targeted surveys would require repeating over a number of seasons to more
adequately capture the diversity of flora and fauna that could be present in the study area. Since this
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Warringah Aquatic Centre - Flora and Fauna Assessment
was not possible, habitat assessments were undertaken to predict the likely presence of species. In
addition, considering the habitat available on site, the condition of the vegetation and the proposed
impacts, the survey effort was deemed satisfactory for the purposes of this report.
A conservative approach was also taken in assuming the presence of species that could potentially
occur in the study area (that is, species were assessed to have the potential to be present even if the
potential for this was low).
It should also be noted that ideal survey period for microbats using ultrasonic devices (anabat) should
coincide with warmer weather when microbats are more active, i.e. between October to May. However,
species may be active at any time of year, provided the weather conditions are mild and calm. Weather
conditions during anabat surveys were generally stable and no wind was recorded and temperatures
above 5 degrees each night (Section 2.2.4). Although there may be some additional species which
were not recorded during the survey period the detectors were able to capture microbat activity within
the study area.
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3
Literature review
Table 2: Summary of literature relevant to the project
Report
Author
Background/Objectives
Key conclusions relevant to this FFA
Impacts from the hospital construction will:
A biodiversity impact assessment was undertaken at the
Northern Beaches
–
Hospital
Concept Proposal
DP&E
2014
and Stage 1
nearby
proposed
hospital
site
using
the

Biobanking
Assessment Methodology. A site at Bundaleer Street Belrose
Ecological Community (DFEC)

is proposed as an offset site for impacts at the proposed
hospital site.
remove approximately 5 ha of the endangered Duffy’s Forest
reduce the width of habitat ecological connectivity between Oxford
Falls and MWWMP
A total of 323 ecosystem credits (DFEC) and 121 species credits (Powerful
Owl) are required to be offset from the construction of the hospital.
EIS
–
Stage
Impacts from the Stage 1 road access works will:
1
This project is part of an Environmental Impact Statement

remove 1.2 ha of DFEC
RMS
assessed under Part 5.1 State Significant Infrastructure of the

impact on habitat for five threatened fauna species recorded in the
2014
EP&A Act. Stage 1 works will focus on providing adequate
overview
Northern Beaches
Hospital Connectivity Work
EIS
–
Stage
vicinity of the Stage 1 works; Red-crowned Toadlet, Powerful Owl,
road access to the hospital.
Swift Parrot, Eastern Bentwing-bat and Grey-headed Flying fox.

remove potential foraging habitat for the Red-crowned Toadlet.
2
overview
Northern Beaches
Hospital -
Stage 2 works will focus on road widening and upgrading of
road intersections, particularly addressing peak traffic flow on
RMS
the Wakehurst Parkway, Warringah Road and Forest Way.
2015
Impacts from the Stage 2 works will:

remove 6.1 ha of DFEC of which 4.5 ha occurs as ‘modified’ DFEF
(i.e. mown lawns).

increase surface water flow rates which will impact on Red-crowned
Network
Works will also service population growth in the area and
Enhancement
coincide with the hospital upgrade.

This report identifies the methodologies and impacts of the
The report findings include the following:
Northern Beaches Hospital Stage 2 works which includes the

Toadlet habitat identified in the vicinity of Aquatic Drive.
increase fragmentation of wildlife habitat.
Work
Biodiversity
Assessment
Report – Northern
SMEC
2015
current study area (WAC). It describes the targeted surveys
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a total of 17 flora and 35 fauna species have potential to occur within
the Stage 2 area although potential impacts to habitat for these
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Warringah Aquatic Centre - Flora and Fauna Assessment
Report
Author
Background/Objectives
Key conclusions relevant to this FFA
Beaches Hospital
which were conducted and identifies ecological communities
Stage 2
and threatened species impacted by Stage 2
species are only minor.

an assessment of significance under S5A of the EP&A Act has
concluded that Stage 2 works are likely to have a significant impact
on DFEC as only 16% of original extent of DFEC remains

offsetting for the impacts to DFEC and potential Red-crowned
Toadlet habitat are required
A 3.3 km section of Mona Vale Road between McCarrs Creek
Sinclair
Road Terry Hills to Powder Works Road, Ingleside will be
Mona Vale Road
Knight
increased from a dual lane to a four lanes carriageway to
upgrade – Stage 3
Merz
improve traffic flow. Three potential route options were
2013
considered for the upgrade. The final ecological assessment
will be available in 2015.
A preliminary impact assessment has identified that the road widening will:

remove DFEC

impact on two threatened flora species: Microtis angusii (Angus
Onion Orchid) and Grevillea caleyi

impact a wildlife corridor.
The works will:
The NSW Department of Education and Communities
Preliminary SIS Manly
Vale
Primary School
propose
to
expand
Manly
Vale
Primary
School
to
Kleinfeld
accommodate up to 1000 students (from a current 400
er 2015
capacity). Works will include new classrooms, recreational
areas and landscaping with an additional clearing of bushland
for an APZ.

impact habitat for four threatened fauna species: Eastern Pygmypossum, Powerful Owl, Eastern Bentwing-bat and Grey-headed
Flying-fox.

remove 4.37 ha of native vegetation
The SIS concludes that the works are unlikely to have a significant impact
on threatened species.
The Park contains habitat for:
A plan of management prepared for 377 ha of crown land
Manly
Warringah
War
Park
Memorial
-
Plan
Management
of

three patches of DFEC

three threatened flora species, Prostanthera mariflora, Pimelea
Gondwan
(comprising of sandstone bushland and a 30 ha freshwater
a
water body) under the management control of Council. The
Consultin
plan was prepared with community extensive consultation and
g Pty Ltd
provides strategic direction and sustainable management
Koala and Spotted-tailed Quoll. Occasional visitors include Grey-
2014
options for the cultural, biodiversity and heritage values of the
headed Flying-fox and Eastern Bent-wing Bat
Park.
curviflora var. curviflora and Tetratheca glandulosa


Rosenberg’s Goanna, Red-crowned Toadlet and historic records of
one locally significant freshwater fish, Galaxias brevipinnis (Climbing
Galaxias) known to occur within Curl Curl Creek. This species is not
listed as threatened under the Fisheries Management Act 1994 or
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Warringah Aquatic Centre - Flora and Fauna Assessment
Report
Author
Background/Objectives
Key conclusions relevant to this FFA
EPBC Act, however, the Curl Curl Creek population is the northernmost distribution for this species.
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4
Ecological values
4.1
De s kt op r ev i ew
4.1.1 Landscape context and land use
The Warringah Aquatic Centre (WAC) is located within the central section of the study area with the
Aquatic Reserve baseball sportsfields to the east, and native vegetation extending to the Wakehurst
Parkway to the west and to the water supply pipeline and maintenance trail to the south. A tall chain
mesh fence encloses the WAC building, outdoor pool, associated lawn areas and adjacent bushland.
To the south of the water supply pipeline is the MWWMP which is a large Council bushland reserve and
highly valued by the local community as a recreation venue, conservation area and scenic asset
(Gondwana Consulting 2014).
The soil landscape is broadly mapped as ‘Disturbed Terrain’ (Chapman and Murphy 1989) and the soil
profile of much of the study area was substantially altered by the former municipal landfill which
operated throughout the 1970s and possibly, subsequently during the construction of the WAC towards
the latter end of the 1970s.. A review of historic aerial photographs to determine the extent of the
original landfill was undertaken as a part of the contamination site assessment. Figure 2 shows an
aerial photograph taken in 1972 when the disturbance associated with the landfill was depicted to be at
the greatest extent. The entire eastern section and a little less than half of the southern section of the
proposed lease area was cleared of vegetation and the soil profile appears to be significantly disturbed.
Figure 3 shows an aerial photograph taken in 1978. The municipal landfill operation appears to be
almost complete and a flat cleared area to the east of the WAC has been created which now comprises
the baseball sportsfields. The photograph shows what appears to be the WAC under construction. A
disturbed partially vegetated area is located immediately to the south of the WAC building within the
current proposed lease area. While this area does not appear to consist of landfill, disturbance to the
soil profile and vegetation removal is evident, possibly as a result of the landfill operation activities
and/or construction of the WAC. Despite the disturbance this area now contains mature trees and other
regrowth native vegetation.
The study area drains into the headwaters of Curl Curl Creek which is the main feeder creek flowing
through relatively intact riparian vegetation of MWWMP to discharge into Manly Dam, a 30 ha
freshwater water-body used for “primary contact” recreational activities such as swimming and water
skiing.
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Figure 2: 1972 aerial photograph of landfill extent and proposed lease area overlay
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Figure 3: 1978 aerial photograph of vegetation disturbance and proposed lease area overlay
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4.1.2 Threatened ecological communities
A desktop review of protected matters search identified six TECs listed under the TSC/EPBC Acts
which have potential to occur within a 5 km radius of the study area (Appendix A). These include:






Coastal Upland Swamp in the Sydney Basin Bioregion
Duffys Forest Ecological Community in the Sydney Basin Bioregion
Posidonia australis seagrass meadows of the Manning-Hawkesbury ecoregion
Shale/Sandstone Transition Forest
Coastal Saltmarsh in the NSW North Coast, Sydney Basin and South East Corner
Bioregions
Western Sydney Dry Rainforest and Moist Woodland on Shale.
Council’s vegetation mapping shows the vegetation community, Silvertop Ash – Stringybark Forest
which correlates to the endangered Duffys Forest Ecological Community (DFEC) within the study area
(Figure 4), to the north of the WAC along Aquatic Drive, Wakehurst Parkway and Warringah Road and
in three locations within the MWWMP (Smith and Smith 2010). The Council mapping of DFEC broadly
coincides with the Sydney Metropolitan Catchment Management Authority mapping of Coastal ShaleSandstone Forest, a component, of which is recognised as DFEC based on soils, elevation and
dominant canopy species (OEH 2013). For field results please refer to Section 4.2
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Figure 4: Council vegetation mapping of the locality
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4.1.3 Threatened flora species
The desktop review identified a total of 30 threatened flora species listed under the TSC or EPBC Acts
(Appendix A), which may have the potential to occur within a 5 km radius of the study area (locality).
An assessment of the likelihood of occurrence of each threatened flora species within the subject site
was conducted prior to field surveys.
The threatened flora species that were identified as having a potential, likely or known occurrence in the
study area are:




Epacris purpurascens var. purpurascens
Pimelea curviflora var. curviflora
Persoonia hirsuta
Tetratheca glandulosa.
MWWMP located directly south of the study area has a rich diversity of flora and fauna species and
supports intact vegetation communities which are virtually contiguous with the study area (only
separated by the water supply pipeline and unmade maintenance trail). The Plan of Management
(PoM) for MWWMP has recorded three threatened flora species within the reserve (Gondwana
Consulting Pty Ltd. 2014):



Pimelea curviflora var. curviflora
Prostanthera marifolia (Seaforth Mintbush)
Tetratheca glandulosa.
For field results please refer to Section 4.2
4.1.4 Threatened fauna species
The desktop literature review identified a total of 54 threatened fauna species and one threatened
population (Koalas in Pittwater LGA) listed under the TSC or EPBC Act (Appendix A), which may have
the potential to occur within a 5 km radius of the study area (locality). An assessment of the likelihood
of occurrence of threatened flora species within the subject site was conducted prior to field surveys.
The threatened flora species that were identified as having a potential, likely or known occurrence in the
study area include:






Cercartetus nanus (Eastern Pygmy-possum)
Varanus rosenbergi (Rosenberg’s Goanna)
Pseudophryne australis (Red-crowned Toadlet)
Ninox strenua (Powerful Owl)
Glossopsitta pusilla (Little Lorikeet)
Anthochaera phrygia (Regent Honeyeater).
The PoM for MWWMP has recorded potential or known habitat for the following threatened fauna
species (Gondwana Consulting Pty Ltd. 2014):







Varanus rosenbergi (Rosenberg’s Goanna)
Pseudophryne australis (Red-crowned Toadlet)
Phascolarctos cinereus (Koala)
Dasyurus maculatus (Spotted-tailed Quoll)
Pteropus poliocephalus (Grey-headed Flying-fox)
Miniopterus schreibersii oceanensis (Eastern Bent-wing Bat)
Ninox strenua (Powerful Owl).
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There were three BioNet records for Pseudophryne australis (Red-crowned Toadlet) in the locality of
the site (Figure 7). The closest was within Curl Curl Creek to the east of the baseball sportsfields
recorded prior to the construction of a residential sub-division on the site. A record for Red-crowned
Toadlet within an ephemeral drainage line located north of Aquatic Drive was identified in the
biodiversity assessment for Stage 2 Northern Beaches Hospital - Network Enhancement (SMEC 2015)
In the broader locality, a population of Cercartetus nanus (Eastern Pygmy-possum) has been recorded
within vegetation at the Manly Vale Public School. The school is located directly south of MWWMP and
is therefore connected to the study area.
One locally significant freshwater fish, Galaxias brevipinnis (Climbing Galaxias), is known to occur
within Curl Curl Creek (Gondwana Consulting Pty Ltd. 2014). Although this species is not listed as
threatened under the Fisheries Management Act 1994 or EPBC Act, the species has regional
significance because the Curl Curl Creek population is the northern most distribution for this species.
For field results please refer to Section 4.2
4.2
Fie ld s urv e y re su lt s
4.2.1 Vegetation communities within the study area
While undertaking the field survey the ecologists noted that the proposed lease area to the south of the
WAC building had an unnatural soil surface comprising in places of mounded soil and small deposits of
building debris such as concrete and tiles. This is consistent with the 1972 and 1978 aerial
photographs showing partial vegetation clearance and a disturbed soil profile in this location. However,
as identified above, this previously disturbed area has subsequently regenerated/regrown. This
regeneration has potentially occurred from a combination of planting and natural regeneration from the
soil seedbank. A small wet area/soak containing tree ferns (Cyathea cooperi) and a ferny understorey
which receives natural seepage and drainage from the hard surface areas surrounding the WAC was
located to the west of the proposed lease area.
Council’s vegetation mapping (Figure 5) shows exotic vegetation within the proposed lease area to the
south of the WAC extending to the west and to the east along the lower batter of the baseball playing
fields/old landfill site. However the field survey identified that with the exception of the landscape
plantings within the proposed lease area immediately to the east of the WAC, the area mapped as
exotic vegetation was native vegetation with an indigenous midstorey and groundcover and an
overstorey of either indigenous or non-indigenous species. This vegetation was characterised by two
different forms:


Non-indigenous canopy/regrowth: an area with a tree canopy which appeared to be planted or
recruited from landscaping including Eucalyptus pilularis (Blackbutt), E. punctata (Grey Gum),
E. botryoides (Bangalay) and E. microcorys (Tallowwood). This vegetation had an indigenous
midstorey and groundcover comprising a low diversity plant species assemblage. Scattered
weeds were also present throughout this vegetation. This area correlates with the area that
had been partially cleared and the soil profile disturbed as depicted in the 1972 and 1978 aerial
photographs.
Remnant canopy: an intact remnant with an indigenous canopy of Angophora costata (Sydney
Red Gum), Corymbia gummifera (Bloodwood) and E. resinifera and a high plant species
diversity in the midstorey and groundcover. The geographic location, structure, and species
assemblage of this vegetation was generally consistent with the Smith and Smith mapping of
Silvertop Ash – Brown Stringybark Forest which is a form of the endangered Duffys Forest
Ecological Community.
Exotic/weedy plants such as Paspalum quadrifarium (Tussock
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paspalum) and Ochna serrulata (Mickey Mouse Bush) were scattered throughout the
vegetation.
The Council mapping of the extent of exotic vegetation in the study area was altered to show that DFEC
occurred more extensively to the west and south of the WAC building (Figure 6).
A key issue is whether the regrowth vegetation on the previously disturbed soil profile is also consistent
with DFEC despite this vegetation having an apparently non-indigenous canopy and low to very low
plant species diversity. To assist with this determination the “Duffys Forest index” (DFI) test developed
by Smith and Smith (2000) to differentiate DFEC from two closely associated vegetation communities
(Sydney Sandstone Ridgetop Woodland and Sydney Sandstone Gully Forest) was applied at two sites.
The two sites were within a regrowth previously disturbed area (BB1) and an intact remnant (BB2)
which had been mapped as exotic in Council’s vegetation mapping. A species list was assembled from
plants recorded from two biobanking plots and surrounding vegetation at both sites. The plant species
list found at Appendix B, identifies positive and negative diagnostic species for the three vegetation
communities recorded at both sites. The results of the DFI test however were not conclusive as there
were an insufficient number of species for the tests work correctly.
A second diagnostic vegetation community analysis developed by OEH using positive and negative
diagnostic plant species from a range of vegetation communities lists was also applied for both sites.
Again, the tests results were inconclusive due to the low number of species.
4.2.2
Highly modified Duffys Forest
After considering the above analysis as well as the Scientific Committees Determination for the Duffys
Forest Ecological Community, ELA concluded that the regrowth vegetation on the previously disturbed
site meets the definition of the Duffys Forest Ecological Community albeit in a highly modified form. Our
rationale is that: :



occurs on a site where the original vegetation prior to disturbance is likely to have been Duffys
Forest or a transitional form of Duffys Forest vegetation
the plant species within the midstorey and groundcover are indigenous to the Duffys Forest
vegetation community
Smith and Smith (2000) in their keystone survey of the Duffys Forest Vegetation Community
called another area of vegetation within Belrose a form of highly modified Duffys Forest
because “it had developed from regeneration and plantings at a disturbed site”.
The biodiversity values of the highly modified Duffys Forest are low due to poor species diversity and
capacity for the vegetation to improve over time. The plot data for the highly modified form of Duffys
Forest recorded 28 native plant species (with not all of these being indigenous to the area e.g.
Tallowwood and Bangalay) compared to 53 indigenous species from the plot data for the remnant
Duffys Forest. Due to past disturbance of the soil seedbank and soil structure (through mounded soil,
deposition of building debris such as concrete and tiles and runoff from hard surfaces) it is unlikely that
species diversity and general biodiversity values will increase significantly through natural regeneration
or planting.
4.2.3
Remnant Duffys Forest
This assessment concludes that, with the exception of the landscape plantings on the eastern side of
the building and a small patch of modified sandstone vegetation to the north of the water supply
pipeline, the remaining vegetation within the study area is remnant Duffys Forest vegetation. Although
the patch may show transitional elements of Sydney Sandstone Gully Forest it should be regarded as
the endangered DFEC because it occurs in the correct geographic location, ridgetop landscape position
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and supports a vegetation structure and species assemblage which is consistent with the description of
the community.
The location of the remnant and modified DFEC vegetation communities in addition to landscape
plantings on the eastern side of the WAC building and a modified form of regrowth vegetation that
appears to be consistent with a sandstone vegetation community is shown in Figure 6.
4.2.4 Vegetation communities within MWWMP
Council’s vegetation mapping within MWWMP immediately to the south of the proposed lease was
validated in the field (Figure 6). DFEC is present in the western section of the site and the vegetation
was generally in very good condition with a high plant species diversity. There was evidence of longterm bush-regeneration work within the creekline vegetation originally mapped by Council as “Native
vegetation – highly disturbed” and this area is now almost weed free.
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Figure 5: Council vegetation mapping within study area and MWWMP
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Figure 6: Validated vegetation mapping and APZ for infill development
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4.2.5 Flora species
The field survey identified a total of 117 flora species, comprised of 100 native and 17 exotic species.
Weeds were generally located in close proximity to the existing building where the soil profile has
previously been disturbed or in wetter areas.
A flora list for the study area is presented in Appendix B. This is not a comprehensive list of all flora
species likely to be present within the study area.
Of the exotic species recorded, eight are listed as noxious within the Warringah LGA (Table 3) and one
weed, Lantana camara, is also listed as a Weed of National Significance (WoNS).
Table 3: Noxious weeds and WoNS present in the study area
Noxious Weed Species
Noxious Weed Class
WoNS
Olea europaea subsp. cuspidata – African Olive
4
-
Senna pendula var. glabrata - Cassia
4
-
Lonicera japonica – Japanese Honeysuckle
4
-
Lantana camara – Lantana
4
Yes
Ochna serrulata – Mickey Mouse Plant
4
-
Ligustrum lucidum – Privet Broad-leaf
4
-
Ligustrum sinense – Privet Narrow-leaf
4
-
Paspalum quadrifarium – Tussock Paspalum
4
-
Class 4 – Locally Controlled Weeds that pose a threat to primary production, the environment or human health, are widely
distributed in an area to which the order applies and are likely to spread in the area or to another area.
4.2.6 Threatened flora species
No threatened flora species were recorded during field surveys. Due to previous clearing and
disturbance to the soil profile, it is unlikely that threatened flora including orchids remain within the
subject site. However, there is potential that one threatened species (Pimelea curviflora var. curviflora)
may occur within the APZ to the south.
Pimelea curviflora var. curviflora is listed as a vulnerable species under the TSC and EPBC Acts. This
species is known to occur within MWWMP and may tolerate some disturbances. This cryptic species is
often difficult to detect. Field surveys were conducted outside of flowering season (October to May).
There is possible that during APZ clearing indirect impacts may impact on potential habitat for this
species.
4.2.7 Fauna species and habitats
Despite the previous clearing of vegetation and land use the study area contains suitable habitat for a
variety of different fauna species. The vegetation within the subject site consists of regenerating
vegetation. It lacks a dense shrub layer and contains no hollow-bearing trees. Eucalyptus species
(including non-indigenous species) were located throughout the study area and provide foraging
opportunities for arboreal species (birds and mammals).
The remaining vegetation, located in the south and west of the study area is in good condition. It is
virtually continuous with vegetation which extends into MWWMP. It contains all structural layers
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(ground layer, shrubs and canopy) and a rich assemblage of fauna habitat resources such as
accumulated litter, fallen logs and temporary wet soaks. A small soak occurs to the west of the
proposed lease area, and occasionally forms a temporary pool. Figure 6 shows the typical habitat
features required for fauna species with particular emphasis on threatened species and their presence
within the study area.
Table 4: Habitat features and associated fauna groups (guilds) recorded in the study area.
Habitat features
Guild
Presence in study area
Birds, microchiropteran bats (microbats),
Remnant vegetation
megachiropteran bats (fruit bats), arboreal
Present
mammals, reptiles
Winter flowering species
Winter migratory birds, arboreal mammals
and megachiropteran bats (fruit bats)
Limited
Birds and arboreal mammals (gliders and
Absent in study area and limited
microbats)
in study area
Birds, particularly birds of prey, reptiles,
One recorded within the study
amphibians, micro bats
area
Leaf litter
Reptiles, amphibians, invertebrates
Present
Coarse woody debris
Terrestrial mammals, reptiles, invertebrates
Limited
Watercourse
Amphibians, water birds
Hollow-bearing trees
Stags
A water soak present in study
area
Fencing prevents movement of
Vegetative corridor
Birds, Reptiles, arboreal and small mammals
large
terrestrial
species
into
MWWMP
Mistletoe
Native/ Exotic grassland
Birds
Migratory
Absent
wetland
predator species
birds
(Egrets)
and
Present in adjacent sportsfields
Amphibians
The topography was generally flat and lacked ephemeral drainage lines or waterbodies. Accumulated
leaf litter was confined to areas of intact native vegetation to the south of the study area. Rocky
outcrops or boulders were absent.
A temporary soak was located within the study area however outside of the proposed lease area. Due
to the number of database records recorded in the vicinity of the study area, it is assumed that this
could provide marginal foraging/breeding habitat for the Red-crowned Toadlet.
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Bats
Four microchiropteran (microbats) were recorded including two species (Miniopterus schreibersii
oceanensis Eastern Bentwing-bat - and Miniopterus australis Little Bentwing-Bat) listed as vulnerable
under the TSC Act. The majority of the calls came from a vegetated area within a flyway. Results from
targeted bat survey are provided in Appendix C.
The Eastern Bentwing-bat is a cave roosting species although it is known to utilise man-made
structures such as mines, tunnels and stormwater drains. None of these structures were present in the
study area, therefore, this species is likely to forage within the study area and roost in adjacent areas.
The Little Bentwing-bat often shares roosting habitat with the Eastern Bentwing-bat.
The remaining two microbat species, Tadarida australis (White-striped Freetail-bat) and Vespadelus
darlingtoni (Large Forest Bat) are not listed under the TSC Act. They are known to utilise small hollow,
defoliating bark or stags for roosting. Hollow-bearing trees were limited across the study area. No trees
with suitable hollows were recorded within the subject site.
Mammals (not including bats)
The mid-storey within the south of the study area contained a sparse but diverse layer of sclerophyllous
species, Banksia, Hakea and Acacia. These along with Eucalyptus species provide suitable foraging
resources for Cercartetus nanus (Eastern Pygmy-possum). Other common arboreal mammals are also
likely to utilise these foraging resources, however, the lack of hollow-bearing trees within the study area
will limit fauna activity to foraging, rather than nesting or breeding.
A total of six historical records of Koalas occur within a 5 km radius around the study area. The
sightings occurred between 1940 with the latest in 1997. Potential Koala feed trees were limited in the
study area. One feed species, Eucalyptus punctata (Grey Gum), was recorded and represented less
than 5 % of the canopy cover over entire study area. It is unlikely that Koalas utilise the study area.
Macropod scats, presumably Wallabia bicolor (Swamp Wallaby) were located throughout the study
area. Although the area contains a tall fence this species presumably occupies both sides of the
fencing.
Birds
The presence of an intact native canopy provides suitable foraging habitat for a wide variety of bird
species. The shrub layer located in the south and west of the study area contains potential foraging
habitat for smaller bird species.
Scattered Allocasuarina littoralis were recorded within the tall mid-storey. These were generally located
in the southern section of the study area, outside of the subject site. Allocasuarina are the primary
foraging resource for the Glossy Black-cockatoo. Due to the lack of hollow-bearing trees, the study
area only contains marginal foraging habitat and no breeding habitat for this threatened species.
The vegetation also provides potential foraging habitat for larger predator species such as the Powerful
Owl. No breeding habitat (i.e. large hollow-bearing trees) was recorded within the study area.
Reptiles
There are several records for Rosenberg’s Goanna located within MWWMP. This species may utilise
the greater study area, although it is unlikely it would breed within the study area.
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4.2.8 Threatened fauna species
Two threatened fauna species Eastern Bentwing-bat and Little Bentwing-bat were recorded during
Anabat surveys. This species is capable of flying large distances each night to forage. Suitable
foraging habitat is present throughout the study area and includes forested areas where it forages for
flying insects above the tree canopy.
Several other threatened fauna species have potential to occur within the study area, although were not
recorded during field surveys. These include:




Red-crowned Toadlet
Eastern Pygmy-possum
Powerful Owl
Rosenberg’s Goanna.
A wet ‘soak’ or pooling of water at lower elevations was noted during field surveys. This soak may
sustain enough water following rainfall events to provide breeding opportunity for Red-crowned
Toadlets. Eggs are usually laid in leaf litter which is then washed down into ponds after rainfall (Stauber
2006).
The remnant DFEC contains an intact shrub layer which includes a variety of flowering species such as
Banksia, Grevillea and Hakea. These shrubs may support a population of Eastern Pygmy-possums.
Although, hollow-bearing trees were limited within the study area, this species may also utilise fallen
logs, possum dreys and Xanthorrhoea skirts for nesting. Therefore, there is potential breeding and
foraging habitat for this species within the study area.
The Powerful Owl is known to frequent MWWMP. This species prefers to build a nest in the
headwaters to a gully and requires a large tree hollow. No breeding habitat for the Powerful Owl was
recorded within the study area or immediately adjacent. There is potential that this species may utilise
the vegetation within the study area in search for prey items (arboreal mammal species).
The Rosenberg’s Goanna forages for carrion and small prey items within heath and open forests. Much
of the vegetation identified within the study area provides suitable foraging habitat for this species. No
breeding habitat (in the form of subterranean termite nests) was observed during the field survey.
4.2.9 Ecological connectivity
In general, the ecological connectivity of the study area is good. In the broader locality there is a major
road to the west (Wakehurst Parkway) and a minor road to the north (Aquatic Drive) and a larger road
(Warringah Road) further north. The adjacent landscape in the west contains large tracts of native
vegetation which forms part of a Council reserve and Garigal National Park. However, the heavy traffic
movement on the Wakehurst Parkway is likely to restrict the movement of some fauna species.
Similarly the patch of vegetation to the north is fragmented by Warringah Road. The vegetation within
the study area is connected with MWWMP Reserve which includes over 377 ha of high quality native
vegetation and habitat for threatened flora and fauna species and one endangered ecological
community, DFEC.
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Figure 7: Fauna habitat
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5
Constraints and potential impacts
To consider how the ecological constraints would affect development proposals for the site, this section
firstly explores the potential impacts associated with the use of the entire lease area for an indoor
recreation facility (ie a building extending up to the lease area boundary). Due to the potential for
significant impacts associated with asset protection zones under that scenario, this section then makes
recommendations regarding a smaller impact footprint that would be less likely to have a significant
impact on DFEC.
The requirement for asset protection zones (APZ) is assessed in the separate Bushfire Protection
Assessment Report (ELA 2015). While section 4.2.6 of Planning for Bushfire Protection (PBP) states
that Class 9 buildings should be assessed as if they were a Special Fire Protection Purpose, as the
proposal involves alterations and additions to an existing development the infill provisions of PBP can
be applied. Accordingly, in recognition of the high ecological values of the surrounding vegetation, the
Bushfire Protection Assessment Report recommends an APZ based on residential subdivision rather
than a more extensive Special Fire Protection APZ and has assessed that a residential subdivision APZ
will provide an adequate defendable space and meet the acceptable solution and performance criteria
for APZ outlined in Section 4.3.5 of PBP.
For the purposes of this flora and fauna assessment the impact of an infill APZ extent of 19m to the
west and 34m to the south (as specified in Bushfire Protection Assessment Report) is firstly considered.
Partial clearance of vegetation within an APZ of the vegetation which occurs within the study area would
entail selective removal of trees to significantly reduce the density of the overstorey and almost
complete removal of the midstorey. Generally within an APZ a native groundcover may be retained but
managed to reduce density. The effect of partial clearance for the establishment of an APZ and the
ongoing management of this vegetation as an APZ is likely to substantially degrade the biodiversity
values of the affected vegetation through a reduction of species diversity and vegetation structural
complexity and result in invasion of weed species within the ground layer over time.
5.1
Pot ent ia l Im pa ct s t o DF EC
The potential impacts to DFEC are considered to be a high constraint associated with the proposed
development of an indoor recreational facility up to the lease boundary.
The area of vegetation impacted by the removal of vegetation for the construction of a building and
establishment of an APZ should the building footprint incorporate the entire extent of the proposed
lease area is identified in Table 5.
Table 5: Areas of vegetation communities impacted for building footprint on entire lease area
Vegetation Community
Area cleared proposed lease
area ha
Area Infill APZ ha
Total ha
Remnant DFEC
0.03
0.29 + 0.04 (wet soak*)
0.36
Highly modified DFEC
0.28
0.08
0.36
Modified sandstone vegetation
0
0.14
0.14
Open- Space landscape gardens
0.20
0.0002
0.2
*Wet Soak represents potential habitat for Red-crowned Toadlet
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Table 5 identifies that a total 0.36 ha of remnant DFEC and a total of 0.36 ha highly modified DFEC
would be impacted by a development that build up to the lease area boundary and then required an infill
APZ outside of the lease area. There is a high likelihood that this type of development would have a
significant effect on DFEC. A key consideration is that since the original listing of DFEC as an
endangered ecological community in 1998 when it was estimated that only 15% of the original area of
the ecological community existed, additional areas of remnant DFEC have been cleared for
development.
Developments proposing a significant impact on DFEC would require to be accompanied by a Species
Impact Statement and have a high risk of being rejected by the consent authority.
5.2
Pot ent ia l im pa ct s t o ot he r v eg et atio n com muni ti es
The potential impacts to the landscaped gardens and area of modified sandstone vegetation within the
study area are considered to be a low constraint subject to general impact minimisation and mitigation
measures.
5.3
Pot ent ia l im pa ct s t o hab it a t fo r th re at en e d fl or a an d f aun a a nd oth e r
sig nif ic ant sp ec ie s
The potential impacts to habitat for threatened flora and fauna species and habitat for other significant
species such as the Galaxias brevipinnis are considered to be a moderate constraint associated with
the proposed development of an indoor recreational facility due to the requirement for additional
assessment and/or mitigation measures to minimise potential environmental impacts.
A number of threatened fauna and flora species were considered likely to have habitat within the study
area and will require an assessment of significance under Section 5a of the EP&A Act 1979 with for a
development application under Part 4 of the EP&A Act 1979. In particular habitat for Red- crowned
Toadlet and Eastern Pygmy possum and some cryptic flora species such as Pimelea curviflora var.
curviflora will require further field assessment under suitable survey conditions.
Potential impacts to the Galaxias brevipinnis and other aquatic species downstream in MWWMP will be
further investigated in a Stage 2 Environmental Site assessment.
5.4
Pot ent ia l Im pa ct s t o ec olo gi ca l co nn ect iv i t y
The potential impacts to the wildlife corridor are considered to be a low constraint subject to general
impact minimisation and mitigation measures. The proposed development of an indoor recreational
facility and associated APZ may reduce the density and structure of the impacted vegetation but will not
fragment an area of habitat such that fauna movement will be significantly disrupted.
5.5
Re co mm end at i on
To reduce the high likelihood of a significant effect on DFEC with the application of an assessment of
significance under Section 5a of the EP&A Act 1979 this assessment recommends containing all
impacts (including APZs) within the proposed lease area. Figure 6 shows which areas would be
available for an indoor sports facility and which areas would be required for the ‘infill’ APZ as described
in the bushfire report. The impacts associated with this scenario are shown in Table 6 below.
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Table 6: Areas of vegetation communities impacted for amended building footprint
Vegetation Community
Area cleared for amended
building footprint ha
Area Infill APZ ha
Remnant DFEC
-
0.03
Highly modified DFEC
0.07
0.21
Modified sandstone vegetation
-
-
Open- Space landscape gardens
0.16
0.04
Total ha
0.31
0.20
If all impacts are contained within the lease area, there would be an impact of only 0.03 ha of remnant
DFEC and 0.28 ha of highly modified DFEC for the building footprint and the infill APZ. This impact is
not considered to have a significant effect on DFEC with the application of an assessment of
significance under Section 5a of the EP&A Act because:


there are only negligible impacts to remnant DFEC which may be further mitigated with
ecologically sensitive management of the APZ
while a precautionary and conservative approach has been applied in the classification of the
regrowth vegetation on the previously disturbed areas as a highly modified form of Duffys
Forest vegetation, compared to remnant DFEC the biodiversity values of this vegetation are low
due to poor species diversity and the presence of a non-indigenous canopy. Furthermore, due
to past disturbance of the soil seedbank and soil structure (through mounded soil, deposition of
building debris such as concrete and tiles and runoff from hard surfaces) it is unlikely that
species diversity and general biodiversity values of the highly modified DFEC will increase
significantly through natural regeneration or planting.
© ECO LOGICAL AUSTRALIA PTY LTD
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Warringah Aquatic Centre - Flora and Fauna Assessment
References
Benson, D. & McDougall, L. 1998. Ecology of Sydney plant species Part 6: Dicotyledon family
Myrtaceae. Cunninghamia 5(4): 808-987.
Chapman, G.A and Murphy, C.L. 1989. Soil Landscapes of the Sydney 1:100 000 sheet. Soil
Conservation Service of NSW, Sydney.
Churchill, S. 1998. Australian Bats, Reed New Holland, Sydney.
Cropper S.C. 1993. Management of Endangered Plants. CSIRO Publishing, Collingwood, Victoria,
Australia.
Department of Planning and Environment (DP&E). 2014. State Significant Infrastructure Assessment
Report: Northern Beaches Hospital Concept Proposal and Stage 1 (site works), corner Wakehurst
Parkway and Warringah Road, Frenchs Forest (SSI 5982). Secretary’s Environmental Assessment
Report Section 115ZA of the Environmental Planning and Assessment Act 1979.
Department of Primary Industries (DPI) 2008.
assessment of significance.
Threatened Species Assessment Guidelines: The
Hoye, G. A., and Richards. G, C. 2008 Greater Broad-nosed Bat Scoteanax rueppellii. Pp.551 – 552.
In van Dyck, S. and Strahan, R. (eds). The Mammals of Australia. Third Edition. Reed New Holland,
Sydney.
Department of the Environment (DotE) 2015a. Protected Matters Search Tool [online]. Available:
http://www.environment.gov.au/epbc/protect/index.html (Accessed: 4 August 2015).
Dwyer, P.D. 1995. ‘Common Bent-wing Bat (Miniopterus schreibersii)’, In: R. Strahan (Ed.) The
Australian Museum Complete Book of Australian Mammals, pp494-495, Angus and Robertson
Publishers, Sydney.
Ehmann, E. 1997. Threatened Frogs of New South Wales: Habitats, status and conservation, Frog and
Tadpole Study Group, Sydney.
Eco Logical Australia 2015 Bushfire Protection Assessment Proposed additions – Warringah Aquatic
Centre. Report to Warringah Council
Environment Australia 2000. Comprehensive and Regional Assessments for North-East NSW. Report
to National Parks and Wildlife Service.
Garnett, S. (Ed) 1993. Threatened and extinct birds of Australia. Royal Australian Ornithologists Union
and Australian NPWS, Royal Australian Ornithologists Union Report, No. 82.
Gondwana Consulting Pty Ltd. 2014. Manly Warringah War Memorial Park Plan of Management
prepared for Manly Warringah War Memorial Park Reserve Trust, Warringah Council and the Crown
Lands Division.
Kleinfelder 2015. Preliminary Species Impact Statement – Manly Vale Public School – Development
Application for Government Architects Office.
© ECO LOGICAL AUSTRALIA PTY LTD
29
Warringah Aquatic Centre - Flora and Fauna Assessment
Marchant, S. & P.J.Higgins, eds. 1990. The Handbook of Australian, New Zealand and Antarctic Birds,
Volume 1 Part a - Rattites to Petrels. Melbourne, Victoria: Oxford University Press.
Marchant and Higgins 1993. Handbook of Australian, New Zealand and Antarctic Birds. Oxford
University Press, Melbourne.
Menkhorst, P.W. & Seebeck J.H. 1990 Distribution and conservation status of bandicoots in Victoria. In:
Seebeck, J.H., P.R. Brown, R.L. Wallis & C.M. Kemper, eds. Bandicoots and Bilbies. Page(s) 51-60.
Chipping Norton, NSW: Surrey Beatty & Sons.
Menkhorst, P. and Knight, F. 2010. A Field Guide to the Mammals of Australia, 3rd. Oxford University
Press, South Melbourne.
McKilligan, N. 2005. Herons, Egrets and Bitterns, CSIRO Publishing.
Morcombe, M. 2004. Field Guide to Australian Birds, Steve Parish Publishing.
National Parks and Wildlife Service 1997. Urban Bushland Biodiversity Study - Western Sydney,
National Parks and Wildlife Service.
Office of Environment and Heritage (OEH). 2015a. Threatened Species Database (5 km radius search).
OEH Sydney, NSW. (Data viewed July 2015).
Office of Environment and Heritage (OEH). 2015b.
http://www.threatenedspecies.environment.nsw.gov.au/index.aspx.
Threatened
Species
Profiles
Office of Environment and Heritage (OEH), 2013. The Native Vegetation of the Sydney Metropolitan
Area. Volume 1. Technical Report. Version 2.0. Office of Environment and Heritage, Department of
Premier and Cabinet, Sydney.
Pittwater Council 2000. Management Plan for Threatened Fauna and Flora in Pittwater. Prepared for
Pittwater Council by Smith, J. and Smith, P.
Payne, R. (1997) The Distribution and Reproductive Ecology of Syzygium paniculatum and Syzygium
australe (Myrtaceae) in the Gosford-Wyong Region. Unpublished Thesis prepared for the award of
Masters of Natural Resources, University of New England, Armidale NSW.
Pyke, G.H and White, A.W. 1996. Habitat requirements for the Green and Golden Bell Frog Litoria
aurea (Anura:Hylidae), Australian Zoologist, 30(2):177-189.
Roads and Maritime Services (RMS). 2015. Northern Beaches Hospital - Road Connectivity and
Network Enhancement Project Stage 2 Environmental Impact Statement: Overview. Prepared for the
NSW Government.
Roads and Maritime Services (RMS). 2014. Northern Beaches Hospital Stage 1 Connectivity Work and
Concept Proposal EIS – Overview. Prepared for the NSW Government.
Sinclair Knight Merz 2013. Mona Vale Road Upgrade: McCarrs Creek Road to Powder Works Road –
preferred option report. Prepared for Roads and Maritime Services.
th
Simpson, K. and Day, N. 2004. Field guide to the birds of Australia 7 edn., Penguin Books Australia
Ltd, Ringwood Victoria.
© ECO LOGICAL AUSTRALIA PTY LTD
30
Warringah Aquatic Centre - Flora and Fauna Assessment
Smith, P. and Smith, J. 2000.Survey of the Duffys Forest Vegetation Community. Prepared for NSW
National Parks and Wildlife Services and Warringah Council.
SMEC 2015. Biodiversity Assessment Report – Northern Beaches Hospital Connectivity and Network
Enhancements Stage 2. Prepared for Roads and Maritime Services.
Stauber. A. 2006. Habitat requirements and habitat use of the Red-crowned Toadlet Pseudophyrne
australis and Giant Burrowing Frog Heleioporus australiacus in the Sydney basin. Thesis for Doctor of
Philosophy, University of Technology, Sydney, Department of Environmental Sciences.
Strahan, R. (Ed.) 1998. The Australian Museum Complete Book of Australian Mammals, Angus and
Robertson Publishers, Sydney.
© ECO LOGICAL AUSTRALIA PTY LTD
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Warringah Aquatic Centre - Flora and Fauna Assessment
Appendix A : Likelihood of occurrence
Summary of initial assessment to determine the likelihood of occurrence of threatened species, populations and ecological communities in the impact
assessment area.
An assessment of likelihood of occurrence was made for threatened and migratory species identified from the database search. This assessment applies to
the impact assessment area only, not to the entire subject site. Five terms for the likelihood of occurrence of species are used in this report. This assessment
was based on database or other records, presence or absence of suitable habitat, features of the proposal site, results of the field survey and professional
judgement. The terms for likelihood of occurrence are defined below:





“known” = the species was or has been observed on the site
“likely” = a medium to high probability that a species uses the site
“potential” = suitable habitat for a species occurs on the site, but there is insufficient information to categorise the species as likely to occur, or
unlikely to occur
“unlikely” = a very low to low probability that a species uses the site
“no” = habitat on site and in the vicinity is unsuitable for the species.
Ecological Communities
Name
TSC Act
EPBC Act
Likelihood of
Occurrence
Habitat Associations
This ecological community is restricted to the Sydney Basin Bioregion. It occurs on
the Hawkesbury sandstone plateaux on acidic soils which are high in organic matter
and subject to periodic waterlogging (OEH 2015B). The structure of the vegetation
Coastal
Upland
Swamp
in
the
Sydney Basin Bioregion
E
E
may vary from tall open scrubs, tall closed scrubs, closed heaths, open graminoid
heaths, sedgelands and fernlands (OEH 2015B).
This ecological community is
associated with shallow groundwater aquifers in the headwaters and impeded
No, this
community was
not identified
within the study
area
drainage lines of streams, and on standstone benches with abundant seepage
moisture (OEH 2015B). The floristic assemblage is diverse particularly in the ground
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Warringah Aquatic Centre - Flora and Fauna Assessment
Name
TSC Act
EPBC Act
Habitat Associations
Likelihood of
Occurrence
layer (OEH 2015B).
The distribution of this ecological community is highly restricted. It has been recorded
Duffys Forest Ecological Community
in the Sydney Basin Bioregion
in Warringah, Pittwater, Ku-ring-gai, Hornsby and Manly Local Government Areas. It
E
-
is associated with Hawkesbury sandstone geology, with laterite soils and soils derived
Yes
from shale and laminite lenses. The community forms a open-forest to woodland
usually on ridgetops (OEH 2015b).
Posidonia australis seagrass are associated with sub-tidal sheltered waters in
Posidonia
australis
seagrass
meadows
of
Manning-
the
permanently open estuaries in the warm temperate waters along the east coast of
-
E
Hawkesbury ecoregion
Australia (DotE 2015). This species is slow growing and highly sensitive to
disturbance. It provides important habitat for benthic flora and is considered the
greatest habitat structure of any seagrass which is important for fish and
No, this
community was
not identified
within the study
area
invertebrates.
Occurs at the edges of the Cumberland Plain, where clay soils from the shale rock
intergrade with earthy and sandy soils from sandstone, or where shale caps overlay
sandstone.
Shale/Sandstone Transition Forest
CE
E
The boundaries are indistinct, and the species composition varies
depending on the soil influences. It typically occurs in moderately wet sites, with an
annual rainfall of 800-1100mm per year, and on clay soils derived from Wianamatta
shale. The tree canopy is dominated by Turpentine and a variety of eucalypt species.
No, this
community was
not identified
within the study
area
Its distribution is mainly on the Cumberland Plain of the Sydney region. Was not
recorded during the field surveys.
This coastal community is characterised by saline tolerant species within the intertidal
Coastal Saltmarsh in the NSW
North Coast, Sydney Basin and
South East Corner Bioregions (TSC
© ECO LOGICAL AUSTRALIA PTY LTD
E
V
zone of estuaries and lagoons. The community is subject to inundation of saline
water and is generally located on the landside of mangrove stands (OEH 2015B).
The community is represented by a diversity of species including: Baumea juncea,
No, this
community was
not identified
within the study
area
33
Warringah Aquatic Centre - Flora and Fauna Assessment
Name
TSC Act
EPBC Act
Habitat Associations
Likelihood of
Occurrence
Sea Rush (Juncus krausii subsp. australiensis), Samphire (Sarcocornia quinqueflora
Act)
subsp. quinqueflora), Marine Couch (Sporobolus virginicus), Streaked Arrowgrass
Subtropical and Temperate Coastal
(Triglochin striata) and occasionally it is invaded by mangroves or tall reeds (OEH
Saltmarsh (EPBC Act)
2015B).
A closed canopy often associated with humid conditions and supports epiphytes,
Western Sydney Dry Rainforest and
Moist Woodland on Shale
E
vines and mesic shrubs although this varies according to topography and landform. It
CE
is found on shale soil in the Cumberland Plain Sub-region of the Sydney Basin
Bioregion in elevations below 300m with a mean annual rainfall between 700-900mm.
No, this
community was
not identified
within the study
area
Flora Species
Likelihood of
Species Name
Common Name
TSC Act
EPBC Act
Habitat Requirements
Occurrence on
site and impact
to habitat.
FLORA
Acacia bynoeana is found in central eastern NSW, from the Hunter
District (Morisset) south to the Southern Highlands and west to the
Acacia bynoeana
Bynoe’s Wattle
E
V
Blue Mountains, and has recently been found in the Colymea and
Parma Creek areas west of Nowra. It is found in heath and dry
sclerophyll forest, typically on a sand or sandy clay substrate, often
Unlikely, not
identified in field
survey
with ironstone gravels (OEH 2015b).
© ECO LOGICAL AUSTRALIA PTY LTD
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Warringah Aquatic Centre - Flora and Fauna Assessment
Likelihood of
Species Name
Common Name
TSC Act
EPBC Act
Habitat Requirements
Occurrence on
site and impact
to habitat.
Acacia terminalis subsp. terminalis has a very limited distribution,
mainly in near-coastal areas from the northern shores of Sydney
Acacia terminalis subsp.
terminalis
Sunshine Wattle
E
E
Harbour south to Botany Bay, with most records from the Port
Jackson area and the eastern suburbs of Sydney. It occurs in
coastal scrub and dry sclerophyll woodland on sandy soils (OEH
Unlikely, not
identified in field
survey
2015b).
Asterolasia elegans
-
E
E
Asterolasia elegans is restricted to a few localities on the NSW
Unlikely, no
Central Coast north of Sydney, in the Baulkham Hills, Hawkesbury
suitable habitat
and Hornsby LGAs. It is found in sheltered forests on mid- to lower
recorded within
slopes and valleys, in or adjacent to gullies (OEH 2015b).
study area
Caladenia tessellata occurs in grassy sclerophyll woodland, often
growing in well-structured clay loams or sandy soils south from
Caladenia tessellata
Thick Lip Spider Orchid
E
V
Swansea, usually in sheltered moist places and in areas of
increased sunlight (OEH 2015b). It flowers from September to
November (OEH 2015b).
Unlikely, no
suitable habitat
recorded within
study area
Cryptostylis hunteriana is known from a range of vegetation
communities including swamp-heath and woodland (OEH 2015b).
The larger populations typically occur in woodland dominated by
Cryptostylis hunteriana
Leafless Tongue Orchid
V
V
Scribbly Gum (Eucalyptus sclerophylla), Silvertop Ash (E. sieberi),
Unlikely, no
Red Bloodwood (Corymbia gummifera) and Black Sheoak
suitable habitat
(Allocasuarina littoralis); where it appears to prefer open areas in the
recorded within
understorey of this community and is often found in association with
study area
the Large Tongue Orchid (C. subulata) and the Tartan Tongue
Orchid (C. erecta) (OEH 2015b). Flowers between November and
February, although may not flower regularly (OEH 2015b).
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Warringah Aquatic Centre - Flora and Fauna Assessment
Likelihood of
Species Name
Common Name
TSC Act
EPBC Act
Habitat Requirements
Occurrence on
site and impact
to habitat.
Callistemon linearifolius has been recorded from the Georges River
to Hawkesbury River in the Sydney area, and north to the Nelson
Callistemon linearifolius
Netted Bottlebrush
V
-
Bay area of NSW, growing in dry sclerophyll forest (OEH 2015b).
For the Sydney area, recent records are limited to the Hornsby
Plateau area near the Hawkesbury River (OEH 2015b).
Darwinia biflora is an erect or spreading shrub to 80cm high
Darwinia biflora
Darwinia biflora
V
V
associated with habitats where weathered shale capped ridges
intergrade with Hawkesbury Sandstone, where soils have a high
clay content (NPWS 1997).
Unlikely, no
suitable habitat
recorded within
study area
Unlikely, not
identified in field
survey
Potential habitat,
Epacris purpurascens var.
Epacris purpurascens
purpurascens
var. purpurascens
Eucalyptus camfieldii
Camfield’s Stringybark
© ECO LOGICAL AUSTRALIA PTY LTD
V
V
-
V
Epacris purpurascens var. purpurascens has been recorded
however, this
between Gosford in the north to Avon Dam in the south, in a range
species was not
of habitats, but most have a strong shale soil influence (OEH
recorded during
2015b).
field surveys
Eucalyptus camfieldii is associated with shallow sandy soils
Unlikely, no
bordering coastal heath with other stunted or mallee eucalypts, often
suitable habitat
in areas with restricted drainage and in areas with laterite influenced
recorded within
soils, thought to be associated with proximity to shale (OEH 2015b).
study area
36
Warringah Aquatic Centre - Flora and Fauna Assessment
Likelihood of
Species Name
Common Name
TSC Act
EPBC Act
Habitat Requirements
Occurrence on
site and impact
to habitat.
Eucalyptus nicholii naturally occurs in the New England Tablelands
of NSW, where it occurs from Nundle to north of Tenterfield. Grows
Eucalyptus nicholii
Narrow-leaved Black
Peppermint
in dry grassy woodland, on shallow and infertile soils, mainly on
V
V
granite (OEH 2015b). This species is widely planted as an urban
street tree and in gardens but is quite rare in the wild (OEH 2015b).
Plantings undertaken for horticultural and aesthetic purposes are not
Unlikely, no
suitable habitat
recorded within
study area
considered threatened species under the TSC Act.
Genoplesium baueri
Grevillea caleyi
Bauer’s Midge Orchid
Caley’s Grevillea
V
E
-
E
Known from coastal areas from northern Sydney south to the Nowra
Unlikely, no
district. Previous records from the Hunter Valley and Nelson Bay are
suitable habitat
now thought to be erroneous. Grows in shrubby woodland in open
recorded within
forest on shallow sandy soils.
study area
Grevillea caleyi is restricted to an 8 km square area around Terrey
Potential habitat,
Hills, approximately 20 km north of Sydney. It occurs in three major
however, this
areas of suitable habitat, namely Belrose, Ingleside and Terrey Hills
species does
/ Duffys Forest within the Ku-ring-gai, Pittwater and Warringah
not occur in this
LGAs. It occurs on ridgetops between elevations of 170 to 240 m,
area. It was not
on laterite soils in open or low open forests, generally dominated by
identified during
Eucalyptus sieberi, Corymbia gummifera and E. haemastoma (OEH
field surveys.
2015b).
survey
Known locations of this species are confined to a very narrow
distribution on the north shore of Sydney. Haloragodendron lucasii is
Haloragodendron lucasii
Haloragodendron lucasii
E
E
associated with low woodland on sheltered slopes near creeks on
moist loamy sand on bench below small sandstone cliff lines, with
continuous seepage (Benson and McDougall 1998).
© ECO LOGICAL AUSTRALIA PTY LTD
Unlikely, no
suitable habitat
recorded within
study area
37
Warringah Aquatic Centre - Flora and Fauna Assessment
Likelihood of
Species Name
Common Name
TSC Act
EPBC Act
Habitat Requirements
Occurrence on
site and impact
to habitat.
Hibbertia puberula is currently only known from near Warrimoo in
Blue Mountains National Park on the Central Coast. There also
Hibbertia puberula
Hibbertia puberula
E
several old records from a number of localities in the Sydney basin.
It grows in heathy open forest in thin rocky/sandy light brown soil
over sandstone (RBG Herbarium records).
Unlikely, no
suitable habitat
recorded within
study area
Hibbertia superans mainly occurs in the north west Sydney region
Hibbertia superans
Hibbertia superans
E
between Baulkham Hills and Wisemans Ferry, with a disjunct
Unlikely, no
occurrence near Mt Boss (inland from Kempsey) on the Mid North
suitable habitat
Coast of NSW. In the Sydney region it occurs in dry sclerophyll
recorded within
forest on sandstone ridgetops while the northern occurrence is on
study area
granite (OEH 2015b).
Unlikely, no
Lasiopetalum joyceae
Lasiopetalum joyceae
V
V
Lasiopetalum joyceae grows in ridgetop woodland, heath, woodland
suitable habitat
or open scrub, often with a clay influence (NPWS 1997).
recorded within
study area
Leptospermum deanei has been recorded in Hornsby, Warringah,
Ku-ring-gai and Ryde LGAs, in woodland on lower hill slopes or near
Leptospermum deanei
Leptospermum deanei
V
V
creeks, at sites with sandy alluvial soil or sand over sandstone (OEH
Unlikely, no
2015b). It has also been recorded in riparian scrub dominated by
suitable habitat
Tristaniopsis laurina and Baeckea myrtifolia; woodland dominated
recorded within
by Eucalyptus haemastoma; and open forest dominated by
study area
Angophora costata, Leptospermum trinervium and Banksia ericifolia
(OEH 2015b).
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Warringah Aquatic Centre - Flora and Fauna Assessment
Likelihood of
Species Name
Common Name
TSC Act
EPBC Act
Habitat Requirements
Occurrence on
site and impact
to habitat.
Melaleuca biconvexa occurs in coastal districts and adjacent
Melaleuca biconvexa
Biconvex Paperbark
V
V
tablelands from Jervis Bay north to the Port Macquarie district. It
grows in damp places often near streams.
Found in heath on sandstone (OEH 2015b), and also associated
Melaleuca deanei
Deane’s Paperbark
V
V
with woodland on broad ridge tops and slopes on sandy loam and
lateritic soils (Benson and McDougall 1998).
Unlikely, no
suitable habitat
recorded within
study area
Unlikely, no
suitable habitat
recorded within
study area
Currently only known from one site at Ingleside in the north of
Sydney (OEH 2015b). The dominant species occurring on the highly
disturbed Ingleside site are introduced weeds Hyparrhenia hirta
(Coolatai grass) and Acacia saligna (ibid.). Most likely associated
Microtis angusii
Angus’s Onion Orchid
E
E
with the Duffys Forest vegetation community (ibid.). Exists as
subterranean tubers during most of the year, producing leaves and
then flowering stems in late winter and spring and flowers from May
Unlikely, no
suitable habitat
recorded within
study area
to October (ibid.). By summer, the above ground parts have
withered leaving no parts above ground (ibid.).
Pelargonium sp. (G.W.
Carr 10345)
© ECO LOGICAL AUSTRALIA PTY LTD
E
In NSW, Pelargonium sp. (G.W. Carr 10345) is known from the
Unlikely, no
Southern Tablelands. Otherwise, only known from the shores of
suitable habitat
Lake Omeo near Benambra in Victoria where it grows in cracking
recorded within
clay soil that is probably occasionally flooded.
study area
39
Warringah Aquatic Centre - Flora and Fauna Assessment
Likelihood of
Species Name
Common Name
TSC Act
EPBC Act
Habitat Requirements
Occurrence on
site and impact
to habitat.
Potential habitat,
Persoonia hirsuta
Hairy Geebung
E
E
Persoonia hirsuta occurs from Singleton in the north, south to Bargo
however, this
and the Blue Mountains to the west (OEH 2015b). It grows in dry
species was not
sclerophyll eucalypt woodland and forest on sandstone.
identified in field
survey
Pimelea curviflora var. curviflora is confined to the coastal area of
Sydney between northern Sydney in the south and Maroota in the
Pimelea curviflora var.
Pimelea curviflora var.
curviflora
curviflora
north-west. It grows on shaley/lateritic soils over sandstone and
V
V
shale/sandstone transition soils on ridgetops and upper slopes
amongst woodlands (OEH 2015b). Associated with the Duffys
Forest Community, shale lenses on ridges in Hawkesbury
sandstone geology (Pittwater Council 2012).
Potential habitat
however this
species was not
detected during
site survey as
flowering occurs
from October to
May.
Likely to be restricted to the Somersby Plateau, found on the
Somersby and Sydney Town soil landscapes. Occurs predominantly
Prostanthera junonis
Somersby Mintbush
E
E
in the low woodland component of the Hawkesbury Sandstone
Unlikely, no
Complex dominated by Eucalyptus haemastoma with Banksia
suitable habitat
ericifolia or B. serrata in the understorey (ibid.). Has been found in
recorded within
the ecotone between low woodland and open forest or the open
study area
scrub\heath components (ibid.). Not found in sedgelands or
Allocasuarina distyla open heath (ibid.).
© ECO LOGICAL AUSTRALIA PTY LTD
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Warringah Aquatic Centre - Flora and Fauna Assessment
Likelihood of
Species Name
Common Name
TSC Act
EPBC Act
Habitat Requirements
Occurrence on
site and impact
to habitat.
Prostanthera marifolia is currently only known from the northern
Prostanthera marifolia
Seaforth Mintbush
CE
CE
Sydney suburb of Seaforth and has a very highly restricted
Unlikely, no
distribution. It occurs in localised patches in or in close proximity to
suitable habitat
the Duffys Forest EEC. It grows on deeply weathered clay-loam
recorded within
soils associated with ironstone and scattered shale lenses (OEH
study area
2015b).
Known from just a few populations north of the Richmond River in
far northern NSW. Plants grow as a lithophyte on rock surfaces,
Sarcochilus hartmannii
Hartman’s Sarcochilus
V
V
usually in exposed sites in woodland or open forest. Previous
records from further south now refer to a different species, S.
aequalis.
Unlikely, no
suitable habitat
recorded within
study area
This species occupies a narrow coastal area between Bulahdelah
and Conjola State Forests in NSW. On the Central Coast, it occurs
on Quaternary gravels, sands, silts and clays, in riparian gallery
Syzygium paniculatum
Magenta Lilly pilly
E
V
rainforests and remnant littoral rainforest communities (Payne
Unlikely, no
1997). In the Ourimbah Creek valley, S. paniculatum occurs within
suitable habitat
gallery rainforest with Alphitonia excelsa, Acmena smithii,
recorded within
Cryptocarya glaucescens, Toona ciliata, Syzygium oleosum with
study area
emergent Eucalyptus saligna.
S. paniculatum is summer flowering (November-February), with the
fruits maturing in May (OEH 2015b).
Associated with ridgetop woodland habits on yellow earths also in
Tetratheca glandulosa
Tetratheca glandulosa
V
V
sandy or rocky heath and scrub (NPWS 1997). Often associated
with sandstone / shale interface where soils have a stronger clay
influence (NPWS 1997). Flowers July to November.
© ECO LOGICAL AUSTRALIA PTY LTD
Potential habitat,
however, this
species was not
identified in field
survey
41
Warringah Aquatic Centre - Flora and Fauna Assessment
Likelihood of
Species Name
Common Name
TSC Act
EPBC Act
Occurrence on
Habitat Requirements
site and impact
to habitat.
Widespread throughout the eastern third of NSW but most common
Thesium australe
Austral Toadflax
V
V
on the North Western Slopes, Northern Tablelands and North Coast.
Unlikely, no
Occurs in grassland or grassy woodland. Often found in damp sites
suitable habitat
in association with Kangaroo Grass (Themeda australis) (OEH
recorded within
2015b). The preferred soil type is a fertile loam derived from basalt
study area
although it occasionally occurs on metasediments and granite.
Found only in a few locations in the ranges south-west of Glenreagh
Triplarina imbricata
Creek Triplarina
E
E
and near Tabulam in north-east NSW. Along watercourses in low
open forest with Water Gum (Tristaniopsis laurina) (OEH 2015b).
Common Name
Species Name
TSC Act
EPBC Act
Habitat Requirements
Unlikely, no
suitable habitat
recorded within
study area
Likelihood of
Occurrence
FAUNA
Terrestrial wetlands with tall dense vegetation, occasionally
estuarine habitats (Marchant & Higgins 1990). Found along the east
coast and in the Murray-Darling Basin. Favours permanent shallow
Australasian Bittern
Botaurus poiciloptilus
E
E
waters, edges of pools and waterways, with tall, dense vegetation
such as sedges, rushes and reeds on muddy or peaty substrate.
Also occurs in Lignum (Muehlenbeckia florulenta) and Canegrass
Unlikely,
suitable
habitat
not recorded in
study area
(Eragrostis australasica) on inland wetlands.
© ECO LOGICAL AUSTRALIA PTY LTD
42
Warringah Aquatic Centre - Flora and Fauna Assessment
Likelihood of
Species Name
Common Name
TSC Act
EPBC Act
Habitat Requirements
Occurrence on
site and impact
to habitat.
Unlikely,
This species occurs along the coasts of Victoria, Tasmania,
Australian Fairy Tern
Sternula nereis nereis
-
V
South Australia and Western Australia. It nests on sheltered
sandy beaches, spits and banks above the high tide line
and below vegetation.
suitable
habitat
not recorded in
study area
Unlikely,
Beach Stone-curlew
Black Bittern
Bush Stone-curlew
Esacus neglectus
Ixobrychus flavicollis
Burhinus grallarius
E4A
V
E
-
-
-
Beaches, mudflats, reefs and especially islands. Open undisturbed
suitable
beaches, islands, reefs, intertidal sand and mudflats, preferably with
not recorded in
estuaries or mangroves nearby (OEH 2015b).
study area
Occurs in both terrestrial and estuarine wetlands generally in areas
Unlikely,
of permanent water and dense vegetation (OEH 2015b). In areas
suitable
with permanent water it may occur in flooded grassland, forest,
not recorded in
woodland, rainforest and mangroves (OEH 2015b).
study area
Associated with dry open woodland with grassy areas, dune scrubs,
Unlikely,
in savanna areas, the fringes of mangroves, golf courses and open
suitable
forest / farmland (Pittwater Council 2000; Marchant & Higgins 1993).
not recorded in
Forages in areas with fallen timber, leaf litter, little undergrowth and
study area
habitat
habitat
habitat
where the grass is short and patchy (Marchant & Higgins 1993). Is
thought to require large tracts of habitat to support breeding, in
which there is a preference for relatively undisturbed in lightly
disturbed.
© ECO LOGICAL AUSTRALIA PTY LTD
43
Warringah Aquatic Centre - Flora and Fauna Assessment
Likelihood of
Species Name
Common Name
TSC Act
EPBC Act
Habitat Requirements
Occurrence on
site and impact
to habitat.
Habitat is characterised by dense, low vegetation and includes
Unlikely,
sedgeland, heathland, swampland, shrubland, sclerophyll forest and
suitable
habitat
woodland, and rainforest, as well as open woodland with a heathy
not recorded in
understorey. In northern NSW occurs in open forest with tussocky
study area
grass understorey. All of these vegetation types are fire prone, aside
from the rainforest habitatas utilised by the northern population as
Eastern Bristlebird
Dasyornis brachypterus
E
E
fire refuge. Age of habitat since fires (fire-age) is of paramount
importance to this species; Illawarra and southern populations reach
maximum densities in habitat that has not been burnt for at least 15
years; however, in the northern NSW population a lack of fire in
grassy forest may be detrimental as grassy tussock nesting habitat
becomes unsuitable after long periods without fire; northern NSW
birds are usually found in habitats burnt five to 10 years previously.
Associated with waterbodies including coastal waters, inlets, lakes,
Eastern Osprey
Pandion
cristatus
(Pandion haliaetus)
estuaries, beaches, offshore islands and sometimes along inland
V
M
rivers (OEH 2015b). Osprey may nest on the ground, on sea cliffs
or in trees (OEH 2015b). Osprey generally prefer emergent trees,
often dead or partly dead with a broken off crown.
Unlikely,
suitable
habitat
not recorded in
study area
Associated with a variety of forest types containing Allocasuarina
species, usually reflecting the poor nutrient status of underlying soils
Glossy Black-Cockatoo
Calyptorhynchus lathami
V
-
(Garnett and Crowley 2000; NPWS 1997; OEH 2015B). Intact drier
forest types with less rugged landscapes are preferred (OEH
2015B). Nests in large trees with large hollows (Garnett and
Potential
foraging habitat
present
Crowley 2000).
© ECO LOGICAL AUSTRALIA PTY LTD
44
Warringah Aquatic Centre - Flora and Fauna Assessment
Likelihood of
Species Name
Common Name
TSC Act
EPBC Act
Habitat Requirements
Occurrence on
site and impact
to habitat.
In New South Wales Little Lorikeets are distributed in forests and
woodlands from the coast to the western slopes of the Great
Dividing Range. Little Lorikeets mostly occur in dry, open eucalypt
Little Lorikeet
Glossopsitta pusilla
V
-
forests and woodlands. They have been recorded from both oldgrowth and logged forests in the eastern part of their range. They
feed primarily on nectar and pollen in the tree canopy, particularly
on profusely-flowering eucalypts, but also on a variety of other
Potential.
supplementary
foraging habitat,
no
breeding
habitat present
species including melaleucas and mistletoes.
Little Tern
Sterna albifrons
© ECO LOGICAL AUSTRALIA PTY LTD
E
M
Almost exclusively coastal, preferring sheltered areas (OEH 2015b),
Unlikely,
however may occur several kilometres inland in harbours, inlets and
suitable
rivers. Australian birds breed on sandy beaches and sand spits
not recorded in
(Simpson & Day 2004).
study area
habitat
45
Warringah Aquatic Centre - Flora and Fauna Assessment
Likelihood of
Species Name
Common Name
TSC Act
EPBC Act
Habitat Requirements
Occurrence on
site and impact
to habitat.
Regent Honeyeaters mostly occur in dry box-ironbark eucalypt
woodland and dry sclerophyll forest associations, wherein they
prefer the most fertile sites available, e.g. along creek flats, or in
broad river valleys and foothills. Regent Honeyeaters sometimes
occur in coastal forest, especially in stands dominated by Swamp
Mahogany and Spotted Gum, but also in those with Southern
Regent Honeyeater
Anthochaera phrygia
CE
CE, M
Mahogany E. botryoides, and in those on sandstone ranges with
Unlikely,
banksias in the understorey (DotE 2015b). The Regent Honeyeater
suitable
primarily feeds on nectar from box and ironbark eucalypts and
not recorded in
occasionally from banksias and mistletoes (NPWS 1995). The
study area
habitat
species is concentrated around two main locations, the Capertee
Valley and the Bundarra-Barraba area, but Honeyeaters are also
recorded along the coast in the Northern Rivers and Mid-North
Coast Regions, and in the Illawarra and South Coast Regions, from
Nowra south to Moruya, where small numbers are recorded in most
years.
The Scarlet Robin is found in south-eastern and south-western
Australia, it is found south of latitude 25°S, from south-eastern
Scarlet Robin
Petroica boodang
V
-
Queensland along the coast of New South Wales (and inland to
Unlikely,
western slopes of Great Dividing Range) to Victoria and Tasmania.
suitable
The Scarlet Robin lives in open forests and woodlands in Australia,
not recorded in
while it prefers rainforest habitats on Norfolk Island. During winter, it
study area
habitat
will visit more open habitats such as grasslands and will be seen in
farmland and urban parks and gardens at this time (BIB, 2006).
© ECO LOGICAL AUSTRALIA PTY LTD
46
Warringah Aquatic Centre - Flora and Fauna Assessment
Likelihood of
Species Name
Common Name
TSC Act
EPBC Act
Occurrence on
Habitat Requirements
site and impact
to habitat.
Inhabits rainforest and similar closed forests where it forages high in
the canopy, eating the fruits of many tree species such as figs and
Superb Fruit-Dove
Ptilinopus superbus
V
M
palms (OEH 2015b). It may also forage in eucalypt or acacia
Unlikely,
woodland where there are fruit-bearing trees (ibid.). Part of the
suitable
population is migratory or nomadic (ibid.). At least some of the
not recorded in
population, particularly young birds, moves south through Sydney,
study area
habitat
especially in autumn (ibid.). Breeding takes place from September to
January (ibid.). Will feed in adjacent mangroves or eucalypt forests.
Breeds in Tasmania between September and January.
Feeds
mostly on nectar, mainly from eucalypts, but also eats psyllid insects
and lerps, seeds and fruit. Migrates to mainland in autumn, where it
forages on profuse flowering Eucalypts.
Favoured feed trees
include winter flowering species such as Swamp Mahogany
Swift Parrot
Lathamus discolour
E
E
(Eucalyptus robusta), Spotted Gum (Corymbia maculata), Red
Bloodwood (C. gummifera), Mugga Ironbark (E. sideroxylon), White
Box (E. albens) and Forest Red Gum (E. tereticornis) (OEH 2015b).
Unlikely,
suitable
habitat
not recorded in
study area
Box-ironbark habitat in drainage lines, and coastal forest in NSW is
thought to provide critical food resources during periods of drought
or low food abundance elsewhere.
Varied Sitellas are endemic and widespread in mainland Australia.
Varied Sittella
Daphoenositta
chrysoptera
Varied Sitellas are found in eucalypt woodlands and forests
V
-
throughout their range. They prefer rough-barked trees like
stringybarks and ironbarks or mature trees with hollows or dead
branches
Unlikely,
suitable
habitat
not recorded in
study area
Nocturnal birds
© ECO LOGICAL AUSTRALIA PTY LTD
47
Warringah Aquatic Centre - Flora and Fauna Assessment
Likelihood of
Species Name
Common Name
TSC Act
EPBC Act
Habitat Requirements
Occurrence on
site and impact
to habitat.
Associated with a variety of habitats such as savanna woodland,
open eucalypt forests, wetland and riverine forest. The habitat is
Barking Owl
Ninox connivens
V
-
typically dominated by Eucalypts (often Redgum species), however
Unlikely,
often dominated by Melaleuca species in the tropics (OEH 2015b). It
suitable
usually roosts in dense foliage in large trees such as River She-oak,
not recorded in
other Casuarina and Allocasuarina, eucalypts, Angophora, Acacia
study area
habitat
and rainforest species from streamside gallery forests. It usually
nests near watercourses or wetlands in large tree hollows.
Powerful Owls are associated with a wide range of wet and dry
Powerful Owl
Ninox strenua
V
-
forest types with a high density of prey, such as arboreal mammals,
Potential
large birds and flying foxes. Large trees with hollows at least 0.5m
foraging habitat
deep are required for shelter and breeding.
—
V
Sooty Owls are associated with tall wet old growth forest on fertile
soil with a dense understorey and emergent tall Eucalyptus species
(Environment Australia 2000). Pairs roost in the daytime amongst
Sooty Owl
Tyto tenebricosa
dense vegetation, in tree hollows and sometimes in caves. The
Sooty Owl is typically associated with an abundant and diverse
supply of prey items and a selection of large tree hollows (Garnett
Unlikely,
suitable
habitat
not recorded in
study area
1993).
Amphibians
Giant Burrowing Frog
Heleioporus australiacus
© ECO LOGICAL AUSTRALIA PTY LTD
V
V
Forages in woodlands, wet heath, dry and wet sclerophyll forest
Unlikely,
(Ehmann 1997). Associated with semi-permanent to ephemeral
suitable
sand or rock based streams (Ehmann 1997), where the soil is soft
not recorded in
and sandy so that burrows can be constructed.
study area
habitat
48
Warringah Aquatic Centre - Flora and Fauna Assessment
Likelihood of
Species Name
Common Name
TSC Act
EPBC Act
Habitat Requirements
Occurrence on
site and impact
to habitat.
E
V
This species has been observed utilising a variety of natural and
man-made waterbodies (Pyke & White 1996) such as coastal
swamps, marshes, dune swales, lagoons, lakes, other estuary
wetlands, riverine floodplain wetlands and billabongs, stormwater
detention basins, farm dams, bunded areas, drains, ditches and any
other structure capable of storing water (DotE 2015b). Fast flowing
streams are not utilised for breeding purposes by this species.
Preferable habitat for this species includes attributes such as
Green and Golden Bell
Frog
shallow, still or slow flowing, permanent and/or widely fluctuating
Litoria aurea
water bodies that are unpolluted and without heavy shading (DotE
2015b). Large permanent swamps and ponds exhibiting wellestablished fringing vegetation (especially bulrushes–Typha sp. and
Unlikely,
suitable
habitat
not recorded in
study area
spikerushes–Eleocharis sp.) adjacent to open grassland areas for
foraging are preferable (Ehmann 1997). Ponds that are typically
inhabited tend to be free from predatory fish such as Gambusia
holbrooki (Mosquito Fish) (DotE 2015b). Formerly distributed from
the NSW north coast near Brunswick Heads, southwards along the
NSW coast to Victoria where it extends into east Gippsland.
Records from west to Bathurst, Tumut and the ACT region.
© ECO LOGICAL AUSTRALIA PTY LTD
49
Warringah Aquatic Centre - Flora and Fauna Assessment
Likelihood of
Species Name
Common Name
TSC Act
EPBC Act
Occurrence on
Habitat Requirements
site and impact
to habitat.
Red-crowned Toadlets are found in steep escarpment areas and
plateaus, as well as low undulating ranges with benched
outcroppings on Triassic sandstones of the Sydney Basin (OEH
2015b). Within these geological formations, this species mainly
Red-crowned Toadlet
Pseudophryne australis
V
-
occupies the upper parts of ridges, usually being restricted to within
about 100 metres of the ridgetop (OEH 2015b). Associated with
open forest to coastal heath (Ehmann 1997). Utilises small
ephemeral drainage lines which feed water from the top of the ridge
to the perennial creeks below for breeding, and are not usually
Potential.
Suitable habitat
present in the
form of a soak
outside
of
development
area
found in the vicinity of permanent water (Ehmann 1997).
A variety of forest habitats from rainforest through wet and moist
sclerophyll forest to riparian habitat in dry sclerophyll forest (OEH
2015b) that are generally characterised by deep leaf litter or thick
Stuttering Frog
Mixophyes balbus
E
V
cover from understorey vegetation (Ehmann 1997). Breeding
habitats are streams and occasionally springs. Usually found fairly
close to permanent running water.
Not known from streams
Unlikely,
suitable
habitat
not recorded in
study area
disturbed by humans or still water environments.
Mammals
Unlikely,
Brush-tailed Rock-wallaby
Petrogale penicillata
E
V
Rocky areas in a variety of habitats, typically north facing sites with
suitable
numerous ledges, caves and crevices (Strahan 1995).
not recorded in
habitat
study area
© ECO LOGICAL AUSTRALIA PTY LTD
50
Warringah Aquatic Centre - Flora and Fauna Assessment
Likelihood of
Species Name
Common Name
TSC Act
EPBC Act
Habitat Requirements
Occurrence on
site and impact
to habitat.
Eastern Pygmy Possum
Koala
Koala in the Pittwater LGA
Cercartetus nanus
Phascolarctos cinereus
Phascolarctos cinereus
© ECO LOGICAL AUSTRALIA PTY LTD
V
V
E2
-
V
The Eastern Pygmy Possum occurs in wet and dry eucalypt forest,
Potential
subalpine woodland, coastal banksia woodland and wet heath
occur on site
(Menkhorst & Knight 2010). Pygmy-Possums feed mostly on the
Potential impact
pollen and nectar from banksias, eucalypts and understorey plants
to foraging, and
and will also eat insects, seeds and fruit. The presence of Banksia
shelter
sp. and Leptospermum sp. are an important habitat feature (OEH
through removal
2015b). Small tree hollows are favoured as day nesting sites, but
of
nests have also been found under bark, in old birds’ nests and in the
groundcover
branch forks of tea-trees.
vegetation
Associated with both wet and dry Eucalypt forest and woodland that
Unlikely.
contains a canopy cover of approximately 10 to 70%, with
Records are old
acceptable Eucalypt food trees. Some preferred Eucalyptus species
and
are: Eucalyptus tereticornis, E. punctata, E. cypellocarpa, E.
some
viminalis
from the site
As above
to
habitat
shrub
and
located
distance
not in Pittwater
LGA
51
Warringah Aquatic Centre - Flora and Fauna Assessment
Likelihood of
Species Name
Common Name
TSC Act
EPBC Act
Occurrence on
Habitat Requirements
site and impact
to habitat.
This species has been recorded from Queensland to Tasmania,
though with a sporadic and patchy distribution. Most records are
coastal. However, populations have been recently recorded up to
400km inland. The species includes heathlands, woodands, open
New Holland Mouse
Pseudomys
novaehollandiae
forest and paperbark swamps and on sandy, loamy or rocky soils.
-
V
In coastal populations the species seems to have a preference for
sandy substrates, a heathy understorey of legumes less than one
metre high and sparse ground litter.
This species is generally
Unlikely,
suitable
habitat
not recorded in
study area
recorded in regenerating burnt areas occurs that are one or two
years post fire and rehabilitated sand-mined areas that are four to
five years post-mining.
The Spotted-tailed Quoll inhabits a range of forest communities
including wet and dry sclerophyll forests, coastal heathlands and
rainforests (OEH 2015b), more frequently recorded near the
ecotones of closed and open forest and in NSW within 200km of the
coast. Preferred habitat is mature wet forest, especially in areas with
Spotted-tail Quoll
Dasyurus maculatus
V
E
rainfall 600 mm/year. Unlogged forest or forest that has been less
disturbed by timber harvesting is also preferable. This species
requires habitat features such as maternal den sites, an abundance
Unlikely,
suitable
habitat
not recorded in
study area
of food (birds and small mammals) and large areas of relatively
intact vegetation to forage in (OEH 2015b). Maternal den sites are
logs with cryptic entrances; rock outcrops; windrows; burrows.
© ECO LOGICAL AUSTRALIA PTY LTD
52
Warringah Aquatic Centre - Flora and Fauna Assessment
Likelihood of
Species Name
Common Name
TSC Act
EPBC Act
Habitat Requirements
Occurrence on
site and impact
to habitat.
This species is associated with heath, coastal scrub, sedgeland,
heathy forests, shrubland and woodland on well drained, infertile
soils, within which they are typically found in areas of dense ground
Southern Brown Bandicoot
(eastern)
cover. Suitable habitat includes patches of native or exotic
Isoodon obesulus
E
E
vegetation which contain understorey vegetation structure with 50–
80% average foliage density in the 0.2–1 m height range. This
species is thought to display a preference for newly regenerating
Unlikely,
suitable
habitat
not recorded in
study area
heathland and other areas prone to fire, but requires a mosaic of
burnt and unburnt areas for survival (Menkhorst & Seebeck 1990).
Mammals (bats)
Eastern Bentwing-bat
Miniopterus
oceanensis
schreibersii
V
-
Associated with a range of habitats such as rainforest, wet and dry
Recorded within
sclerophyll forest, monsoon forest, open woodland, paperbark
the study area.
forests and open grassland (Churchill 1998). It forages above and
Suitable
below the tree canopy on small insects (Dwyer 1995). Will utilise
foraging habitat.
caves, old mines, and stormwater channels, under bridges and
No
occasionally buildings for shelter (Dwyer 1995).
habitat
breeding
Most records of this species are from dry eucalypt forest and
woodland east of the Great Dividing Range (Churchill 1998).
Eastern Freetail-bat
Mormopterus
norfolkensis
Individuals have, however, been recorded flying low over a rocky
V
-
river in rainforest and wet sclerophyll forest and foraging in clearings
at forest edges. Primarily roosts in hollows or behind loose bark in
mature eucalypts, but have been observed roosting in the roof of a
Unlikely,
suitable
habitat
not recorded in
study area
hut.
© ECO LOGICAL AUSTRALIA PTY LTD
53
Warringah Aquatic Centre - Flora and Fauna Assessment
Likelihood of
Species Name
Common Name
TSC Act
EPBC Act
Habitat Requirements
Occurrence on
site and impact
to habitat.
Associated with moist gullies in mature coastal forest, or rainforest,
east of the Great Dividing Range (Churchill, 1998), tending to be
more frequently located in more productive forests (Hoye &
Greater Broad-nosed Bat
Scoteanax rueppellii
V
-
Richards 2008). Within denser vegetation types use is made of
natural and man made openings such as roads, creeks and small
rivers, where it hawks backwards and forwards for prey (Hoye &
Unlikely,
suitable
habitat
not recorded in
study area
Richards 2008).
V
Large-eared Pied Bat
V
The Large-eared Pied Bat has been recorded in a variety of
Chalinolobus dwyeri
habitats, including dry sclerophyll forests, woodland, sub-alpine
Unlikely,
woodland, edges of rainforests and wet sclerophyll forests (Churchill
suitable
1998; OEH 2015b). This species roosts in caves, rock overhangs
not recorded in
and disused mine shafts and as such is usually associated with rock
study area
habitat
outcrops and cliff faces (Churchill 1998; OEH 2015b).
Prefers well-timbered areas including rainforest, wet and dry
Little Bentwing-bat
Miniopterus australis
V
-
sclerophyll forests, Melaleuca swamps and coastal forests (Churchill
Recorded within
1998). This species shelter in a range of structures including
the study area.
culverts, drains, mines and caves. Relatively large areas of dense
Suitable
vegetation of either wet sclerophyll forest, rainforest or dense
foraging habitat.
coastal banksia scrub are usually found adjacent to caves in which
No
this species is found (OEH 2015b). Breeding occurs in caves,
habitat
breeding
usually in association with M. schreibersii (OEH 2015b).
Grey-headed Flying Fox
Pteropus poliocephalus
© ECO LOGICAL AUSTRALIA PTY LTD
V
V
Inhabits a wide range of habitats including rainforest, mangroves,
Supplementary
paperbark forests, wet and dry sclerophyll forests and cultivated
foraging habitat,
areas (Churchill 1998). Camps are often located in gullies, typically
no
close to water, in vegetation with a dense canopy (Churchill 1998).
habitat present
breeding
54
Warringah Aquatic Centre - Flora and Fauna Assessment
Likelihood of
Species Name
Common Name
TSC Act
EPBC Act
Occurrence on
Habitat Requirements
site and impact
to habitat.
Will occupy most habitat types such as mangroves, paperbark
swamps, riverine monsoon forest, rainforest, wet and dry sclerophyll
forest, open woodland and River Red Gum woodland, as long as
Southern Myotis
Myotis macropus
V
-
they are close to water (Churchill 1998). While roosting is most
Unlikely,
commonly associated with caves, this species has been observed to
suitable
roost in tree hollows, amongst vegetation, in clumps of Pandanus,
not recorded in
under bridges, in mines, tunnels and stormwater drains (Churchill
study area
habitat
1998). However the species apparently has specific roost
requirements, and only a small percentage of available caves,
mines, tunnels and culverts are used.
Reptile
Potential
to
occur on site
Potential impact
Rosenberg’s Goanna
Varanus rosenbergi
V
-
Associated with Sydney sandstone woodland and heath land.
to
foraging
Rocks, hollow logs and burrows are utilised for shelter. Terrestrial
habitat
through
termitaria are required for reproduction.
removal of shrub
and
groundcover
vegetation
FISH
Black Rockcod
Epinephelus daemelii
© ECO LOGICAL AUSTRALIA PTY LTD
-
V
This
species
is
listed
as
vulnerable
under
Management Act. This species is a marine species
the
Fisheries
No
55
Warringah Aquatic Centre - Flora and Fauna Assessment
Likelihood of
Species Name
Common Name
TSC Act
EPBC Act
Occurrence on
Habitat Requirements
site and impact
to habitat.
Australian Grayling
Prototroctes maraena
-
V
The historic distribution of the Australian Grayling included coastal
streams from the Grose River southwards through NSW, Vic. and
Tas. On mainland Australia, this species has been recorded from
rivers flowing east and south of the main dividing ranges. This
species spends only part of its lifecycle in freshwater, mainly
inhabiting clear, gravel-bottomed streams with alternating pools and
No
riffles, and granite outcrops but has also been found in muddybottomed,
heavily
silted
habitat.
Grayling
migrate
between
freshwater streams and the ocean and as such it is generally
accepted to be a diadromous (migratory between fresh and salt
waters) species.
Migratory terrestrial species
Sometimes travels with Needletails. Varied habitat with a possible tendency
Fork-tailed Swift
Apus pacificus
-
Ma, Mi
to more arid areas but also over coasts and urban areas (Simpson & Day
2004).
Unlikely, suitable habitat not
recorded in study area
Forages over large open fresh or saline waterbodies, coastal seas and open
White-bellied
Haliaeetus
Sea-Eagle
leucogaster
terrestrial areas (Simpson & Day 2004). Breeding habitat consists of tall
—
Ma, Mi
trees, mangroves, cliffs, rocky outcrops, silts, caves and crevices and is
located along the coast or major rivers. Breeding habitat is usually in or
Unlikely, suitable habitat not
recorded in study area
close to water, but may occur up to a kilometre away.
Rainbow Beeeater
Merops ornatus
—
Ma, Mi
Resident in coastal and subcoastal northern Australia; regular breeding
Unlikely, suitable habitat not
migrant in southern Australia, arriving September to October, departing
recorded in study area
February to March, some occasionally present April to May. Occurs in open
© ECO LOGICAL AUSTRALIA PTY LTD
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Warringah Aquatic Centre - Flora and Fauna Assessment
country, chiefly at suitable breeding places in areas of sandy or loamy soil:
sand-ridges, riverbanks, road-cuttings, sand-pits, occasionally coastal cliffs
(ibid). Nest is a chamber a the end of a burrow, up to 1.6 m long, tunnelled
in flat or sloping ground, sandy back or cutting (ibid).
Black-faced
Monarcha
Monarch
melanopsis
Spectacled
Monarcha
Monarch
trivirgatus
Satin Flycatcher
Myiagra
cyanoleuca
—
Mi
Rainforest and eucalypt forests, feeding in tangled understorey.
—
Mi
Wet forests, mangroves (Simpson and Day 2004).
—
Mi
Associated with drier eucalypt forests, absent from rainforests, open forests,
often at height (Simpson & Day 2004).
Unlikely, suitable habitat not
recorded in study area
Unlikely, suitable habitat not
recorded in study area
Unlikely, suitable habitat not
recorded in study area
The Rufous Fantail is a summer breeding migrant to southeastern Australia
Rufous Fantail
Rhipidura
rufifrons
(Morcombe, 2004). The Rufous Fantail is found in rainforest, dense wet
—
Mi
eucalypt and monsoon forests, paperbark and mangrove swamps and
riverside vegetation (Morcombe, 2004). Open country may be used by the
Unlikely, suitable habitat not
recorded in study area
Rufous Fantail during migration (Morcombe, 2004).
Forages aerially over a variety of habitats usually over coastal and mountain
White-throated
Hirundapus
Needletail
caudacutus
areas, most likely with a preference for wooded areas (Marchant & Higgins
—
Mi
1993; Simpson & Day 2004). Has been observed roosting in dense foliage of
canopy trees, and may seek refuge in tree hollows in inclement weather
Unlikely, suitable habitat not
recorded in study area
(Marchant & Higgins 1993).
Migratory Wetland species
The Great Egret is common and widespread in Australia (McKilligan, 2005).
Great Egret
Ardea alba
—
Mi
It forages in a wide range of wet and dry habitats including permanent and
Unlikely, suitable habitat not
ephemeral freshwaters, wet pasture and estuarine mangroves and mudflats
recorded in study area
(McKilligan, 2005).
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Warringah Aquatic Centre - Flora and Fauna Assessment
Cattle Egrets forage on pasture, marsh, grassy road verges, rain puddles
and croplands, but not usually in the open water of streams or lakes and they
avoid marine environments (McKilligan, 2005). Some individuals stay close
Cattle Egret
Ardea ibis
—
Mi
to the natal heronry from one nesting season to the next, but the majority
Unlikely, suitable habitat not
leave the district in autumn and return the next spring. Cattle Egrets are
recorded in study area
likely to spend the winter dispersed along the coastal plain and only a small
number have been recovered west of the Great Dividing Range (McKilligan,
2005).
The Eastern Reef Egret is found on the coast and islands of most of
Eastern
Reef
Egretta sacra
-
M
Egret
Australia, but is more common on the Queensland coast and Great Barrier
Unlikely, suitable habitat not
Reef than elsewhere. The Eastern Reef Egret inhabits beaches, rocky
recorded in study area
shores, tidal rivers and inlets, mangroves, and exposed coral reefs
A variety of permanent and ephemeral wetlands, preferring open fresh water
Latham’s Snipe
Gallinago
hardwickii
—
Mi
wetlands with nearby cover. Occupies a variety of vegetation around
Unlikely, suitable habitat not
wetlands including wetland grasses and open wooded swamps (Simpson
recorded in study area
and Day 2004).
Prefers fringes of swamps, dams and nearby marshy areas where there is a
cover of grasses, lignum, low scrub or open timber (OEH 2015b). Nests on
Rostratula
Painted Snipe
benghalensis s.
the ground amongst tall vegetation, such as grasses, tussocks or reeds
—
Mi
(ibid.). Breeding is often in response to local conditions; generally occurs
from September to December (OEH 2015b). Roosts during the day in dense
lat.
Unlikely, suitable habitat not
recorded in study area
vegetation. Forages nocturnally on mud-flats and in shallow water (OEH
2015b). Feeds on worms, molluscs, insects and some plant-matter (ibid.).
Short-tailed
Ardenna
Shearwater
tenuirostris
Wandering
Diomedea
Albatross
exulans
© ECO LOGICAL AUSTRALIA PTY LTD
-
E1
M, Mi
V, M,
Mi
Marine forager
Marine forager
Unlikely, suitable habitat not
recorded in study area
Unlikely, suitable habitat not
recorded in study area
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Warringah Aquatic Centre - Flora and Fauna Assessment
Disclaimer: Data extracted from the Atlas of NSW Wildlife and DE Protected Matters Report are only indicative and cannot be considered a comprehensive inventory.
‘Migratory marine species’ and ‘listed marine species’ listed on the EPBC Act (and listed on the DE protected matters report) have not been included in this table, since they
are considered unlikely to occur within the study area due to the absence of marine habitat.
Threatened Species Conservation Act 1995: E1: Endangered V: Vulnerable CE Critically Endangered E2: Endangered Population
Environment Protection Act 1999: E: Endangered V: Vulnerable Mi: Migratory, M: Marine
© ECO LOGICAL AUSTRALIA PTY LTD
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Warringah Aquatic Centre - Flora and Fauna Assessment
Appendix B : Species list
Flora species list and Duffy’s Forest Index test
Exotic
Family
Species Name
Common Name
/
BB1
BB2
Opportunistic
Native
BB1
DFEC
SSRW
SSGF
BB2
DFEC
SSRW
SSGF
x
Acanthaceae
Brunoniella australis
Blue Trumpet
N
x
Apiaceae
Actinotus minor
Lesser Flannel Flower
N
x
Apiaceae
Centella asiatica
Indian Pennywort
N
x
Apiaceae
Hydrocotyle peduncularis
N
x
Apiaceae
Platysace stephensonii
Platysace
N
Apiaceae
Xanthosia tridentata
Rock Xanthosia
N
Apocynaceae
Parsonsia straminea
Common Silkpod
N
Araliaceae
Polyscias sambucifolia
Elderberry Panax
N
Asteraceae
Olearia microphylla
Casuarinaceae
Allocasuarina littoralis
Black She-oak
N
x
Casuarinaceae
Casuarina glauca
Swamp Oak
N
x
Convolvulaceae
Polymeria calycina
Cunoniaceae
Callicoma serratifolia
Black Wattle
Stephenson's
x
x
x
x
-
x
x
-
x
x
x
N
x
Ceratopetalum
New South Wales
gummiferum
Christmas-bush
N
Cyperaceae
Caustis flexuosa
Curly Wig
N
Cyperaceae
Cyathea australis
Black Tree-fern
N
Cyperaceae
Cyathea cooperi
Straw Treefern
N
x
Cyperaceae
Gahnia clarkei
Tall Saw-sedge
N
x
Cyperaceae
Gahnia radula
x
x
N
Cunoniaceae
© ECO LOGICAL AUSTRALIA PTY LTD
x
x
N
N
x
x
x
+
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
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Warringah Aquatic Centre - Flora and Fauna Assessment
Exotic
Family
Species Name
Common Name
/
BB1
BB2
Opportunistic
Native
BB1
DFEC
SSRW
SSGF
BB2
Lepidosperma laterale
N
Cyperaceae
Lepyrodia scariosa
N
Cyperaceae
Schoenus melanostachys
Cyperaceae
Ptilothrix deusta
Dennstaedtiaceae
Hypolepis muelleri
Harsh Ground Fern
N
Dennstaedtiaceae
Pteridium esculentum
Common Bracken
N
Dilleniaceae
Hibbertia aspera
Rough Guinea Flower
N
x
Dilleniaceae
Hibbertia empetrifolia
N
x
Elaeocarpaceae
Elaeocarpus reticulatus
Blueberry Ash
N
Epacris microphylla
Coast Coral Heath
N
x
Epacris pulchella
Wallum Heath
N
x
N
x
N
SSRW
SSGF
x
Cyperaceae
Black Bog-rush
DFEC
x
x
+
x
+
x
x
N
x
x
x
x
-
x
x
x
Ericaceae Styphelioideae
-
Ericaceae Styphelioideae
x
Ericaceae Styphelioideae
Leucopogon lanceolatus
Euphorbiaceae
Homalanthus populifolius
Bleeding Heart
N
x
x
x
Fabaceae Faboideae
Glycine clandestina
N
x
-
N
x
-
Pultenaea rosmarinifolia
N
x
Acacia binervia
N
Mimosoideae
Acacia elata
N
Fabaceae -
Acacia decurrens
Fabaceae Faboideae
Platylobium formosum
Handsome Flat Pea
Fabaceae Faboideae
Fabaceae Mimosoideae
Fabaceae -
© ECO LOGICAL AUSTRALIA PTY LTD
Black Wattle
N
x
x
x
x
x
x
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Warringah Aquatic Centre - Flora and Fauna Assessment
Exotic
Family
Species Name
Common Name
/
BB1
BB2
Opportunistic
Native
BB1
DFEC
SSRW
SSGF
BB2
DFEC
SSRW
SSGF
Mimosoideae
Fabaceae Mimosoideae
Acacia floribunda
White Sally Wattle
N
Acacia irrorata
Green Wattle
N
x
x
Fabaceae –
Mimosoideae
x
Fabaceae Mimosoideae
x
Acacia linifolia
N
x
Acacia longifolia
N
x
x
x
x
Fabaceae Mimosoideae
Fabaceae Mimosoideae
Acacia mearnsii
Black Wattle
N
Mimosoideae
Acacia myrtifolia
Red-stemmed Wattle
N
Gleicheniaceae
Gleichenia dicarpa
Pouched Coral Fern
N
Haloragaceae
Gonocarpus teucrioides
Raspwort
N
Juncaceae
Juncus usitatus
Lauraceae
Cassytha glabella
Lindsaeaceae
Lindsaea linearis
Screw Fern
Lobeliaceae
Pratia purpurascens
Whiteroot
N
Lomandraceae
Lomandra longifolia
Spiny-headed Mat-rush
N
Lomandraceae
Lomandra obligua
N
Malvaceae
Lasiopetalum ferrugineum
N
Myrtaceae
Angophora costata
Sydney Red Gum
N
Myrtaceae
Corymbia gummifera
Red Bloodwood
N
x
Fabaceae -
x
x
x
N
x
N
x
N
x
x
Myrtaceae
Callistemon linearis
Bottlebrush
N
Myrtaceae
Eucalyptus botryoides
Bangalay
N
-
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
Narrow-leaved
© ECO LOGICAL AUSTRALIA PTY LTD
x
x
x
x
x
x
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Warringah Aquatic Centre - Flora and Fauna Assessment
Exotic
Family
Species Name
Common Name
/
BB1
BB2
Opportunistic
Native
BB1
DFEC
SSRW
SSGF
BB2
DFEC
SSRW
SSGF
Myrtaceae
Eucalyptus haemastoma
Scribbly Gum
N
x
Myrtaceae
Eucalyptus microcorys
Tallowwood
N
x
Myrtaceae
Eucalyptus pilularis
Blackbutt
N
x
Myrtaceae
Eucalyptus punctata
Grey Gum
N
x
Myrtaceae
Eucalyptus resinifera
Red Mahogany
N
Myrtaceae
Eucalyptus saligna
Blue Gum
N
x
Myrtaceae
Eucalyptus sieberi
Silvertop Ash
N
x
Myrtaceae
Kunzea ambigua
Tick-bush
N
x
x
x
x
Leptospermum
x
x
Myrtaceae
polygalifolium
Tantoon
N
Myrtaceae
Leptospermum trinervium
Flaky-barked Tea-tree
N
Myrtaceae
Melaleuca armillaris
Bracelet Honey-myrtle
N
Myrtaceae
Melaleuca styphelioides
Prickly-leaved Tea Tree
N
Orchidaceae
Cryptostylis subulata
Laege Tongue Orchid
N
Oxalidaceae
Oxalis perennans
Phormiaceae
Dianella caerulea var. producta
N
x
x
Phyllanthaceae
Glochidion ferdinandi
N
x
x
Picrodendraceae
Micrantheum ericoides
Pittosporaceae
Pittosporum undulatum
Poaceae
Austrostipa pubescens
Poaceae
Entolasia stricta
Wiry Panic
N
Poaceae
Imperata cylindrica
Blady Grass
N
Poaceae
Microlaena stipoides
Weeping Grass
N
x
x
x
x
N
Cheese Tree
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
N
Native Daphne
N
x
N
x
Australian Basket
Poaceae
Oplismenus aemulus
Grass
N
Poaceae
Oplismenus imbecillis
Creeping Beard Grass
N
© ECO LOGICAL AUSTRALIA PTY LTD
x
x
x
x
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Warringah Aquatic Centre - Flora and Fauna Assessment
Exotic
Family
Species Name
Common Name
/
BB1
BB2
Opportunistic
Native
BB1
DFEC
SSRW
SSGF
BB2
DFEC
SSRW
SSGF
x
Proteaceae
Banksia integrifolia
Coastal Banksia
N
Proteaceae
Banksia marginata
Old-man Banksia
N
x
Proteaceae
Banksia serrata
Old-man Banksia
N
x
Proteaceae
Banksia spinulosa
Hairpin Banksia
N
x
Proteaceae
Grevillea buxifolia
Grey Spider Flower
N
x
Proteaceae
Grevillea linearifolia
Proteaceae
Grevillea sericea
Pink Spider Flower
N
Proteaceae
Hakea sericea
Needlebush
N
Proteaceae
Persoonia laurina
Laurel Geebung
N
Proteaceae
Persoonia levis
Broad-leaf Geebung
N
x
Proteaceae
Lambertia formosa
Mountain Devil
N
x
Proteaceae
Lomatia silaifolia
Crinkle Bush
N
x
Pteridaeae
Adiantum aethiopicum
Ranunculaceae
Clematis aristata
Restionaceae
Empodisma minus
N
x
x
Restionaceae
Lepyrodia scariosa
N
x
x
Rutaceae
Boronia ledifolia
Showy Boronia
N
x
x
Sapindaceae
Dodonaea triquetra
Large-leaf Hop-bush
N
Sapindaceae
Dodonaea viscosa
Sticky Hop-bush
N
Smilacaceae
Smilax glyciphylla
Sweet Sarsaparilla
N
Solanaceae
Solanum aviculare
Kangaroo Apple
N
x
Vitaceae
Cayratia clematidea
Native Grape
N
x
Xanthorrhoeaceae
Xanthorrhoea arborea
Xanthorrhoeaceae
Xanthorrhoea media
Xanthorrhoeaceae
Xanthorrhoea sp.
© ECO LOGICAL AUSTRALIA PTY LTD
N
x
x
x
x
x
+
Grass Tree
N
x
x
x
+
x
x
+
x
x
x
x
x
N
x
N
x
N
x
+
x
N
Old Man's Beard
x
-
+
x
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Warringah Aquatic Centre - Flora and Fauna Assessment
Exotic flora species
Family
Botanic Name
Exotic /
Native
Common Name
BB1
BB2
Opportunistic
Caprifoliaceae
Lonicera japonica
Japanese Honeysuckle
E
Caryophyllaceae
Fabaceae –
Caesalpinioideae
Stellaria media
Senna pendula var.
glabrata
Common Chickweed
E
Liliaceae
Lilium formosanum
Formosan Lily
E
Lomariopsidaceae
Nephrolepis cordifolia
Fishbone Fern
E
Malvaceae
Sida rhombifolia
Paddy's Lucerne
E
Ochnaceae
Ochna serrulata
Mickey Mouse Plant
E
x
Oleaceae
Ligustrum lucidum
Large-leaved Privet
E
x
Oleaceae
Small-leaved Privet
E
Oleaceae
Ligustrum sinense
Olea europaea subsp.
cuspidata
African Olive
E
Oxalidaceae
Oxalis sp.
E
x
Passifloraceae
Passiflora sp.
E
x
Poaceae
Cynodon dactylon
Couch
E
Poaceae
Tussock Paspalum
E
Poaceae
Paspalum quadrifarium
Stenotaphrum
secundatum
Buffalo Grass
E
Solanaceae
Solanum mauritianum
Wild Tobacco Bush
E
Verbenaceae
Lantana camara
Lantana
E
x
x
x
E
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
Fauna Species
Scientific Name
Common Name
Scientific Name
Common Name
Trichoglossus
Birds
Cracticus tibicen
Australian Magpie
haematodus
Rainbow Lorikeet
Corvus coronoides
Australian Raven
Anthochaera carunculata
Red Wattlebird
Eastern Rosella
Neochmia temporalis
Red-browed Finch
Zosterops lateralis
Silvereye
Platycercus eximius
Acanthorhynchus
tenuirostris
Eastern Spinebill
Pardalotus punctatus
Spotted Pardalote
Psophodes olivaceus
Eastern Whipbird
Cacatua galerita
Sulphur-crested Cockatoo
Eopsaltria australis
Eastern Yellow Robin
Malurus lamberti
Variegated Fairy-wren
Pachycephala pectoralis
Golden Whistler
Hirundo neoxena
Welcome Swallow
Cracticus torquatus
Grey Butcherbird
Sericornis frontalis
White-browed Scrubwren
Rhipidura albiscapa
Grey Fantail
Mammals
Dacelo novaeguineae
Laughing Kookaburra
Oryctolagus cuniculus*
European Rabbit
Meliphaga lewinii
Lewin’s Honeyeater
Perameles nasuta
Long-nosed Bandicoot
Anthochaera chrysoptera
Little Wattlebird
Vulpes vulpes*
European Red Fox
Manorina melanocephala
Noisy Miner
Wallabia bicolor
Swamp Wallaby
Strepera graculina
Pied Currawong
© ECO LOGICAL AUSTRALIA PTY LTD
* Denotes introduced species
65
Warringah Aquatic Centre - Flora and Fauna Assessment
Appendix C : Anabat Results
Anabat Results –Warringah Aquatic Centre 15SYD-2177.
2 Anabat nights 8 August – 10 August 2015
Bat calls were analysed using the program AnalookW (Version 3.8 25 October 2012, written by Chris Corben,
www.hoarybat.com). Call identifications were made by Danielle Adams-Bennett and reviewed by Alicia Scanlon
from Eco Logical Australia Pty Ltd who has seven years’ experience using regional based guides to the
echolocation calls of microbats in New South Wales (Pennay et al. 2004); and south-east Queensland and northeast New South Wales (Reinhold et al. 2001) and the accompanying reference library of over 200 calls from
north-eastern NSW. Available: (http://www.forest.nsw.gov.au/research/bats/default.asp).
Bat calls are analysed using species-specific parameters of the call profile such as call shape, characteristic
frequency, initial slope and time between calls (Rinehold et al. 2001). To ensure reliable and accurate results the
following protocols (adapted from Lloyd et. al. 2006) were followed:






Search phase calls were used in the analysis, rather than cruise phase calls or feeding buzzes (McKenzie
et al. 2002)
Recordings containing less than three pulses were not analysed and these sequences were labeled as
short (Law et al. 1999)
Four categories of confidence in species identification were used (Mills et al. 1996):
o definite – identity not in doubt
o probable – low probability of confusion with species of similar calls
o possible – medium to high probability of confusion with species with similar calls
o low – calls made by bats which cannot be identified to even a species group.
Nyctophilus spp. are difficult to identify confidently from their calls and no attempt was made to identify
this genus to species level (Pennay et al. 2004)
Sequences not attributed to microbat echolocation calls were labeled as junk or non-bat calls and don’t
represent microbat activity at the site
Sequences labelled as low or short can be used as an indicator of microbat activity at the site
Anabat detectors were placed adjacent and to the west of the proposed lease area as shown in Figure 6 in the
main report. There were 102 passes recorded from Anabat detectors placed at two sites west of the Warringah
Aquatic Centre between 8 and 10 August 2015. Approximately 89% of passes submitted were able to be
identified to genus or species with the remainder being too short or of low quality preventing positive identification.
There were four species identified including up to two vulnerable species listed under the NSW TSC Act 1995
(Tables 1 – 2, Figures 1 – 4). Of the two threatened species Miniopterus schreibersii oceanensis (Eastern
© ECO LOGICAL AUSTRALIA PTY LTD
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Warringah Aquatic Centre - Flora and Fauna Assessment
Bentwing-bat) was well represented by the number of calls recorded whereas Miniopterus australis (Little
Bentwing-bat) was represented by only two calls.
General microbat activity was very low at site 1 with fewer than one call every ten minutes throughout the night..
Microbat activity was moderate at site 2 with calls recorded on average less often than every two minutes and
more often than every ten minutes throughout the survey period. There were few long sequences or feeding
buzzes recorded in the data set, indicating that the area was not an important foraging resource for microbats at
the time of the survey. Eastern Bentwing-bat and Vespadelus darlingtoni (Large Forest Bat) were the most
commonly recorded species. The remaining species identified were represented by fewer than three calls in total.
The calls of the Eastern Bentwing-bat can often display very similar characteristics to other species such as
Large Forest Bat. Calls of the Eastern Bentwing-bat were distinguished by the irregular pulse shape and time
between calls, lack of an up-sweeping tail and drop in frequency of the pre-characteristic section of more than
2kHz.
Table 7: Site 1 (Anabat01) results from two Anabat nights 8 and 9 August 2015, Warringah Aquatic Centre.
SCIENTIFIC NAME
COMMON NAME
Tadarida australis
White-striped Freetail-bat
DEFINITE PROBABLE POSSIBLE TOTAL
1
1
Short
2
TOTAL
3
Table 8: Site 2 (Anabat02) results from two Anabat nights 8 and 9 August 2015, Warringah Aquatic Centre.
SCIENTIFIC NAME
COMMON NAME
Miniopterus australis
Little Bentwing-bat
Miniopterus
oceanensis*
Eastern Bentwing-bat
DEFINITE PROBABLE POSSIBLE TOTAL
2
schreibersii
9
7
Miniopterus
schreibersii
oceanensis* / Vespadelus Eastern Bentwing-bat / Large
darlingtoni
Forest Bat
© ECO LOGICAL AUSTRALIA PTY LTD
47
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Warringah Aquatic Centre - Flora and Fauna Assessment
Vespadelus darlingtoni
Large Forest Bat
9
9
Low
1
Short
8
TOTAL
11
9
7
99
* Threatened species
© ECO LOGICAL AUSTRALIA PTY LTD
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Warringah Aquatic Centre - Flora and Fauna Assessment
Figure 8: Call profile for Miniopterus australis recorded at Warringah Aquatic Centre at 0249 on 10 August
2015.
Figure 9: Probable call profile for Miniopterus schreibersii oceanensis recorded at Warringah Aquatic
Centre at 0253 on 10 August 2015.
© ECO LOGICAL AUSTRALIA PTY LTD
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Warringah Aquatic Centre - Flora and Fauna Assessment
Figure 10: Possible call profile for Tadaria australis recorded at Warringah Aquatic Centre at 2111 on 9
August 2015.
Figure 11: Call profile for Vespadelus darlingtoni recorded at Warringah Aquatic Centre at 1738 on 8
August 2015.
References
Law, B. S., Anderson, J., and Chidel, M. (1999). ‘Bat communities in a fragmented forest landscape on
the south-west slopes of New South Wales, Australia.’ Biological Conservation 88, 333-345.
© ECO LOGICAL AUSTRALIA PTY LTD
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Warringah Aquatic Centre - Flora and Fauna Assessment
Lloyd, A.M., Law, B.S., and Goldingay, R. (2006) ‘Bat activity on riparian zones and upper slopes in
Australian timber production forests and the effectiveness of riparian buffers.’ Biological Conservation
129, 207-220.
McKenzie, N. L., Stuart, A. N., and Bullen, R. D. (2002). ‘Foraging ecology and organisation of a desert
bat fauna.’ Australian Journal of Zoology 50, 529-548.
Mills, D. J., Norton, T. W., Parnaby, H. E., Cunningham, R. B., and Nix, H. A. (1996). ‘Designing
surveys for microchiropteran bats in complex forest landscapes - a pilot study from south-east
Australia.’ Special issue: Conservation of biological diversity in temperate and boreal forest ecosystems
85, 149-161.
Parnaby, H. (1992). An interim guide to identification of insectivorous bats of south-eastern Australia.
Technical Reports of the Australian Museum Number 8.
Pennay, M., Law, B., and Rhinhold, L. (2004). Bat calls of New South Wales: Region based guide to
echolocation calls of Microchiropteran bats. NSW Department of Environment and Conservation,
Hurstville.
Reinhold, L., Law, B., Ford, G., and Pennay, M. Key to the bat calls of south-east Queensland and
north-east New South Wales. 2001. Queensland, DNR.
© ECO LOGICAL AUSTRALIA PTY LTD
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Warringah Aquatic Centre - Flora and Fauna Assessment
HEAD OFFICE
SYDNEY
HUSKISSON
Suite 2, Level 3
668-672 Old Princes Highway
Sutherland NSW 2232
T 02 8536 8600
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T 02 8536 8650
F 02 9264 0717
Unit 1 51 Owen Street
Huskisson NSW 2540
T 02 4201 2264
F 02 4443 6655
CANBERRA
NEWCASTLE
NAROOMA
Level 2
11 London Circuit
Canberra ACT 2601
T 02 6103 0145
F 02 6103 0148
Suites 28 & 29, Level 7
19 Bolton Street
Newcastle NSW 2300
T 02 4910 0125
F 02 4910 0126
5/20 Canty Street
Narooma NSW 2546
T 02 4476 1151
F 02 4476 1161
COFFS HARBOUR
35 Orlando Street
Coffs Harbour Jetty NSW 2450
T 02 6651 5484
F 02 6651 6890
ARMIDALE
MUDGEE
92 Taylor Street
Armidale NSW 2350
T 02 8081 2681
F 02 6772 1279
Unit 1, Level 1
79 Market Street
Mudgee NSW 2850
T 02 4302 1230
F 02 6372 9230
PERTH
Suite 1 & 2
49 Ord Street
West Perth WA 6005
T 08 9227 1070
F 08 9322 1358
WOLLONGONG
Suite 204, Level 2
62 Moore Street
Austinmer NSW 2515
T 02 4201 2200
F 02 4268 4361
GOSFORD
Suite 5, Baker One
1-5 Baker Street
Gosford NSW 2250
T 02 4302 1220
F 02 4322 2897
DARWIN
16/56 Marina Boulevard
Cullen Bay NT 0820
©
E C 8989
O LOG
ICAL AUSTRALIA
T 08
5601
F 08 8941 1220
PTY
BRISBANE
Suite 1 Level 3
471 Adelaide Street
Brisbane QLD 4000
LTD
T 07 3503 7191
F 07 3854 0310
1300 646 131
www.ecoaus.com.au
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