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Transcript
Cabrera Fest
Kent Irwin,
Superconducting detectors: sensitivity over 8 orders of
magnitude
or
Forget Dark Matter, Blas So Owns the Electromagnetic
Spectrum
NIST quantum sensors program
All the NIST work describe here was done by these folks...
James Beall
Dan Becker
Doug Bennett
Justus Brevik
Hsiao-Mei Cho
Randy Doriese
Lisa Ferreira
Joe Fowler
Anna Fox
Jiansong Gao
Gene Hilton
Rob Horansky
Hannes Hubmayr
Kent Irwin
Vince Kotsubo
Dale Li
Peter Lowell
Ben Mates
Galen O’’Neil
Michael Niemack
Carl Reintsema
Frank Schima
Dan Schmidt
Dan Swetz
Joel Ullom
Jason Underwood
Leila Vale
Jeff Van Lanen
Yizi Xu
Los Alamos collaborators
M. Rabin
M. Croce
A. Hoover
N. Hoteling
P. Karpius
A. Plionis
C. Rudy
D. Vo
Cabrera labs technology is addressing a wide range of questions
••
••
••
••
••
••
••
••
••
••
••
••
••
What is dark matter?
What is dark energy?
Where is the ““missing”” half of ordinary matter?
What is the mass of the neutrino?
What is the nature of the Big Bang? What is inflation? Is it associated with
Grand Unification?
How do stars and galaxies form?
Is our understanding of quantum mechanics correct?
Are there traces of fertilizer or plastic explosives in the trunk of this car?
How do we make 3rd generation photovoltaics more efficient?
Is a particular nation violating nuclear treaties? Can we account for all of
their plutonium? Do we know what it is being used for?
What is this defect in my semiconductor wafer? How can I fix it?
Do we understand the electron structure of a material? What does its
Fermi surface look like?
What country made the nuclear material in this dirty bomb?
Cabrera labs alumni are addressing a wide range of questions
••
••
••
••
••
••
••
••
••
••
••
••
••
What is dark matter? CDMS, CMB detectors, x-ray detectors
What is dark energy? CMB, submillimeter, x-ray
Where is the ““missing”” half of ordinary matter? X-ray search for ““WHIM””
What is the mass of the neutrino? CMB, endpoint experiments
What is the nature of the Big Bang? What is inflation? Is it associated with
Grand Unification? CMB polarization
How do stars and galaxies form? Submillimeter dust
Is our understanding of quantum mechanics correct? Visible photons
Are there traces of fertilizer or plastic explosives in the trunk of this car?
Synchrotron x-ray emission spectroscopy
How do we make 3rd generation photovoltaics more efficient?
Near-edge x-ray absorption fine structure
Is a particular nation violating nuclear treaties? Can we account for all of
their plutonium? Do we know what it is being used for?
Gamma-ray spectroscopy
What is this defect in my semiconductor wafer? How can I fix it?
Soft x-ray spectroscopy (now commercial!)
Do we understand the electron structure of a material? What does its
Fermi surface look like? ~100 keV x-ray Compton spectroscopy
What country made the nuclear material in this dirty bomb? Alpha
spectroscopy for nuclear forensics
Where are TESs useful in the electromagnetic spectrum?
•• Below 40 GHz, the universe is classical (many photons per mode).
•• For *most* applications, with classical fields, you want an amplifier.
Classical
universe
Quantum
universe
TESs are seldom useful below 40 GHz
•• Below 40 GHz, the universe is classical (many photons per mode).
•• For *most* applications, with classical fields, you want a coherent
detector (e.g. linear amplifier), not a photon detector.
Classical
universe
Quantum
universe
Below 40 GHz the Universe is classical
Below 40 GHz, the universe is classical (many photons per mode).
The Universe has a temperature of about T=2.7 K (the afterglow of the
Big Bang).
The number of photons is determined by the temperature through
Bose-Einstein statistics:
There are more than 1 photon per mode in the universe below ~40 GHz
Linear amplifiers add 0.5 photon of noise, which doesn’’t matter for
classical (many photon) modes.
It is too hard for TESs to stop photons above a few hundred keV
•• Below 40 GHz, the universe is classical (many photons per mode).
•• For *most* applications, with classical fields, you want an amplifier.
Classical
amplifiers
Too
hard
TESs!!!
Absorption across the spectrum
Submm: resonant
cavity absorbers
CMB: feedhorns with
lithographic OMT
Soft x-ray: Bi thin fims
Near IR & optical: TES
with antireflection coating
(Sae Woo, Blas..)
Gamma-ray: thick
superconducting foil
Adrian talked about millimeter waves (CMB)
Submm: resonant
cavity absorbers
CMB: feedhorns with
lithographic OMT
Soft x-ray: Bi thin fims
Near IR & optical: TES
with antireflection coating
(Sae Woo, Blas..)
Gamma-ray: thick
superconducting foil
Low energy advantage: bolometers
Bolometers measure power by converting it to heat
TES bolometers used for astronomy provide a combination of
1. background-limited noise and 2. large arrays
SCUBA-2 submillimeter camera
South Pole Telescope
polarimeter arrays:
(90 GHz from ANL, 150 GHz
from NIST)
Sae Woo talked about visible
Submm: resonant
cavity absorbers
CMB: feedhorns with
lithographic OMT
Soft x-ray: Bi thin fims
Near IR & optical: TES
with antireflection coating
(Sae Woo, Blas..)
Gamma-ray: thick
superconducting foil
I’’ll talk about x-ray/J-ray
Submm: resonant
cavity absorbers
CMB: feedhorns with
lithographic OMT
Soft x-ray: Bi thin fims
Near IR & optical: TES
with antireflection coating
(Sae Woo, Blas..)
Gamma-ray: thick
superconducting foil
High energy advantage: calorimeters
TES calorimeters can provide a unique combination of very high
spectral resolution and efficiency
energydispersive
gamma-ray
detectors
TES
239Pu
240Pu
Cabrera labs technology is answering a huge range of questions
••
••
••
••
••
••
••
••
••
••
••
••
••
What is dark matter?
What is dark energy?
Where is the ““missing”” half of ordinary matter?
What is the mass of the neutrino?
What is the nature of the Big Bang? What is inflation? Is it associated with
Grand Unification?
How do stars and galaxies form?
Is our understanding of quantum mechanics correct?
Are there traces of fertilizer or plastic explosives in the trunk of this car?
How do we make 3rd generation photovoltaics more efficient?
Is a particular nation violating nuclear treaties? Can we account for all of
their plutonium? Do we know what it is being used for?
What is this defect in my semiconductor wafer? How can I fix it?
Do we understand the electron structure of a material? What does its
Fermi surface look like?
What country made the nuclear material in this dirty bomb?
Deployed NIST x-ray / J-ray systems
Lund University, Lund Sweden
NASA Goddard, Greenbelt, MD
NIST Gaithersburg, Gaithersburg MD
STAR Cryoelectronics, Santa Fe, NM
Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos NM
Jyväskylä University, Finland
National Synchrotron Light Source,
Brookhaven, NY
Cabrera labs technology is answering a huge range of questions
••
••
••
••
••
••
••
••
••
••
••
••
••
What is dark matter?
What is dark energy?
Where is the ““missing”” half of ordinary matter?
What is the mass of the neutrino?
What is the nature of the Big Bang? What is inflation? Is it associated with
Grand Unification?
How do stars and galaxies form?
Is quantum mechanics accurate?
Are there traces of fertilizer or plastic explosives in the trunk of this car?
How do we make 3rd generation photovoltaics more efficient?
Is a particular nation violating nuclear treaties? Can we account for all of
their plutonium? Do we know what it is being used for?
What is this defect in my semiconductor wafer? How can I fix it?
Do we understand the electron structure of a material? What does its
Fermi surface look like?
What country made the nuclear material in this dirty bomb?
Are there traces of fertilizer or plastic explosives in the trunk of this car?
•• X-ray spectrometer that can accommodate 256 pixels deployed to
National Synchrotron Light Source (Brookhaven, NY)
•• ~40 pixels active now
50 mK stage and 3
concentric
radiation shields
that go through 6””
ConFlat flange
Ullom, Doriese et al., NIST
Are there traces of fertilizer or plastic explosives in the trunk of this car?
Chemical-shift XES provides answers
scatteredbeam
N
C
NISTiscatalogingemissionspectra
of““energeticnitrogen
compounds””forSEManalysisof
criminalforensicsamples.
O
•• RDX:majorcomponentofC4
plasticexplosive
•• ammoniumnitrate(fertilizer;can
beusedtobuildfertilizerbombs)
N
[email protected]
(wellaboveNedge).
C(dirt)
O
Chemical-shift XES can discriminate nitrogen chemical state
scatteredbeam
N
C
O
RDXspectrumacquiredin22
min.
N
NH4NO3 spectrumacquiredin
29min.
C(dirt)
O
Chemical-shift XES can discriminate nitrogen chemical state
scatteredbeam
N
C
O
zoominonnitrogenpeakin
eachspectrum:
N
C(dirt)
O
Chemical-shift XES can discriminate nitrogen chemical state
RDXisclearlydistinguishable
fromNH4NO3.
Are there traces of fertilizer or plastic explosives in the trunk of this car?
further,NH4NO3 hasfour
resolvablefeaturesthatare
associatedwith:
2
1
••NH4+ (highlyreduced)
(2,3)
3
••NO3–– (highlyoxidized)
(1,3,4)
4
(featureID’’sfromF.D.Vila,etal.,
JPhys.Chem.A,115,3243Ͳ3250[2011])
Whycan’’tyoudothiswithagratingspectrometer?
Itis1000timesslower(butalittlebetterresolution)
ALS 8 VLS
Grating
spectrometer
Solid angle
1.6 10-5 of 4ʌ sr
(less for any single E)
103 pixel TES
2 10-3 of 4ʌ srSi
Efficiency
about 5%
7.5% at C K
33% at N K
58% at O K
E/ǻE
> 1.2 103
about 5 102
grating#’’sfromFuchs,RSI,2009
Whycan’’tyoudothiswithacrystalspectrometer?
Itisalso1000timesslower(butalittlebetterresolution)
ESRF ID26
Crystal
spectrometer
103 pixel TES
Solid angle
1.6 10-3 of 4ʌ sr
Efficiency
about 10%
(also, must scan)
100%
E/ǻE
around 104
3-4 103
crystal#’’sfromP.Glatzel
2 10-2 of 4ʌ srSi
Cabrera labs technology is answering a wide range of questions
••
••
••
••
••
••
••
••
••
••
••
••
••
What is dark matter?
What is dark energy?
Where is the ““missing”” half of ordinary matter?
What is the mass of the neutrino?
What is the nature of the Big Bang? What is inflation? Is it associated with
Grand Unification?
How do stars and galaxies form?
Is our understanding of quantum mechanics correct?
Are there traces of fertilizer or plastic explosives in the trunk of this car?
How do we make 3rd generation photovoltaics more efficient?
Is a particular nation violating nuclear treaties? Can we account for all of
their plutonium? Do we know what it is being used for?
What is this defect in my semiconductor wafer? How can I fix it?
Do we understand the electron structure of a material? What does its
Fermi surface look like?
What country made the nuclear material in this dirty bomb?
What is this defect in my semiconductor wafer? How can I fix it?
•• Electron beam-induced X-ray fluorescence is a ubiquitous
tool for determining elemental composition on SEMs and
TEMs
•• TES X-ray detectors can provide ~ 50x better resolution
than Silicon Drift detectors (SDDs)
•• We have designed a SEM-mounted TES spectrometer.
Now a commercial product for STAR Cryoelectronics.
Cryogen-free
spectrometer
with 16 TES
X-ray array ––
STAR
Cryoelectronic
s
Commercial STAR spectrometer helps answer the question
Conventional detectors do not have the energy resolution to tell apart W M-lines
From Si K-lines.
W
Si
Real-time X-ray map from STAR TES
Cabrera labs technology is answering a huge range of questions
••
••
••
••
••
••
••
••
••
••
••
••
••
What is dark matter?
What is dark energy?
Where is the ““missing”” half of ordinary matter?
What is the mass of the neutrino?
What is the nature of the Big Bang? What is inflation? Is it associated with
Grand Unification?
How do stars and galaxies form?
Is quantum mechanics accurate?
Are there traces of fertilizer or plastic explosives in the trunk of this car?
How do we make 3rd generation photovoltaics more efficient?
Is a particular nation violating nuclear treaties? Can we account for all of
their plutonium? Do we know what it is being used for?
What is this defect in my semiconductor wafer? How can I fix it?
Do we understand the electron structure of a material? What does its
Fermi surface look like?
What country made the nuclear material in this dirty bomb?
New analytical tools are needed for nuclear safeguards
About 96 % (>600 tons) of the all the Pu under international
safeguards is in spent fuel.
Is it all where it is supposed to be?
Is any of it missing?
Current IAEA Methods
J spectroscopy
Gross neutron
Calorimetry
Computer models
Operator’s reactor history
Limited destructive analysis
Containment and surveillance
Spent fuel in North Korean cooling pond
New analytical tools are needed for nuclear safeguards
About 96 % (>600 tons) of the all the Pu under international
safeguards is in spent fuel.
Is it all where it is supposed to be?
Is any of it missing?
Current IAEA Methods
J spectroscopy
Gross neutron
Without detailed knowledge of the
Calorimetry
reactor history, or extensive
Computer models
analysis, the quantity of
Operator’s destructive
reactor history
Limited destructive
Pu in analysis
spent nuclear fuel cannot
Containment and presently
surveillancebe determined
Spent fuel in North Korean cooling pond
TES detectors are a new tool for analysis of nuclear materials
TES
239Pu
240Pu
How do you stop and thermalize J-rays?
2nd generation pixel design (inverted)
1 mm
transport layer
‘‘bulk’’ Sn absorber to stop Ȗ’’s
TES
post
&
glue
TES
thermometer
153Gd
spectrum
22 eV
FWHM
153Gd
22 eV FWHM at 97 keV
•• resolving power = 4430, 0.023%.
The highest resolving power of any
non-dispersive photon detector of any
kind.
•• simple, Gaussian detector response
•• ten times better than conventional
Previously pioneered at
LLNL: D.T.Chow et al., NIM
444, 196––200 (2000).
Arrays with glued Sn absorbers
1
TES sensors (grey)
3
5
epoxy pillars
Si wafer with SiNx top layer
deep reactive ion
etch to free TESs
TESs and absorbers
glued together
‘stamp printing’
2
4
Si wafer spin-coated with glue
umachined Si ‘egg crate’ with
Sn absorbers
6
complete sensor array
Arrays with glued Sn absorbers
2005
2008
2006
Now
Full J-ray spectrometer
•• 256 pixel TES gamma-ray spectrometer. Active area = 5.76 cm2, similar to
planar germanium sensor. World’’s largest calorimeter array.
•• To absorb gamma-rays, bulk Sn absorbers are hybridized to thin-film TES
circuitry.
J-ray spectrum of a Pu isotopic mixture
Microcal PIDIE-3 spectrum with 30 million counts
J-ray spectrum of a Pu isotopic mixture
Microcal PIDIE-3 spectrum with 30 million counts
J-ray spectrum of a Pu isotopic mixture
Microcal PIDIE-3 spectrum with 30 million counts
J-ray spectrum of a Pu isotopic mixture
Microcal PIDIE-3 spectrum with 30 million counts
J-ray spectrum of a Pu isotopic mixture
Microcal PIDIE-3 spectrum with 30 million counts
Two important lines
U KD1
241Am
241Pu
239Pu
339
eV
171
eV
Pu KD1
68
eV
Can we begin to answer safeguards questions?
Work in progress……
Example #1: measured
isotopic ratio vs # counts
Example #2: uncertainty on
4 isotopic ratios for 4
samples
HPGe
known value
ȝcal
Submitted to IEEE Transaction on Nuclear Science
TES uncertainty can be 2-3×
smaller for some ratios and
some samples
Why the extraordinary range of Blas’’ impact?
••
••
••
••
••
••
••
••
••
••
••
••
••
What is dark matter?
What is dark energy?
Where is the ““missing”” half of ordinary matter?
What is the mass of the neutrino?
What is the nature of the Big Bang? What is inflation? Is it associated with
Grand Unification?
How do stars and galaxies form?
Is quantum mechanics accurate?
Are there traces of fertilizer or plastic explosives in the trunk of this car?
How do we make 3rd generation photovoltaics more efficient?
Is a particular nation violating nuclear treaties? Can we account for all of
their plutonium? Do we know what it is being used for?
What is this defect in my semiconductor wafer? How can I fix it?
Do we understand the electron structure of a material? What does its
Fermi surface look like?
What country made the nuclear material in this dirty bomb?
The intellectual power of Blas’’ approach
••
••
••
••
••
Deep physical intuition
Driving curiosity
Stubbornness
A diverse bag of condensed matter tricks
Consistent (sometimes infuriating) insistence on
modeling everything
Even more important aspects of Blas’’ approach
••
••
••
••
Focus on instruction
Major investment in guidance and mentorship for
his students
His extraordinary stubbornness forces his students
to find solutions, often against their will
Unparalleled generosity