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UNIVERSITY OF NATURAL MEDICINE
Sick Soil, Sick Plants, Sick People
By:
Spice Williams-Crosby
Submitted to:
Dr. Ellen Tart-Jensen
Dr. Mark Smith
University of Natural Medicine
In partial fulfillment for the requirements of the Doctoral Degree in Natural Science
ii
Declaration
This is declared that this is original work which the author of this paper has
produced on the subject. Further, this paper is produced for the fulfillment of the degree
requirement for a Doctorate in Natural Science.
iii
ABSTRACT
Survival is built into the DNA of all living things, including soil and plants which
play a very important part in the survival of animals and humans. Without soil,
humankind wouldn‘t have anything to stand on, trees and crops wouldn‘t grow, and there
would be no place to store nature‘s heat, water, and carbon dioxide. Although taken for
granted by most people, soil is just as important as any other living element on planet
Earth. In the words of the Greek philosopher Xenophanes, "For all things come from
earth, and all things end by becoming earth." Just like people, soil and plants need certain
nutrients to grow and to fend off disease. Soil is the foundation of the food system, and
like all living substances, it needs to be respected and nourished. Healthy soil results in
healthy plants and healthy people.
Today, people are suffering from dangerous nutrient deficiencies, and there is an
ever-increasing number of Americans that are becoming afflicted with a new breed of
diseases, conditions, and multiple syndromes. Because these maladies have worsened
within the last 150 years, it must be considered that diet and environmental factors play a
major role in this unfortunate situation. Mortality rates have increased despite the last 30
years of health awareness (i.e., exercise, organic foods, supplements, and regular medical
checkups). The state of nutritional deficiency, along with environmental toxicity, is
becoming epidemic in its proportions. While some modern technology is allowing people
to live longer, other technology is, unfortunately, systematically robbing man of the very
nutrients that the human body needs to strengthen its own immune system and fight off
disease. It is a huge problem that cannot be remedied until the depleted soils from which
our foods come from are brought back into proper mineral balance!
Plants need rich soil, filled with probiotics and minerals in order to flourish. But
in today‘s world, plants have become malnourished and corporate America has tried to
iv
remedy the problem by using carcinogenic toxins rather than do what is really right by
replenishing the soils with God-given nutrients. Soils are lacking minerals, living microorganisms, and fulvic acids, and they have further been poisoned by polluted air,
chemical fertilizers, pesticides, herbicides, and dumping. The truth is that insects do not
eat healthy plants, and disease preys on the undernourished. Therefore, mankind must
turn to the soil if it has any intention of taking its power back. The simplest way to
address the depleted soil problem is to "repair" it by remineralization, and by using
organic waste products to put back those very nutrients that are necessary for plant and
human health.
This study tested the growth patterns of wheatgrass and lettuce in
mineral/probiotics verses regular soil to determine the benefits to the crop. Upon initial
testing of the experimental plants utilizing a Brix meter, the organic soils have rendered a
much higher nutritional reading than their chemical-ridden counterparts, and only the
plants that have suffered an insect infestation were those that have been planted in
synthetic soil and basic dirt. In some testing with the basic dirt, there were no results
because the seeds would not germinate at all.
Farmers have known for a very long time that certain substances such as bat
guano and nitrogen fixing legumes, when added to the soil, improves overall production.
Although these are now called fertilizers, for reasons of cost and ease of use, chemical
fertilizers have replaced natural ones. And even though plants may not be able to
distinguish the difference between the two, artificial fertilizers can easily be overused,
resulting in damage to our soils, rivers, and oceans. Based on these findings, it has been
shown that the soil is so much more than just an anchor for plants to grow from. It is a
living, breathing environment that if carefully tended to will continue to provide healthy
vibrating crop yields for years to come, despite intense planting practices. These findings
v
also indicated that if the soil is regularly replenished with organic matter, nutrients,
minerals, and probiotics, it will help to ensure that the food that is harvested is truly
nutritional. On the other hand, poor soil management will result in more plant diseases,
declining production levels, poor water percolation and moisture retention, and crops that
have no nutritional value. In the long run, it is less expensive and much easier to cure
sick soil than sick people.
vi
Acknowledgement
I heartedly acknowledge and thank my dear friend, Wayne Blakeley, who‘s entire
life has been devoted to educating others about the soil of our country and how to make it
alive and bio-available for plants. He hooked me on this subject when he stated, ―Ya
know, insects don‘t eat healthy plants.‖ I also want to acknowledge my deepest
appreciation for the guidance and unconditional help I received from my close friend and
colleague, Dr. Elliott Haimoff, world-renowned tropical biologist and animal behaviorist.
He opened my mind to all my possibilities in order to write a valuable dissertation and
guiding me through my research project. Without Dr. Mary DeLongis, I wouldn‘t have
any hair left in my head! She has always been there for me throughout my journey and as
always, just a phone call away! And not to forget my husband of 26 years, Gregory
Crosby, who has developed the uncanny ability to deal with me when I freak out and still
love me as he is guiding me through what he claims I don‘t have, ―common sense!‖
vii
Table of Contents
Abstract
iii
Table of Contents
vii
List of Figures
xi
List of Tables
ix
Chapter One – Introduction
1
1.1Background
1
1.2 Modern Times
7
1.3 Purpose of Study
9
1.4 Objective of Study
9
1.5 Study Structure
9
1.6 Final
10
Chapter Two – Methods
11
2.1 Introduction
11
2.2 Materials
11
2.2.1 Soil
12
2.2.2 Lettuce Seeds
15
2.2.3 Wheatgrass Seeds
16
2.2.4 Equipment
16
2.2.5 Water and pH
20
Chapter Three – Lettuce Trials
22
3.1 Results
22
3.1.1 Growth rate of lettuce
24
3.1.2 Second planting of lettuce
24
3.1.3 Sprouts separated
26
3.1.4 Variable Trial
27
3.1.5 Insects
28
3.2 Testing of Lettuce
3.2.1 Miracle-Gro Garden Soil (MGGS)
30
30
viii
3.2.2 Miracle-Gro Potting Soil (MGPS)
32
3.2.3 Basic Dirt
33
3.2.4 Organic Kellogs with Living Earth Minerals
34
3.2.5 Variable Trial – ―Water Trial‖
35
3.3 Statistics – The Mann -Whitney U Test
36
3.3.1 Lettuce Statistics
3.4 Conclusion
Chapter Four – Wheatgrass Trials
36
36
38
4.1 Results
38
4.2 First wheatgrass trials testing
39
4.2.1 Testing on the organic Kellogg Garden plants
40
4.2.2 Testing on the Basic Dirt plants
41
4.2.3 Testing on Synthetic Miracle-Gro Potting Soil
41
4.2.4 Testing on Synthetic Miracle-Grow Garden Soil
46
4.2.5 Brix Meter average for all the wheatgrass plants
42
4.3 Second wheatgrass trials
43
4.3.1 Second trial wheatgrass measurements
44
4.3.2 Wheatgrass Growth Messurements
45
4.3.3 Calibration of Brix Meter
46
4.3.4 Testing on wheatgrass plants
47
4.3.5 Brix Meter average on wheatgrass
47
4.4 Third wheatgrass trial
48
4.4.1 Variable Trial with Basic Dirt
48
4.4.2 Wheatgrass growth
50
4.4.3 Calibration of Brix Meter
51
4.4.4 Brix Meter reading on wheatgrass
51
4.4.5 Brix Meter average reading of wheatgrass
52
ix
4.4.6 Variable Trial Brix Meter reading
52
4.5 Statistics – The Mann -Whitney U Test
53
4.5.1 Wheatgrass statistics
4.6 Conclusion
Chapter Five
5.1 Discussion
53
54
55
56
5.1.1 Soil Erosion
56
5.1.2 Loss of Minerals
58
5.1.3 Lack of Trace Minerals
62
5.1.4 Lack of Probiotics
66
5.2 Sick Soil, Sick Plants
68
5.3 Chemicals
75
5.3.1 Pesticides
77
5.3.2 DDT
79
5.3.3 Dioxin
81
5.3.4 Fluoride
84
5.4 Sick Soil, Sick People
93
5.4.1 Cancer and Selenium
93
5.4.2 Deficiency of Selenium
95
5.4.3 Heart Disease
98
5.4.4 Deficiency of Magnesium
101
5.4.5 Diabetes and Chromium
104
5.4.6 Deficiency of Chromium
109
5.4.7 Thyroid and Iodine
112
5.4.8 Fluorinated Pesticides
113
x
5.5 Genetically Modified Organisms
114
5.5.1 Glyphosate
115
5.5.2 Glyphosate in soil
116
5.5.3 Estrogen Toxicity
119
5.6 Solution
119
APENDEX I
122
APENDEX II
124
References
125
xi
List of Figures
Page
Figure
1
MAIZE
4
2
TEST SOILS
13
3
SET OF TEST SOILS FOR TRIALS
15
4
LETTUCE SEEDS USED IN TRIALS
15
5
WHEATGRASS SEEDS USED IN TRIALS
16
6
LIVING EARTH MINERALS WITH PROBIOTICS
17
7
BRIX METER
19
8
LITMUS PAPER FOR PH
20
9
CHEMICAL POOL TEST FOR PH
20
10
AQUACHEK TRU-TEST FOR WATER ALKALINITY
21
11
LETTUCE SPROUTS
22
12
SPROUTS IN ORGANIC SOIL
22
13
POTS MOVED
23
14
SHADED AREA FOR LETTUCE POTS
23
15
TRANSFERRED SPROUTS TO INDIVIDUAL POTS
24
16
SPROUTS GROWTH MEASURED ON 22ND DAY
25
17
SPROUTS GROWTH MEASURED ON 25ND DAY
25
18
GROWTH AND NO GROWTH
26
19
LETTUCE SPROUT IN POT #3
26
20
ALL SPROUTS SEPARATED OUT
26
21
SHADED SUNSCREEN
27
22
LETTUCE GROWTH COOLER WEATHER
28
23
INSECTS
28
24
INSECT DAMAGE
29
25
SEVIN INSECTICIDE
29
26
LETTUCE LEAF
30
xii
27
CALIBRATION OF BRIX METER FOR MGGS
31
28
BRIX METER READING ON MGGS
31
29
CALIBRATION OF BRIX METER FOR MGPS
32
30
BRIX READING ON MGPS
32
31
CALIBRATION OF BRIX METER FOR BASIC DIRT
33
32
BRIX READING ON BASIC DIRT
33
33
CALIBRATION OF ORGANIC KELLOGG SOIL
34
34
BRIX READING ON ORGANIC KELLOGG SOIL
34
35
BRIX READING ON VARIABLE TRIAL
35
36
FRIST WHEATGRASS TRIAL
38
37
WHEATGRASS GROWTH
39
38
WHEATGRASS SPROUTS
39
39
JUICER FOR TESTING
40
40
CALIBRATION OF BRIX METER FOR WHEATGRASS
40
41
BRIX METER READING OF KELLOGG ORGANIC SOIL
40
42
BRIX METER READING OF BASIC DIRT
41
43
BRIX METER READING OF MGPS
41
44
BRIX METER READING OF MGGS
42
45
SECOND WHEATGRASS TRIAL
44
46
GROWTH OF WHEATGRASS
44
47
WHEATGRASS SPROUTS MEASURED
45
48
SPROUTS GROWTH AND NO GROWTH
45
49
ORGANIC KELLOGG WHEATGRASS MESSURED
45
50
NO GROW TO MEASURE ON BASIC DIRT
46
51
MGPS WHEATGRASS GROWTH MEASURED
46
52
MGGS WHEATGRASS GROWTH MEASURED
46
53
BRIX METER READING ON ORGANIC KELLOGG
46
54
BRIX METER READING ON BASIC DIRT
47
55
BRIX METER READING ON MGPS
47
xiii
56
BRIX METER READING ON MGGS
47
57
THIRD WHEATGRASS TRIAL
48
58
VARIABLE TRIAL ON BASIC DIRT AND MINERALS
48
59
WHEATGRASS SPROUT GROWTH
49
60
WHEATGRASS SPROUTS IN FOUR DAYS
49
61
WHEATGRASS GROWTH MEASURED
50
62
GROWTH OF ORGANIC KELLOGG MEASURED
50
63
NO GROWTH OF BASIC DIRT
50
64
GROWTH OF MGPS
51
65
GROWTH OF MGGS
51
66
CALIBRATION OF BRIX METER
51
67
BRIX METER READING ON ORGANIC WHEATGRASS
51
68
BRIX METER READING ON BASIC DIRT
52
69
BRIX METER READING ON MGPS
52
70
BRIX METER READING ON MGGS
52
71
VARIABLE TRIAL BRIX METER READING
53
72
VARIABLE TRIAL WHEATGRASS MEASUREMENT
53
73
BRIX METER READING ON BASIC DIRT WITH MINERAL
53
74
DUST BOWL
58
75
BOVIS
59
76
NEMATODE
67
77
DDT
80
78
DIOXIN
82
79
SULFURYL FLUORIDE
92
80
SPERM COUNT
96
81
CORONARY HEART DISEASE
101
82
GLYPHOSATE
115
83
WHEAT FIELD AFTER GLYPHOSATE USE
116
84
GLYPHOSATE MOLECULE
117
xiv
85
FUSARIUM
118
xv
List of Tables
Table
Page
1
ESSENTIAL ELEMENTS
1
2
MINERAL DEPLETION PAST 100 YEARS
62
3
TRACE ELEMENTS
63
4
COMPARISON CHART OF MINERALS IN EUROPE
72
5
FOOD SOURCES FOR SELENIUM
98
6
PHYSICAL SIGNS OF LOW MAGNESIUM
102
7
SOURCES OF DIETARY CHROMIUM
110
1
Chapter 1 - INTRODUCTION
1.1 Background
When the soils can no long bare produce, then there will be a need to find a way to
feed out of test tubes. This was a fear of many who saw the destruction of the farming lands
and knew someday the human race would be in trouble.
Oxygen, nitrogen, carbon, hydrogen, phosphorus and sulfur compounds and the
metals potassium, sodium, magnesium and calcium were all found in the primordial seas.
Ammonia and carbon dioxide formed into amino acids which catalyzed by magnesium and
trace metals of manganese or zinc, combined in long chains to make proteins. ―Growth is the
first requisite of life, reproduction the second‖ (Schroeder, 1973). The seas were filled with
living matter which began to contribute to life and to this day, those elements are needed to
grow plants. If it wasn‘t for the plants converting a carbon-dioxide-rich atmosphere into an
oxygen-rich atmosphere, humans, animals, and insects could not survive.
Table 1
Essential bulk elements in sea water and in the earth‘s crust.
Note. Plants used all of the eight bulk or major elements in sea water for their
structures and chemical reaction. Table from Trace Elements and Man
Although thousands of plants and animals existed millions of years ago, man has only
domesticated 200 plants and about 50 animal species. To be considered domesticated, a
2
population of plants must have their behavior, life cycle, or appearance significantly altered
as a result of being under human control for multiple generations (Conservation Biology,
2001). Today, our important staples include 12 to 13 plant crops and almost all of these are
grains, such as wheat, rice, and corn. All domesticated from wild grasses by deliberate
cultivation of their seeds. During the Paleolithic period from at least 2.5 million years ago to
about 8,000 BC, people began to hunt, fish, and gather their foods. Hence, the term, ―Hunters
and Gatherers.‖ They hunted mammoths, buffalo, rabbits, birds, fish, sheep, and goats and as
for fruits and plants there were berries and other fruits when found, depending on the climate
and terrain, along with nuts and acorns. They had no comprehension of growing their foods.
It was either available or came from their efforts of hunting. They may have only spent two
days a week looking for things to eat, but their lives were truly ruled by food. As they moved
about, they would have to take all their possessions with them, which would mostly include a
knife, spear, bow and arrows, baskets, and some sort of clothing they made for themselves.
(Standage, 2009).
As humans began to create families and tribes, it was necessary for them to develop
tools to help them bring more food back to the principal unit. From about 11,000 to 8.000
BC, flint-edged wooden sickles were used to gather wild grains that would be stored in caves.
Various areas of the world were showing signs of developing their civilization. Sheep were
the first to be domesticated in the Near East. These are countries of Western Asia between the
Mediterranean Sea and Iran. Surprisingly, in human history to date, only 12 species of large
animals have proven capable of domestication. In approximate order of their earliest
domestication these are: dog, sheep, goat, pig, cow, horse, donkey, water buffalo, llama,
alpaca, camel and elephant. Dogs were the first animals to be tamed for hunting.
During the Mesolithic period (10,000 to 8000 B.C), groups of people began to
practice natural plant husbandry by a method called ―broadcasting seeds‖ and then waiting
3
for the harvest. Once the seedling became ready for harvest, a crude tool used to reap the
grain was a halt of bone, wood, or antler fitted with a small sharp blade of stone.
It wasn‘t until the 6,500 to 3,500 BC, in the Near East and Europe that the practice of
cultivating plants became established. As the world began to progress, Asia, Mesoamerica
and Peru began to establish their practice for cultivating plants to feed their people.
Mesoamerica was a region extending south and east from central Mexico to include parts of
Guatemala, Belize, Honduras, and Nicaragua. In pre-Columbian times it was inhabited by the
Mayan and the Olmec Indians. What they knew was that the most important area to cultivate
their plants for eating was located in river valleys having semi-arid climates.
As we move into the Neolithic period (10,700 to 9400 BC), the process of cultivation
in the ―Old World‖ otherwise known as the New Stone Age, involved preparing the soil by
harrowing. Harrowing is the breaking down and smoothing the soil with a tree branch. Then
with a stick plow, the chosen seeds would be planted. In Mesoamerica, there were no draft
animals to help them plow and the chief grain was maize. This product, corn, needed
individual planting and a plow-less form of cultivation developed, whereby a digging stick
was used to make holes into which the seeds were dropped.
The nomadic ―hunter and gatherer‖ had evolved to cultivator which allowed the
people to establish permanent villages because they had a reliable food supply close at hand.
Because more people were freed from having to provide food for their individual families and
clan, many were able to develop technologies and services that led to the shift from farming
communities to towns and eventually agricultural-based civilizations were born.
The region between the Tigris and Euphrates rivers, today known as Iraq was once
called Mesopotamia. The people of this region began cultivating their foods around 9,000
BC. The wheel was invented and used with pulleys to draw water from artificial canals in a
complex irrigation system the people had constructed. The Mesopotamians were now able to
4
raise wheat and other cereal grains. They relied on the water and fertile silt of the Nile. The
Egyptians irrigated their land to ensure large crops of wheat, barley, and flax which was the
basis for their agriculture.
In Northern India, the Indus civilization, which existed from about 2,300 to 1,750 BC,
raised wheat, barley, and rice. They also grew such plants as cotton, sesame, tea, and
sugarcane. The farmers learned to use plows, designed effective irrigation systems, and built
large granaries. Just like the people among the river valleys of China, they learned how to
cultivate soybeans, oranges, peaches, pears, hemp, and tea. They also practiced intensive
gardening and excelled at flower horticulture.
Eventually, from 7,000 to 5,000 BC, Mesoamerica became known as Mexico and
Central America. The people began to domesticate gourds, peppers, avocados, and grains like
amaranth. From ―hunters and gatherers‖ to semi-agriculturists, they learned how to
domesticate maize at around 2,500 BC. However, in Mexico and Central America, from 250
AD to 1,600 AD, the Maya-Toltec-Aztec civilization hybridized corn to increase yields. At
this time, corn, or maize was domesticated from a wild grass called teosinte in Mexico.
Teosinte looks so different from corn that it was originally classified in a separate genus and
its role in corn. The ears, being closer to the ground, end up closer to the nutrient supply and
can potentially grow much larger (Standage, 2009)
Figure 1. Progession from teosinte to proto-maize and modern maize.
Photo from The Edible Foundations of Civilization
5
As primitive farmers gathered ears of a new kind of maize, they gave preference to
plants with larger ears. Kernels from those ears would then have been used as seeds. In this
way, mutations that resulted in larger ears with more kernels were propagated, so that the ears
grew larger from one generation to the next and became corn cobs (Standage, 2009).
Once they learned how to accomplish this cross breeding with their produce, they
started cultivating beans, squash, chili peppers, avocados, and potatoes. They also grew
tobacco and many species of cotton. They developed irrigation canals, made artificial gardens
that floated on water and created ―dry farming.‖ This is a type of farming practiced in arid
areas without irrigation by planting drought-resistant crops and maintaining a fine surface
tilth (tilled earth) or mulch that protects the natural moisture of the soil from evaporation. By
1,600 AD, the Mayans and Aztecs knew that the soil was sacred.
While the Incas were carving out an empire in the Andes amid a harsh environment,
they used stone hoes and digging sticks with a foot rest for pushing the end into the soil.
Drainage systems and terraces, along with irrigation were skillfully constructed. The Incas
were aware that in order to grow food that would help their people fight off disease and be
physically strong, they had to fertilize the soil. They cultivated such foods as corn, white and
sweet potatoes, and squash. Several types of fertilizers were used across the Inca Empire.
Along the coast, small fish such as anchovies and sardines were buried with maize kernels to
spur their growth. Coastal farmers also used guano produced by the thousands of marine
birds that nested offshore. In the rest of the empire, farmers had to resort to other types of
fertilizers, including manure from domesticated camelids (even-toed hoofed camels) and
fallen leaves from trees.
The Greeks, credited to inventing the water wheel which raises water to high levels
using buckets cultivated cereals grains, mostly barley, and olive and fig trees. The Romans
began to advance farm technology by making tools such as the plow, reaper, hoe, and sickle
6
with iron parts. They too, cultivated barley, along with wheat, millet and kept vineyards for
their wine. They also knew that in order to assure them a powerful army their crops had to be
rich with minerals and vitamins. After they conquered a land, they would flood the fields
with salt water to make sure their grains and produce were full of components to bring
strength to their bodies (Blakely, 2011).
Over the next 200 years, the rich and powerful acquired the lands from all the
independent farmers, took control of their lives and food, and brought in slaves to work the
land. Eventually, the very farmers who tilled, fertilized, and planted their seeds were now
tenants on the farm estates ruled by the rich.
Well after the fall of the Roman Empire in 476 AD and into the 15th century, the
English landed estates began to enclose their lands with hedges. This was an important move
because it eliminated the practice of letting land lie fallow and allowed farmers to experiment
with crop rotation. Crop rotation is one of the oldest and most effective acts of agricultural
control. It means the crops planted on the same field will not be the same each year. Rotation
may vary from 2 or 3 years or longer period. Some insect pests and disease-causing
organisms have an affinity for specific plants like the rice stem borer. This insect feeds
mostly on rice. If you plant rice each year, then this insect is well fed and trained to come
back year after year. However, if you plant a legume as the next crop, then corn, then beans,
then bulbs, the insect pest will likely die due to absence of food.
Coming into the 17th and 18th centuries, the agricultural revolution hit in England with
the inventions of mechanical farm implements such as Jethro Tull‘s horse drawn drill in 1701
and Joseph Boyce‘s Reaper in 1799. It was Charles Townshend, 2nd Viscount Townshend of
Norfolk, who served for a decade as Secretary of State directing British foreign policy. He
had a strong interest in farming and introduced crop rotations of clover, wheat, turnips, and
barley and alternating grain crops with nitrogen-fixing legumes and grasses that put nutrients
7
back into the soil. As of this time in our agricultural history, the farmers knew the soil was
not the same as they started with and guano, lime, gypsum, and sandy clay were used to
improve the soil.
In 1793, the first agricultural society was founded and during the period of 1756 to
1770, a group of men called Physiocrats, in France, spear-headed by Pierre Samuel du Pont
de Nemours of the Du Pont family began to outline agricultural economics. He immigrated to
the United States and his son founded DuPont, the world's second largest chemical company.
The settlers moved into America and began to teach the Native Americans how to
plant corn and other crops. The farmers knew the land was infertile and would plant crops
close to the rivers for the rich soil. However, the larger farms that were planting wheat, cotton
and tobacco went into the business of commercial farming. The U.S. federal government
stepped in and began to develop land policies to promote settlement of the West quickly and
at low cost. Big business and politics had all become a significant part of farming by the late
1800‘s.
By the 1890‘s, the gasoline tractor had been invented, horses were out and plant
breeding became a science. It was Gifford Pinchot a conservationist in 1910 who tried to
make people aware of methods to prevent of soil erosion. He served as Republican governor
of Pennsylvania from 1923-26 and 1931-34 and was often called the Father of American
Forestry.
It had become extremely obvious to some that the ―good ‗ol‖ world was changing and
not for the better.
1.2 Modern Times
In recent times, the statistics have shown that more people are dying from cancer,
heart disease, diabetes, obesity, and osteoporosis in America than any other country in the
world. Since the turn of the nineteenth century, the understanding that massive amounts of
8
civilized communities could be wipe-out due to influenzas, lack of food, civil wars, and
viruses has given rise to the pharmaceutical and chemical companies to prevent such
tragedies. People who acquired riches within the last 100 years realized they could have all
the money in the world but if they didn‘t have their health, they were as poor as the man who
had nothing.
Because of the supply and demand concept employed greatly in America, the need to
find a cure for what ails a person brings forth multiple companies with a purpose to supply a
quick fix for a healthy price. The more health issues people were complaining about, the
more resolutions began to surface. However, the resolutions coming forth did not address one
very large problem that was instigated back in the late 1700‘s when the soil for farming was
not considered to be relevant due to the demand of food for larger communities. As the soil
began to be depleted in the very life force that contributed to the health of an individual, the
necessary components, such as minerals and probiotics were becoming vacant in the soil. The
quality of plants for food was showing signs of trouble for the farmer and consumer. From
the soil erosion due to over production of the land to the insect infestation attracted to sick
and vulnerable plants, birthed a new society of people willing to over look their future health
issues for the convenience of a quick fix.
Today, most people are suffering from certain dangerous diet deficiencies which
cannot be remedied until the depleted soils from which our foods come are brought into
proper mineral and probiotic balance.
The alarming fact is that fruits, vegetables and grains are now being raised on millions
of acres of land that no longer contain enough of certain needed minerals to sustain life and
no matter how much of them you consume, you are not achieving the amount you need to
keep disease away from your door.
1.3 Purpose of Study
9
The purpose of this study is to analyze the level of nutrition within specific plants
grown for food in various soil samples, tap or filtered water, along with the use of mineral
and probiotic solution and to see if these levels are sustainable for human life. Considering
the results of this analysis, the study will try to suggest a strategy for achieving a desirable
condition within the soils that we grow plants for food in order to help mankind fight off
disease and achieve a more healthy body.
1.4 Objectives of Study
The objectives of this study are:

To understand the nutritional value of our soils and why our foods are so deficient in
the life-saving properties that were once in our soils before.

To learn if it‘s the seed or the soil that brings life to the plant.

To understand why insects don‘t eat healthy plants.

What makes a healthy plant?

To show that minerals and probiotics are vital to human metabolism and health and
that no plant or animal can give humans the level of nutrition they need to fight off
diseases if they are not present in the soil upon which they feed.
1.5 Study Structure
In order to analyze nutritional levels of eatable plants a series of trials will be set up
with organic and conventional seeds planted in various soils, watered with tap or filtered
water fortified with minerals and probiotics. Through the use of a Brix refractometer (Brix
Meter) which is a simple optical instrument that measures the amount of light refracted in the
juice of the plants, the lettuce and wheatgrass will be analyzed for their nutritional value with
constant observation on growth and any attacks by insects to help determine the quality of
these plants.
10
1.6 Final
Minerals and probiotics are the nutrients within the soil to enter the plant that has
become a delivery system for human beings to achieve their phytonutrients. Glyphosate is a
strong chelator of metal ions, rendering these essential nutrients unavailable in the soil and
within the plant. The macro and micronutrients that are the victims of this chelation process
are Calcium, Magnesium, Copper, Iron, Manganese, Nickel and Zinc.
At this point, I‘d like to prove that sick soil creates sick plants and in turn, the
consumer of the sick plant will be affected in the long run. The lack of the life-force and
carbohydrate, complex sugars or proteins in the photosynthesis factory, the leaf, will affect
the health of the recipient.
By establishing various soils and organic and non-organic lettuce and wheatgrass
seeds with organic and synthetic soils under the same conditions, I believe the plants will
yield different nutritional read outs on a Brix Meter, thus, proving that the condition of the
soil is linked to conditions acquired by humans.
Chapter 2 - Methods
2.1 Introduction
11
The objective of these trials is to test the nutritional value of the plant which will be
determined by the quality of the soil. The issue at hand is the soil being a life force for all
plants. If the soil is deficient in minerals and probiotics, the life force that begins the
germination lacks the energy to bring the plant sufficient nutrients in order to grow and/or
survive. The method chosen to determine the quality of the soil that will measure the quality
of the plant is by placing organic and conventional seeds within various soils, watering them
with either filtered water with a supplement of probiotics and minerals or regular tap water
with no supplements. The growth or lack of growth will begin the course to document their
value. The nutritional value will be measured through the use of a Brix Meter which will
measure the total sugars, minerals and other dissolved nutrients in the juice of the plant. The
more ripe and nutrient dense the plant, the higher the reading.
Daily – Plants will be nocturnally watered at 6:00pm with their designated water.
Purified water for the organic plants and regular tap water for the basic dirt and synthetic soil
plants.
Weekly - Tuesday, the water for the organic plants will receive a mineral and
probiotic solution. All other plants will continue to receive the regular tap water at the same
time of the evening.
2.2 Materials
The materials chosen were designed to establish various conditions of how plants for
food consumption were grown over 300 years ago. How the seeds wouldn‘t germinate during
the Dust Bowl conditions, a demineralization of the soil caused by decades of extensive
farming without crop rotation. Also, how food is grown today in synthetically controlled
conditions in order to create quantity but without the consideration of nutritional quality.
In search of genetically engineered (GE) seeds by Monsanto (a multinational
agricultural biotechnology corporation), it was found that the company does not sell to
12
anyone unless you are a commercial farmer. Their pesticide called, Roundup, works by
inhibiting an enzyme 5-enolpyruvyl shikimate-3-phosphate synthase (EPSPS) that is
necessary for the plant to synthesize certain aromatic amino acids, thus killing the plant. The
genetic engineering of Roundup Ready soybeans was done by incorporating a bacterial
version of this enzyme from Agrobacterium species, strain CP4, into the soybean plant,
giving the soybean protection from Roundup. Unfortunately, it was impossible to use any GE
seeds for these trials. On the other hand, the most important concern of this project was to
find the best possible soil condition in order for the plants to deliver enough nutrition to a
human being to sustain a healthy life.
To simulate the water used in the fields for all our foods the use of tap water from the
hose was used. This water was not filtered or cleaned of any fluoride, chemicals, or parasites.
The filtered water from a water purifier system consists of a water conditioner and a
granulated activated carbon tank. The first filter removes particles down to 5 microns. The
second filter is a combination of copper-zinc alloy and carbon which protects the membrane,
removes chlorine and helps prevent bacteria or algae growth. The third and forth filters
prevent bacteria such as cryptosporidium, and E-Coli.
This system also has a reverse osmosis filtration which is used to purify the water and
make it unfluoridated. Along with activated alumina defluoridation filter, the water that was
used in the organic soil was reduced considerably in fluoride.
2.2.1 Soil
The soil types are organic, basic dirt, and 2 different synthetic soils. Organic soil is
Kellogg Organic All Natural Garden Soil. Basic dirt came directly from my own back yard.
Synthetic is Miracle-Gro Garden Soil for Flowers & Vegetables and Miracle-Gro Potting
Mix.
13
Figure 2. Four various soils to be used
The Kellogg Organic All Natural Garden soil rich in all natural, organic
materials such as forest humus compost including, compost chicken manure, kelp
meal, worm castings, and bat guano with oyster, dolomite and lime as a pH adjuster.
The basic dirt from the backyard has had multiple flowers grown within them
over the past 10 years, but with no great satisfaction. No chemicals have been used on
this soil, but no fertilizer has been used either. The soil is very much like the 1930‘s
―Dust Bowl‖ due to the lack of care in replenishing what has been taken from the
earth. Each trial used with basic dirt will come from the dirt being tilled deeper and
deeper for more soil replicating the condition of the soil in the 1930‘s after farmers
continued to dig deeper to find soil that would produce plants.
The Miracle-Gro (MGGS) Garden Soil contains potassium chloride, sulfur,
ammonium phosphate, sulfate, and urea. This product is regionally formulated with
organic materials derived from peat, composted forest products, aged rice hulls and/or
compost, with sphagnum peat moss, manure from Florida cows, wetting agent, and
fertilizer.
Miracle-Gro Garden Soil (MGGS) Flowers and Vegetables contains:

Total nitrogen (N) - .15%

0.05% ammoniacal nitrogen

0.05% nitrate nitrogen

0.05% water insoluble nitrogen
14

Available phosphate (P2O5) – 0.05%

Soluble potash (K20) – 0.10%
Derived from: manure (In Florida, cow manure); polymer coated: ammonium nitrate,
ammonium phosphate, calcium phosphate, and potassium sulfate; and ammonium nitrate,
ammonium phosphate, calcium phosphate, and potassium sulfate. A portion of the Nitrogen,
Phosphate, and Potash sources has been coated to provide 0.08% coated slow release
Nitrogen (N) 0.02% coated slow released. Available Phosphate (P2O5) and 0.06% coated
slow release Soluable Potash (K20)
The Miracle-Gro Potting Mix (MGPM) is regionally formulated with forest products
compost, sphagnum peat moss, perlite, a wetting agent and fertilizer.
Miracle-Gro Potting Mix contains:

Total nitrogen (N) - .021%

0.12% ammoniacal nitrogen

0.09% nitrate nitrogen

Available phosphate (P2O5)

Soluble potash (K20)

Iron (Fe)

0.10% water soluble iron (Fe)
Derived from: polymer-coated: ammonium nitrate, ammonium phosphate, calcium phosphate
and potassium sulfate; and ammonium nitrate, ammonium phosphate, calcium phosphate,
potassium sulfate, and ferrous sulfate. A portion of the nitrogen, phosphate and potash has
been coated to provide 0.15% coated slow release nitrogen (N), 0.03% coated slow release
available phosphate (P2O5f) and 0.08% coated slow release soluble potash (K2O).
15
Figure 3. First set of pots with various soils – August
3, 2011
2.2.2 Lettuce Seeds
The lettuce seeds used in the first trial are Organic lettuce seeds (Thoreau) Lot:
64729 EX: 5075, S/C: 98% Date: 3/11 Vitalis Biologische Zaden Seeds from White Seed
Company in Oxnard, California. In accordance with current regulations, growers in organic
agriculture are obliged to use seeds that are produced in organic way. They are Organic and
Conventional. Each pot received 20 seeds.
Vitalis breeds and produces seeds in organic production systems, and ensures that the
resulting varieties have the highest genetic and purity standards in the marketplace. No
Vitalis seeds are derived from or produced using Genetically Modified Organisms (GMOs) or
their derivatives.
Figure 4. Organic & conventional seeds from White Seed Company
16
The seeds are coated using a friendly and effective bio-stimulant and adding
humic acids. Coated seeds can be distinguished visually from naked seeds, because of
their higher weight and different color, the shape of the seeds does not change. The
higher weight makes it better for ground contact. The coat is a purely biological
component and non toxic to birds but also not attractive for them to eat.
The coat that surrounds the grain has an immediate and important protective
function. With sufficient irrigation, the coating which is storing the water now
delivers the water bit by bit to the seedling within. This therefore prevents
dehydration of the seedling. Though naked seeds germinate faster they are exposed to
the danger of drying up after the germination because of water shortages. For this
reason, the coated seeds are used in this trial.
2.2.3 Wheatgrass Seeds
The seeds used in the wheatgrass trials are organic wheatgrass seeds purchased from
BuyWholesaleCheap.com. They are certified organic wheatgrass seeds. There were no
conventional wheatgrass seeds to be found on the market for sale.
Figure 5. Organic wheatgrass seeds from Buy Wholesale
Cheap.
2.2.4 Equipment
August 3, 2011 – weather at high 94 to low 64
(All weather reports from accuweather.com)
First trial with lettuce – August 3, 2011 – Weather 94 to low 64
17
The 2.5 gallon plastic pots (except #3 is a 1.5 gallon) are lined up as:
1. Kellogg Organic soil, organic seeds, no chemicals, filtered, purified water with
Minerals & Probiotics
2. Backyard Basic dirt, organic seeds, no chemicals, tap water
3. MGPS Potting Synthetic soil, organic seeds, no chemicals, tap water (smaller pot)
4. MGGS Garden Synthetic soil, conventional seeds, chemicals, tap water
Only in the organic pots will the Living Earth Minerals with Probiotics for Home and
Garden be used.
Second and third trials with organic wheatgrass seeds – August 24, 2011
The 2.92 quart plastic pots are lined up as:
1. Kellogg Organic soil, organic seeds, no chemicals, filtered, purified water with
Minerals & Probiotics
2. Backyard Basic dirt, organic seeds, no chemicals, tap water
3. MGPS Potting Synthetic soil, organic seeds, no chemicals, tap water (smaller pot)
4. MGGS Garden Synthetic soil, organic seeds, chemicals, tap water
Only in the organic soil pots will the Living Earth Minerals with Probiotics for Home
and Garden be used.
Figure 6. Mineral solution with probitoics
Because soil biology is as critical to soil health as natural microbes are to human
health it is necessary to supplement the soil with probiotics. The probiotics with Living Earth
Minerals for Home and Garden will be used to break down various food substances for
18
absorption, produce by-products for absorption, such as "B" vitamins, Vitamin K, natural
antibiotics, and inhibit yeast and bad bacterial growth.
These Living Earth Minerals for Home and Garden help put organic plant material
back into the soil to help feed the bacteria and provide more nutrients for plant growth.
Normal soil ecology consists of billions of these friendly organisms, and they do similar
things for soil as the organisms in our intestinal track. The bacteria actually break down the
organic material and minerals in the soil, making them available to plants. When water enters
the soil, it carries these substances to the roots of the plants which absorb these and builds
organic plant tissue for our consumption.
Living Earth Minerals for Home and Garden contains virgin soil microbes from areas
never before farmed or used for production. The use of artificial fertilizers, chemicals,
herbicides and insecticides have gradually killed off these natural soil organisms, in both
farmlands, and the home environment along with mineral supplements which enhances plant
growth immediately, while natural microbes culture the soil over time.
The minerals that make up the Living Earth Minerals for Home and Garden are:
Magnesium Chloride Flake:

Magnesium Chloride (MgCl2) 46.8%

Calcium Chloride (CaCl2) 2%

Sodium Chloride (NaCl) .6%

Potassium Chloride (KCl) .3%

Ammonia 1ppm
Azomite:

Soluble Potash .2%

Calcium 1.8%

Chlorine .1%
19

Cobalt .002%

Silica 65%
Trace Element Content (Volcanic ash raw):
Element (raw) Typical (ppm) Element (raw) Typical (ppm) Element (raw) Typical (ppm)
Mg
Ca
Br
K
S (SO4)
Sr
Li
N
Si
Fe
115,000
7,000
5,000
2,500
180
120
30
4
9
3
P
Mn
Al
Ba
Co
Cr
Cu
F
Mo
Ni
2
2
1
2
<1
<1
<1
<1
<1
<1
Se
V
Zn
As
Hg
Pb
Cd
I
Rb
<1
<1
<1
<0.1
<0.1
<0.1
<0.1
na
na
Once the lettuce has begun to sprout, there will be a number of days before testing can
begin. The testing method will be done with a hand-held Brix meter. The Brix meter was
originally designed for farmers to know nutrient levels of their produce and when to harvest
crops. This precision instrument is also known as a refractometer. With a drop or two of the
sap (juice) of the produce placed on the glass and held up to the light to read the Brix scale of
0 to 32. The higher the Brix reading, the higher the nutrient levels.
Figure 7. Brix meter
The Brix meter will measure the total dissolved solids. The number on its scale
indicates the level of balance of nutrient uptake and sugars or proteins during photosynthesis
within the leaf. If the Brix meter read out is low, even after several hours of sunshine, some
elements are missing in the photosynthesis. If Ions are present they have not been
20
―complexed‖ into sugars or proteins. The Brix meter has a sap extractor, a calibration kit and
reference chart in order to know what is a good Brix reading compared to a poor Brix
reading, in four increments. It does not require batteries for a reading, just light. The Brix
meter can measure a wide range of fruits, vegetables, grasses, grains, legumes, even roses,
anything that juice can be squeezed from. Brix readings differ from one species to another.
2.25 Water and pH
Each organic plant will be watered with purified water from a filter by the
manufacturing company, Aqua 2000. This water filter is a commercial grade resin and
catalytic carbon water treatment system. The pH balance of the water it produces is a 7.1.
The regular tap water that is being used for the other plants (basic dirt, synthetic) has a 7.3
pH. The water was tested with litmus paper showing that test strip on the bottom of the chart
on filtered water to be a little closer to 7.1pH and the test strip on the top of the chart to be
closer to 7.3 pH.
Figure 8. Litmus paper for water pH testing
To confirm this pH test, a chemical test was done using a pool supply test kit. The
glass with the blue base contains the filtered water and the glass with the green base contains
the tap water.
Figure 9. Chemical swimming pool test kit for pH levels
21
Each day at approximately 6:00pm, the plants will be watered with their designated
water.
August 4, 2011 – weather at high 93 to low 57
August 5, 2011 – weather at high 85 to low 60
August 6, 2011 – weather at high 86 to low 57
August 7, 2011 – weather at high 89 to low 58
An AquaChek TruTest meter to determine the chlorine, pH, and Alkalinity of the
filtered water and the tap water. The ideal ranges for plant growth are:

Chlorine – 0

pH – 4.5 to 7.0

Alkalinity – 80 to 120
Figure 10. Left to right: AquaChek TruTest Meter. Reading from filtered water
and reading from tap water.
The aquachek TruTest meter reading show that the filtered water that is being used on
the organic plants is at a pH of 7.2 and the alkalinity is at 106. For the tap water used on all
the other plants, the AquaChek TruTest Meter shows the pH at 7.7 and the alkalinity at 179.
No chlorine is present in either sampling of water.
22
Chapter 3 - Lettuce Trials
3.1 Results
August 8, 2011 – weather at high 87 to low 58
On August 8, 2011, 5 days after the lettuce seeds were planted there was the first sign of life
from the Kellogg organic soil mixture. The other pots failed to show any life.
Figure 11. August 8, 2011 - Little lettuce sprouts coming up in the Kellogg Organic
with Living Earth Minerals and probiotics only soil.
August 9, 2011 – weather at high 83 to low 58
August 10, 2011 – weather at high 97 to low 59
August 11, 2011 – weather at high 80 to low 59
August 12, 2011 – weather at high 83 to low 59
By August 12, 2011, one lettuce sprout began appearing after 9 days in the synthetic
soil, Miracle Gro Garden Soil (MGGS) with the conventional lettuce seeds and multiple
sprouts began to appear in the Kellogg organic soil where the Living Earth Minerals with
probiotics is being used weekly.
Figure 12. Sprouts appear in Pot #1 Organic Soil and Pot #4 Synthetic MGGS.
23
August 13, 2011 – weather at high 84 to low 59
August 14, 2011 – weather at high 92 to low 60
August 15, 2011 – weather at high 90 to low 61
August 16, 2011 – weather at high 91 to low 61
August 17, 2011 – weather at high 92 to low 62
August 18, 2011 – weather at high 93 to low 63
August 19, 2011 – weather at high 84 to low 61
August 20, 2011 – weather at high 81 to low 60
August 21, 2011 – weather at high 84 to low 58
Due to the heat spell in Los Angeles, the lettuce is taking longer to sprout and grow.
Lettuce doesn‘t like hot weather it was necessary to move the pots to a shady area. August
21, 2011 all the pots were moved.
Figure 13. All pots moved to a shadier area where the temperature
averaged closer to 75 degrees
Figure 14. All pots in the shadier area began to show growth. All except pot #3 & #4A.
24
August 22, 2011 – weather at high 89 to low 60
August 23, 2011 – weather at high 97 to low 62
August 24, 2011 – weather at high 95 to low 65
On August 24, 2011, most of the pots were sprouting except pot #3 Organic Seed in
MGPS Potting Synthetic soil. It was transferred to a bigger 2.5 gallon pot, like the others,
carefully not disturbing the planted seeds waiting to sprout.
Figure 15. Pot #3 transferred to bigger 2.5 gallon like the
other pots for consistency in size.
August 25, 2011 – weather at high 101 to low 67
August 25, 2011 – Measurement of lettuce organic and conventional sprouts on pots
#1, 2, 3, 4, #1A, #2A, #3A, and #4A show individual grow patterns.
3.1.1 Growth rate of lettuce
From first day of planting, August 3, 2011 to August 25, 2011 the sprout growth is covered
over 22 days. The first set of plants (#1, #2, #3, #4) show erratic growth. The organic pot, #1,
has multiple sprouts that stand only 1.5 cm high. The #2 pot with basic dirt has sprouts that
have reached 1 cm. The pot #3 still at this time has no signs of life. Pot #4 exhibits the most
growth, yet only 1 sprout has risen and has reached 7 cm high.
3.1.2 Second planting of lettuce
August 25, 2011 - In the second trial lettuce pots, plant #1A, shows multiple sprouts
reaching as high as 1.5 cm. In the basic dirt pot, #2A, the sprout show a height of 2 cm. Pot
#3A shows sprouts shooting straight up at a height of 3.5 cm. Still no sign of life in Pot #4A.
25
1A
2A
1
2
3A
4A
3
4
Figure 16. August 25, 2011 - Showing sprout growth after 22 days from first day of planting.
August 26, 2011 – weather at high 103 to low 72
August 27, 2011 – weather at high 106 to low 72
August 28, 2011 – weather at high 101 to low 67
Figure 17. Showing sprout growth after 25 days from first day of planting.
August 29, 2011 – weather at high 95 to low 68
August 30, 2011 – weather at high 88 to low 61
August 30, 2011 – Finally growth found in pot #4A and extra lettuce sprouts coming
up in pot #4, but still no sign of sprouts coming up in pot #3.
26
#3
#4 A
AAA
Figure 18. A sprout coming up in pot #4A with MGGS yet
A no sprout in pot #3 MGPS.
#4
September 1, 2011 – Pot #3 of the lettuce seeds are finally showing growth. The
weather has claimed down and become much cooler.
#3
Figure 19. Lettuce sprouts coming up in pot #3
3.1.3 Sprouts separated out into individual pots
September 2, 2011 – weather at high 90 to low 57
September 2, 2011 – All sprouts have been separated out into their own individual
pots within their own categories.
Figure 20. Individual sprouts in each different category.
27
3.1.4 Variable Trial – Water Trial
Three separate pots have been set aside for an individual trial with the organic soil,
basic dirt, and MGGS. These lettuce sprouts will be watered with different water. This trial
will be called the Water Trial and the pots will be numbered as 1B, 2B, 3B.
#1B – Lettuce sprout in organic soil watered with tap water
#2B – Lettuce sprout in basic dirt watered with filtered water and Living Earth Minerals with
Probiotics
#3B – Lettuce sprout in Miracle Grow Garden Soil watered with filtered water with
Probiotics.
The weather has played a demanding challenge in growing lettuce. Lettuce prefers
cooler temperatures and it was necessary to move all the plants to a shadier area. However,
the sun is still making it difficult for the sprouts to grow. A sunscreen net was placed over the
entire group of plants which they all seem to be responding to. The lettuce is extremely
delicate to heat and sun.
Figure 21. All plants shaded by a sunscreen net
September 3, 2011 – weather at high 91 to low 59
September 4, 2011 – weather at high 91 to low 60
September 5, 2011 – weather at high 94 to low 68
September 6, 2011 – weather at high 94 to low 70
28
September 7, 2011 – weather at high 101 to low 70
September 8, 2011 – weather at high 94 to low 62
September 9, 2011 – weather at high 89 to low 62
September 10, 2011 – weather at high 72 to low 60 with thunderstorms
The weather began to come to a comfortable level in the 70‘s which made it better for
the lettuce sprouts that have been struggling along.
Figure 22. Lettuce trial showing more growth since the weather became cooler.
September 11, 2011 – weather at high 81 to low 59
September 12, 2011 – weather at high 83 to low 61
3.1.5 Insects
All lettuce plants, except the lettuce plants growing in the organic soil with the Living
Earth Minerals with probiotics are showing insect damage. The exceptions are the lettuce
grown in basic dirt pot #2B and the MGGS grown in pot #3B watered with Living Earth
Minerals with Probiotics.
Figure 23. Insect damage on all lettuce plants except the lettuce plants in the
Kellogg Organic soil with Living Earth Minerals with Probiotics.
29
The other exception is that the lettuce grown in the organic Kellogg soil, pot #1B,
watered with tap water and no supplementation with Living Earth Minerals with Probiotics is
showing signs of insect damage. The #2, #3, and #4 pots were sprayed with Sevin Ready-ToUse Insecticide to prevent any more damage. Exception showed up in pots #2B with basic
dirt and #3B MGGS watered with filtered water with Living Earth Minerals with Probiotics.
#2B
#1B
#3B
Figure 24. Exception in pot #1B showing insect damage, pots #2B and #3B showing
no insect damage.
It is necessary to spray an insecticide on the plants showing insect damage to prohibit
anymore destruction and to control whatever insects are eating the lettuce.
Figure 25. GardenTech® Sevin insecticide used to stop insect damage to
lettuce plants in pots #2,#3, and #4.
GardenTech® Sevin containing carbaryl is the an insecticide available as an over the
counter product. Sevin has been on the market for over 50 years to control a wide variety of
insects. Sevin claims to provide the consumer with the broadest spectrum of control, killing
more insects in more places versus other leading brands. Sevin is available in a dust, granular,
concentrate, ready-to-use, and hose end formulations. Sevin works on contact and through
ingestion. The company states that it is non-systemic, which means it does not penetrate plant
tissue. It will only stay on the outside of the plant. The other claim is that after controlling the
targeted pest, Sevin is easily broken down in the environment.
30
The main ingredient of Sevin is Carbaryl which is an insecticide used on a variety of
crops. Short-term and Long-term occupational exposure to humans has been observed to
cause cholinesterase inhibition, and reduced levels of this enzyme in the blood cause
neurological effects. Cholinesterase is produced in the liver and is one of many important
enzymes needed for the proper functioning of the nervous systems of humans. These effects
appear to be reversible upon discontinuation of exposure. Headaches, memory loss, muscle
weakness and cramps, and anorexia are caused by prolonged low-level exposure to carbaryl
resulting from cholinesterase inhibition. EPA has classified carbaryl as a Group D, not
classifiable as to human carcinogenicity.
September 13, 2011 – weather at high 88 to low 62.
September 14, 2011 – weather at high 80 to low 62.
September 15, 2011 – weather at high 88 to low 59.
September 16, 2011 – weather at high 77 to low 59
September 17, 2011 – weather at high 72 to low 59
September 18, 2011 – weather at high 85 to low 61
3.2 Testing of the Lettuce plants
September 27, 2011 – 56 days after initial planting of the lettuce seeds.
Leaves were cut from each lettuce plant which averaged in 5.5 to 7 inches in growth.
Figure 26. Lettuce leaf cutting
3.2.1 Miracle Gro Garden Soil plants Brix Meter readings.
Cuttings from all the MGGS plants were taken from each of the 8 pots that had been
separated out. They were watered only with tap water and given no supplements.
31
The Brix meter was calculated to zero (0) and each leaf was juiced separately and the
Brix meter was immediately clean to insure no contamination from each sample.
Figure 27. Calibrated to zero (0) on the Brix Meter
Figure 28. Brix Meter readings for the MGGS soil plant. 8 plant readings
The total sum of the readings of 8 MGGS plants:
1. 2.5
2. 3
3. 3
4. 3.5
5. 3.5
6. 3.5
7. 3.5
8. 3
Total Brix Meter reading of 8 MGGS plants = 25.5
Average of the total = 3.19
32
3.2.2 Miracle Grow Potting Soil (MGPS) and conventional lettuce seeds Brix Meter
readings.
All 8 plants were cut to be tested as the first test with the MGGS. The Brix Meter was
calibrated for accuracy to make sure it still started at zero (0).
Figure 29. Brix Meter calibration to zero (0) for the MGPS testing
Figure 30. Brix Meter readings for the MGPS soil plant. 8 plant readings
The total sum of the readings of 8 MGPS plants:
1. 3
2. 4
3. 2.5
4. 4
5. 4.5
6. 4.5
7. 3
8. 5
Total Brix Meter reading of 8 MGPS plants = 30.5
Average of the total = 3.81
33
3.2.3 Basic Dirt lettuce Brix Meter readings.
The third testing is with the Basic Soil plants. All 8 plants were cut to be tested as the
first and second tests with the MGGS and MGPS. The Brix Meter was calibrated for accuracy
to make sure it still started at zero (0).
Figure 31. Brix Meter calibration to zero (0) for the Basic Dirt testing
Figure 32. The 8 separate pots of lettuce in Basic Dirt watered with tap water.
The total sum of the readings of 8 Basic Dirt plants:
1. 4
2. 4
3. 5
4. 4.5
5. 3.5
6. 3.5
7. 4
8. 4
Total Brix Meter reading of 8 Basic Dirt plants = 29
Average of the total = 3.625
34
3.2.4 Organic Kellogs with Living Earth Minerals with Probiotics lettuce Brix Meter
readings.
The fourth testing is with the organic plants with supplementation. All 8 plants were
cut to be tested as the first, second, and third tests with the MGGS, MGPS, and Basic Dirt.
The Brix Meter was calibrated for accuracy to make sure it still started at zero (0).
Figure 33. Brix Meter calibration to zero (0) for the Kellogg organic soil.
Figure 34. The 8 separate pots of lettuce in Kellogg Organic Soil watered with
Living Earth Minerals and Probiotics.
The total sum of the readings of 8 Kellogg organic soil watered with Living Earth Minerals
and Probiotic plants:
1. 6
2. 6
3. 6
4. 6.5
5. 6.5
35
6. 6
7. 6
8. 6
Total Brix Meter reading of 8 organic Kellogg soil with minerals plants = 49
Average of the total = 6.125
3.2.5 Variable Trial – “Water Trial” with Pots #1B, #2B, and #3B Brix Meter readings
#1B – Lettuce sprout in organic soil watered with tap water – Brix reading 4.5
#2B – Lettuce sprout in basic dirt watered with filtered water and Living Earth Minerals with
Probiotics - 4
#3B – Lettuce sprout in Miracle Grow Garden Soil watered with filtered water - 2.5
Figure 69. Pots, #1B, #2B, and #3B
Figure 35. Left to right – Organic soil with tap water, basic dirt with
minerals/probiotics, and MGGS with filtered water.
September 19, 2011 – weather at high 92 to low 59
September 20, 2011 – weather at high 87 to low 58
September 21, 2011 – weather at high 87 to low 59
September 22, 2011 – weather at high 96 to low 58
September 23, 2011 – weather at high 87 to low 62
September 24, 2011 – weather at high 74 to low 60
September 25, 2011 – weather at high 74 to low 59
September 26, 2011 – weather at high 79 to low 56
September 27, 2011 – weather at high 96 to low 58
36
September 28, 2011 – weather at high 84 to low 63
3.3 Statistics – The Mann -Whitney U Test on lettuce trial
Few, if any, data presented here met the criteria necessary to allow parametric
statistical testing (e.g. normality of distribution, the measurements must be made in at least an
interval scale): hence all analysis required non-parametric statistics. The statistical tests and
the symbols used here may be found in SIEGAL (1956). Correlations are tested with onetailed region of rejection. The region of rejection for all tests done here were equal to or less
than a ‗p value‘ of .05.
3.3.1 Lettuce Statistics:
A – represents Miracle Grow Garden Soil
B – represents Miracle Grow Potting Soil
C – represents Basic Dirt
D – represents Kellogg‘s Organic soil with Living Earth Minerals and Probiotics
Testing of A and D - (u = 0, n1= 8, n2 = 8, p < 0.001)
Testing of B and D - (u = 0, n1= 8, n2 = 8, p < 0.001)
Testing of C and D - (u = 0, n1= 8, n2 = 8, p < 0.001)
Testing of B and C - (u = 28.5, n1= 8, n2 = 8, p > 0.05)
Testing of A and B - (u = 18.5, n1= 8, n2 = 8, p > 0.05)
3.4 Conclusion:
This lettuce trial showed that regardless of the type of soil or water, the evidence of
minerals and probiotics included in the life of the plant yield higher nutritional value than all
the other pots of lettuce without the use of Living Earth Minerals with Probiotics.
Within the variable trial where organic Kellogg soil and tap water were used, showed
a sublevel of 4.5. Within the basic dirt using Living Earth Minerals with Probiotics, the Brix
reading of 4 is still sublevel. However, the value of the basic dirt was showing severe
37
deficiency in the other measurements as low as 3.5 and the possibility that the mineral
supplement made it a little healthier for the lettuce is to be considered. The Brix reading on
the MGGS with just filtered water proved to be extremely deficient with a read of 2.5.
There were two types of seeds used for this trial; organic and conventional seeds
which both responded by germinating. The Brix Meter can only register the amount of
nutritional carbohydrates that bring the quality of life into the plant. The Brix Meter will
show a measure of total sugars, minerals and other dissolved nutrients in the plant fluids.
However, it cannot register the amount of toxins, poisons, fluoride, genetically modified
organisms, or other properties that could make the plant sick. The lettuce plants grown in
synthetic and basic dirt were both grown from organic and conventional seeds. They were
also the only plants that became damaged by insects indicating that the plants were not
healthy and were lacking certain integrity for protection against the very bugs that would
ravage them.
The overall conclusion of the lettuce trial via readings from the Brix Meter, insect
infestation, and statistics shows that soil fortified with minerals and probiotics actually make
a difference in the nutritional value of the edible plant used to feed human beings.
38
Chapter 4 - Wheatgrass Trial
4.1 Results
August 24, 2011 – weather at high 95 to low 65
August 24, 2011 - A new trial was set up with organic wheatgrass in the same soil
conditions. All pots are 2.92 Qts and set in the same location with the lettuce trial. This trial
will be called, Wheatgrass trial with pots numbered in 1, 2, 3, 4, 1A, 2A, 3A, 4A. Each pot
received 1/4th of a cup in seeds.
Figure 36. Additional pots established for a new trial with organic wheatgrass.
August 25, 2011 – weather at high 101 to low 67
August 26, 2011 – weather at high 103 to low 72
August 27, 2011 – weather at high 106 to low 72
August 28, 2011 – weather at high 101 to low 67
August 28, 2011 – Wheatgrass sprouts began shooting up fast. Only 4 days after seeds
where placed within the various soils. The weather has been extremely erratic with
temperatures ranging from 75 degree to 110 degrees. These extremely hot days are stunting
the growth of the lettuce, however, does not seem to be affecting the wheatgrass. In fact the
grass is growing extremely fast.
39
Figure 37. Wheatgrass sprouts appearing to grow very rapidly and not affected by
the extreme temperatures of the outside weather.
August 29, 2011 – weather at high 95 to low 68
August 30, 2011 – weather at high 88 to low 61
August 30, 2011 - All wheatgrass pots show signs of rapidly growing grass. However,
the organic pots , #1 and #1A seem slower to take off.
#1 & 1A
#2 & 2A
#3 & 3A
#4 & 4A
September 1, 2011 – weather at high 87 to low 57
Figure38. Wheatgrass showing sprouts within 5 days.
4.2 First Testing on wheatgrass with Brix Meter
September 2, 2011 – weather at high 90 to low 57
September 2, 2011 – Ten days after initial planting of wheatgrass.
A Healthy Juicer for Wheatgrass and Leafy vegetables is used to extract the juice
from the trial plants. Samples of wheatgrass were taken from each pot, run through the
Healthy Juicer and 3 drops of juice was then place on the screen of the Brix Meter to test the
nutritional value of the sample. A Canon Power Shot A1100IS camera is used to photograph
the results within the Brix Meter. The Brix Meter was tested for calibration by using 3 drops
of distilled water on the main prism. The daylight plate prism is then closed so that the water
40
spreads across the entire surface of the prism without air bubbles or dry spots. It is necessary
to let the sample settle for 30 seconds and adjust to the ambient temperature of the
refractometer.
Figure 39. Healthy Juicer Wheatgrass & Leafy Vegetable Juicer along
with the wheatgrass samples
Figure 40. The Brix Meter was tested for perfect calibration
before testing of each sample.
Once the drops of juice were placed on the screen of the Brix Meter, it was taken
outside to be viewed through the eye piece.
4.2.1 Testing with the organic Kellogg Garden Soil plants Brix Meter readings.
Pot #1 and Pot #1A Wheatgrass with organic Kellogg Garden Soil watered with
filtered water and once a week supplemented with Living Earth Minerals and Probiotics
registered over 5 on the Brix Meter. Pot #1 reads at 8 and Pot #1A reads at 6. The average
read is 7.
#1
#1A
Figure 41. Brix Meter reading on Pots #1 and #1A - Average read 7
41
4.2.2 Testing on the Basic Dirt plants Brix Meter readings.
The following pots to be tested were#1A
the basic dirt pots #2 and #2A. Again, samples
#1
were cut for testing. The Healthy Juicer was completely cleaned with water before starting to
make sure no contamination would be present from the prior samples and the Brix Meter was
tested for perfect calibration.
#2
#2A
Figure 42. Pot #2 and Pot #2A of wheatgrass tested for
nutritional value – Average read 4.
The Brix Meter read out on the wheatgrass juice for Pot #2 was under 5 making it to
4. The same read out for pot #2A registered at a 4. The average read between the two pots
came to 4.
4.2.3 Testing on the Synthetic Miracle Gro Potting Soil (MGPS) plants Brix Meter
readings.
Next pots to be tested were the Synthetic Miracle Gro Potting Soil (MGPS) pots #3
and #3A. The Healthy Juicer was cleaned and ready along with the Brix Meter cleaned to test
the new samples.
#3
#3A
Figure 43. Brix Meter read outs for pots #3 and #3A of wheatgrass –
Average read 4.25.
Pot #3 Brix Meter read out came to a little over 4 placing it very close to 5. Calling it
4.5 where as the pot #3A was directly on 4. The average read out was 4.25.
42
4.2.4 Testing on the Synthetic Miracle Grow Garden Soil (MGGS). plants Brix Meter
readings.
The pots #4 and #4A were finally tested after the same procedure of cleaning the
Healthy Juicer and Brix Meter and acquiring the juice to be able to evaluate the nutritional
value of the plant. The wheatgrass in pots #4 and #4A were grown in the Miracle Grow
Garden Soil (MGGS).
#4
#4A
Figure 44. Pot # 4 and Pot #4A of wheatgrass tested for
nutritional value – Average read 4.
The Brix Meter read out on Pots #4 read at 4 and #4A was at an even 4.5. Taking
an average of the two pots, the read is 4.25. The same read as the plants grown in the
MGPS.
4.2.5 The Brix Meter average for all the wheatgrass plants:

Kellogg Organic with Probitics and filtered water Pot #1 – 8
Average 7

Kellogg Organic with Probitics and filtered water Pot #1A – 6

Basic Dirt with tap water Pot #2 – 4

Basic Dirt with tap water Pot #2A - 4

MGPS with tap water Pot #3 – 4.5
Average 4
Average 4.25

MGPS with tap water Pot #3A – 4.5

MGGS with tap water Pot #4 – 4

MGGS with tap water Pot #4A – 4.5
Average 4.25
43
4.3 Second wheatgrass trialss
September 3, 2011 – weather at high 91 to low 59
September 3, 2011
After getting the results from the first trial of the wheatgrass Brix Meter readings, a
new wheatgrass trial was set up again to retest and check the nutritional average. Everything
is the same on the conditions and soil. However, the basic dirt is from the same place where
the original basic dirt was taken from which means the soil is being taken from a deeper level
in the dirt bed. The original basic dirt seemed lighter and easier to work with. This basic dirt
feels heavier and more like mud when it gets wet.

2 pots with organic Kellogg soil and organic wheatgrass seeds watered with filtered water
and probiotics with minerals.

2 pots with basic dirt and organic wheatgrass seeds watered with tap water

2 pots with Miracle Grow Potting Soil and watered with tap water

2 pots with Miracle Grow Garden Soil, conventional seeds and watered with tap
water.
September 4, 2011 – weather at high 91 to low 60
September 5, 2011 – weather at high 94 to low 68
September 6, 2011 – weather at high 94 to low 70
September 7, 2011 – weather at high 101 to low 70
All the pots were showing signs of growth except the basic dirt pots. There were
absolutely no sprouts as of September 7, 2011, four days after planting in a new second
wheatgrass trial.
44
Figure 45. Second trial of wheatgrass: organic and conventional. Four days
after planting new seeds.
September 8, 2011 – weather at high 94 to low 62
September 9, 2011 – weather at high 89 to low 62
After only 6 days from planting the new wheatgrass seeds, the growth of the sprouts
has been quite rapid. However, absolutely no sprouts to be found in the basic dirt pots.
Figure 46. From left to right, Organic, Basic Dirt, MGPS, and MGGS
4.3.1 Second trial wheatgrass measurements of sprouts on 5th day
Upon measuring the sprouts, they are much taller and fuller than the first trial with
wheatgrass. The organic soil wheatgrass trial shows a growth of 6 inches after only 6 days
from planting. The MGPS wheatgrass sprouts reached a height of 5 inches. The MGGS
wheatgrass sprouts showed only a 2 ½ inch growth. Still no sprouts to be found in the basic
dirt wheatgrass trial.
45
#1
#2
#3
#4
Figure 47. Sprouts measured on 5th day from planting.
September 10, 2011 – weather at high 72 to low 60 with thunderstorms
As of September 10, 2011, 8 days after planting the wheatgrass seeds, all the pots
have such tremendous growth except the basic dirt pots. The organic and conventional seeds
seem to be sprouting within a few days and with very fast growth over the course of 8 days.
The wheatgrass seeds just stayed in the soil and upon watering, some rose to the surface. But,
absolutely no sprout growth for 8 days.
Figure 48. All pots sprouting except basic dirt. Photo reveals absolutely no sprout
growth after 8 days from the time of planting the seeds.
4.3.2 Wheatgrass Growth Messurements
September 11, 2011 – weather at high 81 to low 59
September 11, 2011 – Measurement of growth for all wheatgrass pots were taken except for
the basic dirt that showed no signs of life.
Figure 49. Organic wheatgrass growth measured at 8 inches
46
Figure 50. No wheatgrass growth in basic dirt soil
Figure 51. MGPS wheatgrass growth measured at 5 inches
Figure 52. MGGS wheatgrass growth measured at 7 inches
4.3.3 Calibration of Brix Meter for Second Wheatgrass Trial Brix Meter Readings
The Brix Meter used was tested for calibration by placing 3 drops of distilled water on
the main prism. The daylight plate prism is then closed so that the water spreads across the
entire surface of the prism without air bubbles or dry spots. It is necessary to let the sample
settle for 30 seconds and adjust to the ambient temperature of the refractometer. After each
sample testing, the Brix Meter was carefully cleaned with only warm water and dried with a
soft cloth. The Healthy Juicer was also cleaned after each sample plant was tested so as not
to contaminate the previous sampling.
4.3.4 Testing on wheatgrass plants Brix Meter readings.
#1
#1A
Figure 53. Brix Meter reading on the wheatgrass in organic soil pots #1 and #1A
average at 9 .
47
#2
#2A
Figure 54. No Brix Meter reading on the wheatgrass in basic dirt soil pots #2 and #2A
average at 0.
#3
#3A
Figure 55. Brix Meter reading on the wheatgrass in MGPS soil pots #3 and #3A
averaged at 5.75 .
#4
#4A
Figure 56. Brix Meter reading on the wheatgrass in MGGS soil pots #4 and #4A
averaged at 6.75 .
4.3.5 Brix Meter average for all the wheatgrass plants:

Kellogg Organic with Probitics and filtered water Pot #1 – 8

Kellogg Organic with Probitics and filtered water Pot #1A – 10

Basic Dirt with tap water Pot #2 – 0

Basic Dirt with tap water Pot #2A - 0

MGPS with tap water Pot #3 – 4.5
Average 9
Average 0
Average 5.75

MGPS with tap water Pot #3A – 7

MGGS with tap water Pot #4 – 7

MGGS with tap water Pot #4A – 6.5
Average 6.75
48
4.4 Third wheatgrass trial
September 12, 2011 – weather at high 83 to low 61
September 12, 2011 the third wheatgrass trial is set up with the same conditions as the
first and second. All pots are 1.5qts and set in the same location with the lettuce and other
wheatgrass trials. The pots are numbered as the others, 1, 2, 3, 4, 1A, 2A, 3A, 4A. Each pot
received 1/4th of a cup in seeds. The basic dirt is taken from the same area as the all the basic
dirt pots are filled with. The dirt comes from the same hole that presents no top soil, only raw
dirt.
Figure 57. Third wheatgrass trial with same conditions. Left to right, MGGS,
MGPS, basic dirt, and organic Kellogg’s soil.
4.4.1Variable Trial - Basic dirt trial with Living Earth Minerals with Probiotics
The basic dirt pot #2 and #2A from the second wheatgrass trial that showed no growth within
8 days from planting seeds has been put aside to be watered with filtered water and probiotics. It has
the same dirt with the same seeds. They will be labelled #BD 1 and BD 2.
Basic dirt from 2nd Trial
#2
#2A
Figure 58. Same basic dirt and seeds from second wheatgrass trial
watered with filtered water and probiotic/mineral solution.
49
September 13, 2011 – weather at high 88 to low 62.
September 14, 2011 – weather at high 80 to low 62.
September 15, 2011 – weather at high 88 to low 59.
September 16, 2011 – weather at high 77 to low 59
September 16, 2011 – The third trial of wheatgrass has begun to show sprouts. All the
pots are successful showing growth except the basic dirt pots; pots #2 and #2A.
Figure 59. Third trial of wheatgrass – Pots from left to right – MGGS,
MGPS, basic dirt, and Kellogg with Living Earth Minerals.
#1 #2
#3
#4
Figure 60. Four days after initial planting of the wheatgrass seeds, the sprout are
beginning to shoot up.
The Kellogg with Living Earth Minerals with Probiotics in pot #1 and #1A (not
shown here) is showing the most growth, whereas the basic dirt pot #2 and #2A (not shown
here), once again, is showing no growth. The MGPS pot #3 and #3A (not shown here) is
presenting growth, along with the MGGS pot #4 and #4A (not shown here).
September 17, 2011 – weather at high 72 to low 59
September 18, 2011 – weather at high 85 to low 61
September 19, 2011 – weather at high 92 to low 59
September 20, 2011 – weather at high 87 to low 58
September 21, 2011 – weather at high 87 to low 59
50
September 22, 2011 – weather at high 96 to low 58
September 23, 2011 – weather at high 87 to low 62
September 24, 2011 – weather at high 74 to low 60
September 25, 2011 – weather at high 74 to low 59
September 26, 2011 – weather at high 79 to low 56
September 27, 2011 – weather at high 96 to low 58
4.4.2Third Wheatgrass Trial Growth Messurements
September 28, 2011 – weather at high 84 to low 63
#1 & #1A
#2 & #2A
#3 & #3A
#4 & #4A
Figure 61. From left to right – Organic, basic dirt, MGPS, MGGS.
Once again, the basic dirt yelled no sprouts.
Measurement of growth for all wheatgrass pots were taken except for the basic dirt that
showed no signs of life.
Figure 62. Organic wheatgrass growth measured at 8 inches
Figure 63. No wheatgrass growth in basic dirt soil
51
Figure 64. MGPS wheatgrass growth measured at 6.5 inches
Figure 65. MGGS wheatgrass growth measured at 4.5 inches
4.4.3 Calibration of Brix Meter for Third Wheatgrass Trial Brix Meter Readings
The Brix Meter was again tested for calibration by placing 3 drops of distilled water
on the main prism. The daylight plate prism is then closed so that the water spreads across the
entire surface of the prism without air bubbles or dry spots. It is necessary to let the sample
settle for 30 seconds and adjust to the ambient temperature of the refractometer. After each
sample testing, the Brix Meter was carefully cleaned with only warm water and dried with a
soft cloth. The Healthy Juicer was also cleaned after each sample plant was tested so as not
to contaminate the previous sampling.
4.4.4 Third testing with Wheatgrass plants Brix Meter readings.
Figure 66. Brix Meter calibrated at 0
#1
#1A
Figure 67. Brix Meter reading on the wheatgrass in organic soil pots #1 and #1A
average at 12 .
52
#2
#2A
Figure 68. No Brix Meter reading on the wheatgrass in basic soil pots #2 and #2A
average at 0.
#3
#3A
Figure 69. Brix Meter reading on the wheatgrass in MGPS soil pots #3 and #3A
averaged at 8.5 .
#4
#4A
Figure 70. Brix Meter reading on the wheatgrass in MGGS soil pots #4 and #4A
averaged at 7.5 .
4.4.5 The Brix Meter average for all the wheatgrass plants:

Kellogg Organic with Probitics and filtered water Pot #1 – 11

Kellogg Organic with Probitics and filtered water Pot #1A – 13

Basic Dirt with tap water Pot #2 – 0

Basic Dirt with tap water Pot #2A - 0

MGPS with tap water Pot #3 – 8
Average 12
Average 0
Average 8.50

MGPS with tap water Pot #3A – 9

MGGS with tap water Pot #4 – 8

MGGS with tap water Pot #4A – 7
Average 7.50
4.4.6 The variable wheatgrass trial was basic dirt that was watered with filtered water
along with Living Earth Minerals with Probiotics.
Where the basic dirt wheatgrass with tap water showed no sign of growth. With the
Living Earth Minerals and Probiotics, there was some growth.
53
#BD 1 & #BD 2
Figure 71. Basic dirt wheatgrass
trial with minerals and probiotics
Figure 72. Basic dirt wheatgrass
growth measured at 5.5 inches
#BD 2
#BD 1
Figure 73. Brix Meter readings on Basic Dirt Wheatgrass with Living
Earth Minerals and filtered water.

Basic Dirt with filtered water and Living Earth Minerals #BD 1– 3
Average 3

Basic Dirt with filtered water and Living Earth Minerals #BD 2 - 3
4.5 Statistics – The Mann -Whitney U Test on wheatgrass trial
Few, if any, data presented here met the criteria necessary to allow parametric
statistical testing (e.g. normality of distribution, the measurements must be made in at least an
interval scale): hence all analysis required non-parametric statistics. The statistical tests and
the symbol used here may be found in SIEGAL (1956). Correlations are tested with onetailed region of rejection. The region of rejection for all tests done here were equal to or less
than a ‗p value‘ of .05.
4.5.1 Wheatgrass Statistics:
A – represents wheatgrass in Kellogg‘s Organic soil with Living Earth Minerals and
Probiotics
B – represents wheatgrass in Basic Dirt
C – represents wheatgrass in Miracle Grow Potting Soil
54
D – represents wheatgrass in Miracle Grow Garden Soil
Testing of A and B – (u = 0, n1= 6, n2 = 6, p < 0.001)
Testing of A and C - (u = 3, n1= 6, n2 = 6, p < 0.001)
Testing of A and D - (u = 4.5, n1= 6, n2 = 6, p < 0.02)
Testing of C and D - (u = 16.5, n1= 6, n2 = 6, p > 0.05)
Testing of B and D - (u = 2, n1= 6, n2 = 6, p < 0.05) (no growth in basic dirt skewed these
tests)
Testing B and C - (u = 0, n1= 6, n2 = 6, p < 0.001)
4.6 Conclusion:
With all the variables present the one constant component that shows the wheatgrass
plants with more nutritional value are the ones watered with the Living Earth Minerals with
Probiotics. Even the basic dirt which failed to yelled any growth on the second and third trials
showed some instigation of growth in the variable wheatgrass trial only when the Living
Earth Minerals with Probiotics were employed. Albeit, the levels were still extremely low to
sustain life, it did show that the minerals with probiotics assisted with the necessary spark of
life to help the seeds germinate.
According to the Bovis scale, in order to sustain life in living organisms, the minimal
energy point is found at 6,500 Bovis Energy Units (Bovis, 1930). The minimal energy level
for humans is found between 8,000 to 10,000 Bovis Energy Units. If human beings are
consuming foods that are below 6,500, and are not supplementing with vitamins, minerals,
and probiotics, then there will be a decline in health and vulnerable to many illnesses.
Adding up the readings from the Brix Meter, measurements of growth, and statistics,
the wheatgrass with the highest level of nutrition were the plants watered with Living Earth
Minerals with Probiotics.
55
Chapter 5 - Conclusion
The data presented for each trial (lettuce and wheatgrass) is showing the hypothesis to
have validity whereas the necessity of minerals and probiotics to nourish the plants making
them nutritionally superior for human beings appears to be true. Throughout all testing, the
group with the highest Brix meter reading was the plants that were grown in the Kellogg
organic soil with Living Earth Minerals and Probiotics. The Mann-Whitney U test showed
within the lettuce trial that there is a statistically significant difference in the plants
consuming minerals with probiotics as they ranked higher on the Brix meter which is
designed to determine the nutritional quality of each plant.
The wheatgrass trial was found to be slightly askew primarily because the seeds
trying to germinate in the basic dirt only sprouted on the first batch. The second and third
batches did not show any sprout growth what-so-ever. However, the result proves the
hypothesis to have some validity because each batch of basic dirt used to grow the
wheatgrass seeds after the first batch sprouted did not germinate to sprouts. The basic dirt
came from the same patch of dirt that was originally taken from the yard. Imitating the
1930‘s dust bowl event and simulating the same dirt conditions whereas the farmers could not
get their seeds to germinate because the top soil with most of the nutrients had washed away.
The variable trial that was set up with the same basic dirt that wouldn‘t germinate any
sprouts of wheatgrass seeds was used and given the Living Earth Minerals with probiotics.
That batch did germinate enough to give a Brix meter reading.
When the insects came to prey on the lettuce, they only attacked the plants that were
not given the Living Earth Minerals with Probiotics. It was necessary to spray an insecticide
on those plants growing in basic dirt and synthetic soil, but not the plants grown in Kellogg‘s
organic soil with Living Earth Minerals with Probiotics added to their water.
56
It appears the variable difference between all the batches used in these trials were the
plants that were watered with filtered water supplemented with Living Earth Minerals with
Probiotics. The other difference showed up in the growth height of each batch. The seeds
that germinated within the Kellogg organic soil watered with filtered water with Living Earth
Minerals with Probiotics actually showed a difference in size. The wheatgrass measured
longer when it was grown in organic soil with minerals and probiotics. These supplemented
plants achieved higher Brix meter readings indicating a higher level of nutrition.
The overall conclusion is that whether the seeds are conventional or organic the
determining factor for the highest grade of nutrition is reliant upon the quality of the soil and
its levels of minerals and probiotics.
5.1 Discussion:
History repeats itself in many ways. Through the wheatgrass and lettuce trials, it was
clear that if you set up the same conditions of the soil in America during the first part of this
20th century, you would begin to see why farmers were losing their crops and their ability to
sustain their farms.
5.1.1 Soil Erosion
By 1928 over 126 billion pounds of plant-food material was removed annually from
the fields and pastures due to cultivation and overgrazed pastures and ranges. The plant-food
elements lost through the cultivation and overgrazed pastures was phosphorus, potash, lime,
magnesia, sulphur, and nitrogen. Potash are salts that contain potassium in water-soluble
form. Today, potash is produced worldwide at amounts exceeding 30 million tons per year to
be used in fertilizers (Bennett & Chapline, 1928).
Rainwash removed not only the plant-food elements but also the soil itself. The plantfood elements removed by crops could have been restored in the form of fertilizers, manures,
and soil-improving crops turned under, but the soil that was washed out of fields could not be
57
restored. An important note is that the crops do not take away the soil, but extract nutrients
from it. The erosion of this soil was obviously an immediate loss to the farmer. A
considerable part of the eroded soil went into water ways and clogged channels and made
swampy and much less valuable land. When the top soil was gone and its valuable humus
(refers to any organic matter that has reached a point of stability) and nitrogen were no more,
the soil became less productive, less permeable, less absorptive, and raw subsoil was exposed
in its place. This had to be loosened, aerated, and supplied with much needed humus to put it
back into a condition suited to plant growth. To bring this kind of soil back into nutrient-rich
medium would take a lot of work and money. This exposed raw subsoil was heavier than the
original soil, stiffer, more difficult to plow, less penetrable to plant roots, less absorptive or
retentive. At this stage, the plant-food elements frequently had not been converted into
available plant nutrients to anything like the degree that obtains in the displaced surface soil.
(Bennett & Chapline, 1928).
Farmers began to move from the east to the west because they were economically
vulnerable due to factors beyond their control. Environmental conditions greatly affected the
farmers‘ economy. Mother Nature‘s wrath severely harmed the farmers. First, floods caused
the erosion of the land and destroyed the scarce fertile topsoil. Farmers, who were suffering
from a loss due to the weather damaging the crops, now had to buy overly expensive fertilizer
to repair the land before next season‘s crops had to be planted. Secondly, the plants were not
thriving and due to the lack of production the farmers had to leave their farms. From 1930 to
1936, the Dust Bowl, or the Dirty Thirties, was a period of severe dust storms causing major
economical and agricultural damage to American lands. A horrific time that was caused by
severe drought coupled with decades of extensive farming without crop rotation, fallow
fields, and cover crops planted between main crops to prevent erosion or to be plowed in to
enrich the soil or other techniques to prevent wind erosion. Deep plowing of the virgin topsoil
58
of the Great Plains had displaced the natural deep-rooted grasses that normally kept the soil
in place and trapped moisture even during periods of drought and high winds.
Figure 74. Buried machinery in barn lot in Dallas, South Dakota, United
States during the Dust Bowl, an agricultural, ecological, and economic
disaster in the Great Plains region of North America in 1936. Photo from
Wikipedia
5.1.2 Loss of Minerals
The soil is a living thing! It has many of the characteristics of an animal and requires
the same kind of intelligent and sympathetic care as an animal in order for it to perform to its
utmost effective service. Because the soil began to erode and the nutrients found themselves
at the bottom of water ways and away from the much needed fields, the plants became weak
and sick. The inertness of the freshly exposed material was obvious when compared with the
productivity brought about in the original surface soils.
As with the basic dirt trials, each time the dirt was taken from the same patch of earth,
only deeper in the ground, the loss of minerals began to rear its ugly head when the second
and third batch of wheatgrass seeds could not germinate.
59
The soil was beginning to lose its life force. It was Antoine Bovis, a French physicist,
who created The Life Force Index or Bovis Scale. He theorized and thought about creating
this scale while doing research among the Great Pyramids of Egypt in the 1930's. Today, this
Bovis Energy Scale is used to measure "Natural Earth Energy‖ ranging from zero to infinity.
Bovis Scale is also known as the Bovis Biometer. Not only does it measure the life
force energy level of food, but also medicine, living beings, objects and geographic places. It
quantifies or measures how positively or negatively charged a substance is. For living
organisms, the key reference point on the scale is found at 6,500 Bovis Energy Units. From 0
to 6,500, the charge is in the negative range, or life-detracting, while above the 6,500 point
the energy gradually becomes more positive, or life-enhancing. (Bovis, 1930).
Figure 75. The Bovis Scale quantifies or measures how positively or
negatively charged a substance is.
The desired minimal energy level for humans is found between 8,000 to 10,000 Bovis
Energy Units, or slightly positive. The Earth itself creates energy in the 7,000 to 18,000
range. This energy is also referred to as "Biophotons" (life – light), which are light particles
invisible to our eyes. This positive radiation is necessary to the maintenance of life on Earth.
(Bovis, 1930). Based off the lettuce and wheatgrass trials, it was only the plants watered with
Living Earth Minerals and Probiotics that were able to achieve neutral point of 6,500 for
human life.
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What Antoine Bovis found was that it was necessary for the soil to have a certain life
force in order for the seed to properly sprout. Understanding that life force, you soon come to
understand that it is the minerals within the soil that are creating the positive or negative
charges in order to bring sustaining life to the seed. Just as he discovered in the Great
Pyramids of Egypt that in the rooms made for the great pharaohs there were gifts of food
presented for the incarnation of the deceased Pharaoh to take on his spiritual journey. The
energy of these rooms were found by Bovis to have preserved the food after thousands of
years. It was the same positive energy that is necessary for the maintenance of our soils to
give life to our plants. The seed has to die before it germinates. When the seed dies, there is a
―spark of life‖ transfer from the whole seed to the germ. The seed is food for the germ to
grow. The germ is the part of the seed that actually grows. When it germinates the soil reads
the Bovis energy in the surrounding area and it dictates how big the plant will grow and how
much fruit it will produce. Today, the average life force of our produce is registering on the
Bovis Biometer at a bare 6,000 Bovis Energy Units.
It was obvious in the early twentieth century and known to all the farmers that the top
soil was being washed away by rain, irrigation and blown away by the wind. Our produce
grown on these soils still looked normal, but their nutritional value is suffering. The mineral
content had been slowly vanishing. The alarming fact is that fruits, vegetables and grains
were being raised on millions of acres of land that no longer contained enough of certain
minerals to prevent illness and disease. In order to garner enough minerals from the plants
grown on these deficient soils, one would have to eat huge portions beyond what the human
stomach can hold in a healthy manner.
By 1936, laboratory tests were showing that fruits, vegetables, grains, eggs, and even
the milk and meats products of the day were not supplying a human beings system with the
mineral salts they required for perfect health. ―It is bad news to learn from our leading
61
authorities that 99% of the American people are deficient in these minerals, and that a marked
deficiency in any one of the more important minerals actually results in disease. Any upset of
the balance, any considerable lack of one or another element, however, microscopic the body
requirement may be, and we sicken, and shorten our lives‖ (Beach, 1936).
The minerals that were vanishing from our soils were vital to human metabolism and
no plant or animal can create or acquire any mineral which is necessary for human life that is
not present in the soil from where our plants feed upon. We knew that vitamins and minerals
were indispensable to daily nutrition and that each element synergistically worked with the
body to keep homeostasis. Just as we learned that vitamin C deficiency will lead to scurvy,
there are many disorders and diseases as a result of vitamin and mineral deficiencies.
Vitamins control the body‘s appropriation of minerals and that in the absence of minerals
they have no function to perform. ―Lacking vitamins, the system can make some use of
minerals, but lacking minerals, vitamins are useless‖ (Beach, Northen, 1936).
Questions began to rise in regards to how long the soil will last and continue to produce
satisfactory crops. Some believed the soil will last only a comparatively few years unless
certain plant food elements such as phosphorus and potassium are returned to the soil in
proportion to the amount removed from the farm by crops themselves. Many believed that the
soil had regenerative power and that its life was indefinite along with the ability to continue
to produce crops as long as man had the skills to work the soil. Such a view is almost forced
when we look back at the evidence presented by the older cultivated soils of Europe and
Asia. In the past 300 years the yield of wheat per acre in England, France, and German had
increased several times over. These lands had been occupied for agricultural purposes for
1,000 to 2, 000 years. Interestingly, the old Greek philosophers nearly 3,000 years ago were
speculating on how long the soils would last for the increasing population of the world
(Whitney, 1925).
62
What is not taken into consideration is that it is not how much produce you grow,
rather than what quality of produce you are growing? To the layman, dirt is dirt! They
assume that by adding a little fertilizer to the dirt, that the vegetable or fruit can be grown.
But, in truth, without the proper vitamins and minerals within the fruit or vegetable that that
individuals will consume, many of these foods are not worth eating.
Table 2
Percentage of mineral depletion from soil during the past 100 years, by continent:
North America
South America
Asia
Africa
Europe
Australia
85%
76%
76%
74%
72%
55%
Chart from Medical Missionary Press – http://www.mmpress.info
5.1.3 Lack of Trace Minerals
It was not just the minerals that were lacking in the basic dirt and synthetic soils, but
the lack of trace minerals that are the synergistic components to creating the spark of life.
Although most people know minerals are important to their health, few people know exactly
why or even that much about them. Biochemically speaking, minerals are inorganic chemical
elements not attached to a carbon atom.
Minerals include colloidal, elemental, essential, ionic, chelated, organic, plant,
inorganic, trace, metallic, sea, fulvic, volcanic, pure, leached, composted, glacial, rock, coral,
ancient and liquid. These are all minerals associated with health.
When we speak of trace elements, we mean an element occurring in amounts less than
0.01 % of the human body. Elements making up the bulk of a plant or animal make up the
bulk of living, growing matter. Elements used in traces in man are used in traces by plants
and animals (Schauss, 1995).
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No element in the concentrations found in sea water is toxic to living things.
However, all elements are toxic in large enough amounts because they are insoluble or
completely inert. It was Gabriel Bertrand, a French scientist and the father of the study of
trace elements, established a rule which eventually became Bertrand’s Law of Optimal
Nutritive Concentrations. It stated that in the absence of an essential element a plant cannot
live. A plant thrives on just the right amount but in excess, the plant will die. (Shroeder,
1973)
Table 3.
Essential trace elements in sea water and in the earth‘s crust
Table from Trace Elements and Man
Elements taken up by agricultural crops are removed upon harvesting and, with
leaching or erosion dramatically alters the mineral balance of the soil. Thus, the mineral
content of soils used to produce each crop that comes to harvest undergoes a steady decline
which must be balanced by inputs of soil conditioners and fertilizers if the system is to
remain viable and productive.
Nutrient elements are lost from the root zone of the plants. This is the area in the soil
occupied by the roots of a plant. The residual minerals of little chemical benefit to plants,
mainly kaolinitic clays (a clay mineral), iron, aluminum oxides, and oxyhydroxides, tend to
accumulate in the soil. As time passes, crops come and go, the weathering, leaching, and
64
element depletion processes continues and the growing conditions for plants of all kinds
become more stressful. The plants begin to show symptoms of the increased stress that show
up as low energy, poor root development, slow growth, low resistance to pests and diseases,
low yields, and declining nutritional value of the produce (Schroeder, 1973).
As the symptoms continue, modern day agriculture's use of conventional technology,
using applications of NPK fertilizers, a range of chemicals, and crop rotations are nothing
more than expensive quick fixes. They fail to address the fundamental, long term problems of
nutritionally deficient soils that are mineral deficient and worn-out (Coventry, 2007).
When vital minerals and essential elements are restored to the soil through
conditioning and minerals are reintroduced, the stress the plant feels are reversed, and the
plants respond positively. A number of scientific studies have documented the benefits of
remineralizing the soil in the highly weathered conditions in Mauritius, Hawaii, Florida, and
Brazil. (D'Hotman de Villiers, 1961, 1962), (Clements 1965), (Fox, 1967), (Plucknett, 1972),
(Gascho,1978), (Leonardos, 1987).
There is a distinction between minerals and trace minerals or trace elements. If the
body requires more than 100 milligrams of 11 minerals each day, then the substance is
labelled a mineral. If the cellular body requires less than this, it is labelled a trace mineral.
Trace minerals are generally needed in quantities of only a few milligrams (mg) or
micrograms (mcg) per day.
When studying the relationship of minerals to human health, it becomes extremely
obvious that keeping a balanced level of minerals in every organ, tissue and cell of the human
body may be a prominent key to maintaining a disease free body.
Even though minerals are only a fraction of the total body weight of a human being,
they are crucial for many body functions including transporting oxygen, normalizing the
nervous system and simulating growth, maintenance and repair of tissues and bones.
65
Minerals and trace minerals can be of the most benefit if they are in balance with
other elements they interact with:
 Calcium: Known to help develop and maintain healthy bones and teeth along with
normal blood clotting. Among other jobs for calcium it also helps with muscle
contraction, nerve transmission, oxygen transport. cellular secretion of fluids and enzyme
activity. Optimal absorption helps reduce risk of osteoporosis.
 Chromium: Used to regulate blood sugar and aids in glucose metabolism by potentiating
insulin and serving as a component of glucose tolerance factor.
 Colbalt: Helps in the formulation of red blood cells and serves as a component of the
vitamin B-12.
 Copper: Is necessary for normal red blood cell and connective tissue formation. It also
acts as a catalyst to store and release iron to help from hemoglobin.
 lodine: Needed by the thyroid to help in the conversation process, T4 to T3, and to
support the metabolism.
 Iron: Required for transport of oxygen throughout the body and necessary for red blood
cell formation. Important for brain function. Women of childbearing age require higher
amounts.
 Magnesium: Critical for proper heart function. Over 100 enzymes are activated by
magnesium and it helps nerve and muscle function. Helps maintain the integrity of cell
membranes and stabilizes the cell electrically
 Manganese: Mandatory key component of enzyme systems, including oxygen-handling
enzymes. Also, supports brain function and reproduction and is required for blood sugar
regulation. It is also part of bone structure.
 Molybdenum: Key component in many enzyme systems including enzymes involved in
detoxification. Contributes to normal growth and development.
66
 Phosphorous: Works hand and hand with calcium to develop and maintain strong bones
and teeth. Synergistically works with other nutrients. Important in the cell membrane
integrity and intercellular communication. Critical for processing of energy in the body.
 Potassium: Regulates heartbeat, maintains fluid balance and helps muscles contract.
 Selenium: Major antioxidant enzyme and necessary for normal growth and development.
Assists in detoxification of heavy metals, such as mercury. Plays an important role in
production of antibodies by the immune system. Component of teeth.
 Sulfur: Critical role in liver detoxification. Needed for structure of most protein,
including muscles, skin, and hair.
 Zinc: Important part of more than 200 enzymes involved in digestion, metabolism,
reproduction, and wound healing. Plays a critical role in immune response and is an
important antioxidant.
5.1.4 Lack of Probiotics
Real soil is active and alive. It‘s teaming with living microorganisms called,
Probiotics. From the Latin translation, pro is a preposition meaning “for" and the Greek
adjective biotic from the noun bios meaning ―life.‖
When these pro-life microbes are swimming and breeding in our soil, the plants reap
the benefits toward optimum health. Without the probiotics within our soil to gobble up the
much needed minerals, digest them so they are bio-available for the plants to be able to
absorb them, then the plant will become sick, weak, diseased, and vulnerable to insects and
death (Lowenfels & Lewis, 2006).
Even though some synthetic soils incorporate the bare necessity of the much needed
components to spark life from a germinating seed, such as nitrogen, potassium, and
phosphorus, if huge populations of probiotics are missing or killed off within the soil, the
nutritional value of the plant will show deficiencies.
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Living soil, teaming with probiotics, is the energy field that transmutes nutrients into
the plant for strength and wellbeing. They also improve the soil structure by producing the
slime that binds the tiny individual soil particles into larger aggregates. These probiotics
provide defenses against disease and actually hunt down and capture bad bacteria and stop
them from doing damage to the plant. Some probiotics act like doctors, dispensing vitamins
and hormones, or will serve as barriers around plants to protect them from predators trying to
get at the plant‘s roots.
If man would investigate the life within the soil he would realize that the world of dirt
with probiotics is governed by a survival mode. In the soils of today, over 200 species of
carnivorous fungi are feasting on nematodes; a kind of round body worm, i.e. round-worm or
hook-worm. These fungi, microorganisms, will use a lassos technique along with various
other methods to trap the worms. They will penetrate its body with root-like projections from
its cells called ‗infestation hyphae‘ and drawn out the nutrients it needs (Lowenfels & Lewis,
2009).
Figure 76. A foraging, root-eating nematode,
trapped by a fungal hypha. Photo from Teaming
with Microbes
Probiotics influence the pH of the soil which determines what kind of nitrogen is
available, nitrate or ammonium. A plant that receives its preferred form of nitrogen will
perform at its best. The microorganisms within the soil have been greatly reduced through
modern day agriculture. The destruction of our soils by erosion, depletion of minerals and
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trace minerals along with a lack of probiotics has created a sick environment in where we
plant the very foods our civilization has to have in order to survive. Because of this decline,
the inabilities of minerals and trace elements to make their way into the plants we eat are
causing our produce to be empty and nutritionally deficient in disease preventive materials.
5.2 Sick Soil, Sick Plants
For the duration of the trials, no insects were found to invade the lettuce plants that
were grown in the Kellogg organic soil with Living Earth Minerals with Probiotics. The other
lettuce plants grown in the basic dirt, Miracle Grow Potting Soil and Miracle Grow Garden
Soil were attacked by insects. An insecticide was used to stop any further destruction. The
question is, are human beings like plants in the way that if undernourished, will viruses,
bacteria, and cancer cells proliferate do to the lack of minerals and probiotics in the
individual‘s body leaving them like a sick plant ready to be devoured by bugs?
The farmer knows, insects do not eat healthy plants. When the vitamins and minerals
are present within the soil, the plants are fortified with the necessary means to fight off the
insects. When the plants lack the necessary elements to grow and be healthy, the insects sense
the plants fragility and vulnerability.
The study of Xenohormesis explains how polyphenols, certain molecules of the
plants, indicate stress in the plants, can have a positive effect in consumers of the plant.
Polyphenols are a large family of natural compounds widely distributed in plant foods that act
as antioxidants.
If the plants are under stress, their increased polyphenol content may signal
forthcoming famine conditions. It could be advantageous for the plant to begin to react by
preparing for the lean times to come (Sinclair, 2004).
However, there‘s another understanding about plants that mankind doesn‘t look at.
Millions of years ago, plants had multiple foliage with leaves and blooms subject to many
69
invaders, such as insects and animals. Because plants actually have a survival instinct, there
was an evolutionary change that took place where the plant made a decision to not birth
endless leaves and blooms and chose only a limited supply in order for the leaves and blooms
to take up specific elements to make their leaves and blooms toxic to insects and animals.
Cocaine, heroin, and other toxic drugs were actually developed out of this survival
mechanism of plants (Haimoff, 2011). But, without the necessary minerals for the plants to
survive and make these decisions, their life is short lived.
In 2006, the SEER (Sustainable Ecological Earth Regeneration) Centre in Scotland,
created the first scientifically controlled field trials of soil re-mineralization. Their conclusion
was that unless vital nutrients and elements are placed back into the soil, then the quality of
food and the well-being of the planet will deteriorate (Fletcher, 2006).
This study was instigated by a book written by Graham Harvey, ―We Want Real
Food.‖ He states that a teaspoonful of healthy soil contains over 5 billion living organisms
from some 10,000 different species. As well as the earthworms that eat many times their own
weight in soil each day and the dung beetles that drag little balls of nutrient-rich animal
droppings down shallow tunnels where plant roots can feed off them, there are thousands of
species that are invisible to the naked eye (Harvey, 2006). Biologists have known of their
existence for over a century, although some have only been fully understood recently. Take
the thread-like fungi or microrrhizae that form intricate links with plant roots. They feed on
the sap of the plant but in return they increase a plant's ability to take up minerals from the
soil, and thereby become good food for us. But it is the business of chemicals rather than
biology that has ruled our industrial agriculture for more than half a century.
Chemical farming has subjected these vital microorganisms to a toxic barrage, and
does its best to obliterate them. The farmers of today have no choice but to depend on
synthesized nitrate fertilizers, because agribusiness has depleted the soil of the minerals, trace
70
elements, and probiotics. We can‘t grow healthy plants. Over the last 50 years vegetables
have lost a quarter of their magnesium, more than a quarter of their iron and nearly half of
their calcium. The result is impoverished food, sick animals, and a catalogue of degenerative
human diseases.
The problem is you cannot get all the nutrients you need from today‘s food, no matter
how healthy you eat. Yes, plants do manufacture vitamins, but they cannot manufacture
minerals, and vitamins can only be utilized properly by the body if minerals are present, in
the proper ratios. Without all 90 essential nutrients, the chemical reactions that make vitamins
useable will not take place. Approximately 70 to 84 minerals are necessary for a healthy body
and farmers are only replacing 3 back into the soil. Human beings are becoming more and
more nutritionally deficient every day. Because of this lack of nutrients, your body has little
chance of maintaining its once healthy state. What most people think are signs of ―aging‖ is
really the beginning of a physical decline that doesn‘t have to happen.
Vitamins and minerals act as co-factors for each other. For each vitamin there is a
specific mineral that makes it work and vice versa. Without this relationship between vitamin
and mineral, either one won‘t perform its job. We have over 300 billion cells within our
bodies and they are not designed to consume rocks! The most utilizable form of minerals
comes from plants that have taken minerals up through their root system, with the help of
probiotics. Had we not destroyed our soils throughout the years, we would have been taking
up vitamins and minerals that we need from our food, which would then allow the proper
chemical reactions to happen within our bodies. Unfortunately, because of our mineral
deficient soils, this is just not possible. You can eat the healthiest foods available and you still
won‘t be getting the benefit from the vitamins in that food if minerals are not present because
without minerals, vitamins are ineffective.
71
This mineral deficiency within our foods and soil was brought to the attention of the
US Government in 1936 by a well known Senate Document #264 presented by Rex Beach,
entitled ―Modern Miracle Men.‖ Beach presented this article to the 74th Congress, Second
Session. His final statement was, ―It is simpler to cure sick soils than sick people – which
shall we choose?‖ (Beach, Senate Doc 264, 1936).
In 1977 US Department of Agriculture report to Congress: ―In the future, we will not
be able to rely anymore on our premise that the consumption of a varied balanced diet will
provide all the essential trace elements, because such a diet will be very difficult to obtain for
millions of people‖ (Mertz, 1977). This statement holds true today for we cannot acquire the
proper amount of nutrients from our fruits and vegetables to satiate our body‘s nutritional
needs.
American farmers are not chemists. They have been doing what they‘ve been told to
do to help them make a living with their long history of farming. They have been educated by
the chemical corporate world to achieve crop yields with the chemical fertilizer, NPK, (the
minerals, Nitrogen, Phosphorous, and Potassium) for over the past 100 years without adding
any other nutrients back into the soil. Nitrogen, Phosphorous, and Potassium are only 3 of the
approximately 70 plus essential minerals that are known to be necessary to the human body.
Our soils have been starved by neglecting to replenish these missing minerals for so many
years. The farms and range soils have become depleted of essential nutrients. As Beach stated
to US Senate in Document #264, ―The alarming fact is that foods now being raised on
millions of acres of land that no longer contains enough of certain needed minerals, are
starving us—no matter how much of them we eat‖ (Beach, 1936).
The nutritional deterioration of our soils and bodies are now showing an
unprecedented increase in mineral deficiency diseases such as: Arthritis, High Blood
Pressure, Asthma, Type II Diabetes, and Heart Disease. Just as insects do not eat healthy
72
plants, disease does not just happen to healthy people. Years and years of nutritional
deficiencies create poor health.
This has become a growing issue and there are many scientists and doctors who set
out to show society that we are in trouble. Even as early as the 1940s, Dr David Thomas, a
primary healthcare practitioner and independent researcher, made a comparison of
government tables published in 1940, and again in 2002 (Fletcher, 2006)
Table 4
Comparison chart of loss of minerals in vegetables, fruit, and meat from 1940 to 1991
in Europe (Fletcher, 2006).
Year of Analysis
Mineral
1940
1991
1940
1991
1940
1990
1940
1991
1940
1991
1940
1991
1940
1991
Sodium
Na
Potassium
K
Phosphorous
P
Magnesium
Mg
Calcium
Ca
Iron
Fe
Copper
Cu
Vegetables Fruit
Meat
27 Varieties 17 Varieties 10 cuts
Less 49%
Less 29%
Less30%
Less 16%
Less 19%
Less 16%
Plus 9%
Plus 2%
Less 28%
Less 24%
Less 16%
Less 10%
Less 46%
Less 16%
Less 41%
Less 27%
Less 24%
Less 54%
Less 76%
Less 20%
Less 24%
Note. But statistics clearly show that there is something seriously
wrong with levels of nutritional awareness in Europe.
Because animals are eating sick, nutritionally deprived plants for sustenance Dr.
Thompson concludes that the iron content in 15 different varieties of meat had decreased on
average by 47%, with some products showing a fall as high as 80%, while the iron content of
milk had dropped by over 60%.
73
Dairy foods have experienced a 90% fall in copper, while the calcium loss in highvalue parmesan cheese was an extraordinary 70%, implying a considerable dilution of the
original highly concentrated recipe (Fletcher, 2006).
Dr. Thompson‘s study revealed that the nutritional quality of vegetables has also
fallen. He asked, "Why is it that you have to eat four carrots to get the same amount of
magnesium as you would have done in 1940?" The realization that Dr. Thompson‘s statistics
only go up to 1991. It has now been 20 years from those conclusions and our soils have not
improved and are assaulted now more than ever.
It‘s a strong belief by many who share this knowledge that if our soils were remineralized and good probiotics used as a soil supplement then many problems connected to
malnutrition, disease and the poor nutritional quality of food would disappear. Food is only as
good as the earth it comes from and clearly we have not had the same rich soil the world had
200 years ago.
With our use of new technology and chemicals we have begun to play God with our
soils and forgot about the little critters that make the world beneath our feet rich in nutrition.
Earthworms are eating machines! They eat primarily bacteria. They are a powerful force
within the soil. They are involved in the shredding of organic matter, they aerated the soil,
and they are involved in the movement of organic matter and microorganism through the soil.
They also increase microbial population and aid in plant root growth. They re-mineralizes
soil and compost to boost soil fertility (Lowenfels & Lewis, 2006).
We are in an era of increasing industrial and chemical pollution of our soils and this is
in particularly killing earthworms. Annually plant mass that goes into the soil and the
digestive tract of animals decomposes, emitting about 28 billion tons of CO2 and energy.
Land animals and people from this number falls to no more than 10%, the remaining 90% is
recycled by soil‘s life, which biomass at 50% to 72% is earthworms.
74
Earthworms are the most numerous and important invertebrates on Earth. The total
number of earthworms in our soils for farming before the use of agricultural chemicals
ranged from 500 thousand to 20 million individuals per hectare (2.471 acres). Earthworms
absorb along with soil an enormous amount of detritus (loose fragments), microbes, fungi,
algae, protozoa, nematodes, etc. and digest them. Earthworm castings are the excretions left
behind by worms after they finish digesting the organic matter that makes up their diet.
Through their feces or castings, they emit a lot of their own intestinal microflora, enzymes,
vitamins, biologically active substances that inhibit the growth of harmful microorganisms,
also suppress the putrefactive processes, neutralize and decontaminate the soil.
Today, they are being destroyed by acid rains, chemical fertilizers and pesticides. We
need to realize that by losing earthworms the soil loses fertility. Restoration and revival of
soil fertility of rich land is impossible without the restoration and enhancement of living
matters (Lowenfels & Lewis, 2006).
Because each mineral element plays an important role in nutrition a very, welldefined set of symptoms will appear in the absence of a mineral. To quote Rex Beach again,
from his article to the 74th Congress, Second Session, Document No. 264 in 1936, ―Sick soils
mean sick plants, sick animals, and sick people. Physical, mental and moral fitness depends
largely upon an ample supply and a proper proportion of minerals in our foods. Nerve
function, nerve stability and nerve cell-building likewise depend upon trace minerals‖
(Beach, 1936)
Because our soils are so seriously deficient in minerals, trace elements, probiotics,
and earthworms they cannot produce plant life that is nutritionally sound in order to maintain
our needs to keep us disease free.
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5.3 Chemicals
CALIFORNIA FARMER – JULY 31, 1946
INSECTICIDE WARNING
Keep on the safe side with insecticides. The National Safety Council warns summer
gardeners that plant sprays and poisons claim many child lives each year. Keep
poison locked up.
Insects don‘t eat healthy plants! The sicker the plants got, the faster the insects
invaded. Once man altered nature, the war on Mother Earth began. However, the consumer of
these plants were not aware of their deficiencies and by making sure there is always enough
food, the deception of modern day wealth is shattered by the lack of quality of the nutrition
within the plant foods.
The agricultural industry now began one of the most alarming assaults upon the
environment ever to be perpetuated upon mankind. A contamination of the air, earth, rivers,
and sea with dangerous and lethal chemicals known as pesticides began and never ended.
Human beings are unknowingly being poisoned with carcinogenic chemicals from the
moment of conception until death.
During WWII, our military tactics took us into developing agents of chemical warfare
and many of the chemicals that were created in the laboratory were also found to be lethal to
insects. At that time, insects were used for chemical testing, so it was a natural segue into
making pesticides for farm produce.
There were natural pesticides before all this reckless altering of atoms and molecules.
They were derived from naturally occurring minerals and plant products, such as compounds
of arsenic, copper, lead, manganese, zinc, and other minerals, pyrethrum from the dried
flowers of chrysanthemums, nicotine sulphate from some off shoots of tobacco, and rotenone
from leguminous plants from the East Indies.
76
However, these new synthetic insecticides have the power to not only poison and kill
insects, but destroy enzymes within the human body designed to protect us. They block the
oxidation processes from which the body receives its energy, they prevent the normal
function of various organs, and are extremely carcinogenic. The production of synthetic
pesticides in the United States soared from 124,000 to 259,000 pounds in 1947. By 1960, the
number climbed to 637,666,000 pounds (Carson, 1962). Today, nearly 500,000 tons of
pesticides, including more than 500 different types of chemicals, are used annually in the
U.S. (Agriculture & Public Health, 2010). This is a multi-billion dollar a year business and
it‘s not going away.
Of the old standard pesticides was arsenic. It is a highly toxic mineral, tasteless, and
carcinogenic. Areas that were contaminated with arsenic had sickness and death among
horses, cows, goats, pigs, deer, fishes, and bees. It was because of the wide use of the arsenic
crop spraying that the beekeeping industry in the United States almost died out.
Today, scientists have been studying the pollution in the air, water, land and in our
food. Up until 2005, they were focused on investigating how the pollution impacted the lives
of adults. However, in 2005 they found the pollution has reached babies during vital stages of
development.
A study done on the umbilical cord blood of 10 American newborns commissioned by
the Environmental Working Group confirmed an evitable nightmare. The group asked a lab
to test 10 American Red Cross cord blood samples for what they claimed is the most
extensive array of industrial chemicals, pesticides and other pollutants ever studied. The lab
tests were done in August and September of 2004 in United States hospitals. They found that
hundreds of industrial chemicals, pollutants and pesticides are pumped back and forth from
mother to fetus through umbilical cord blood (Environmental Working Group, 2005).
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The core blood samples showed 200 industrial contaminants along with mercury, fire
retardants, pesticides, and chemicals used in making Teflon, perfluorooctanoate (PFOA). In
total, the babies' blood had 287 chemicals, including 209 never before detected in cord blood
(EWG, 2005). Of those pesticides found in these fetus‘ core-blood samples were over 21
organochlorine pesticides (OCs), DDT, chlordane and other carcinogenic pesticides. Largely
banned in the U.S. and persist for decades in the environment. They accumulate up the food
chain from our plants, to humans and to our babies. They all cause cancer and numerous
reproductive effects.
5.3.1 Pesticides
Man failed to realize that plants have the ability to evolve and protect themselves
when given the necessary tools to create their own survival mechanisms. The theory as to
why the dinosaurs died was in fact the plants were being continuously consumed to maintain
the enormous bodies of these gigantic beings and many of the plants, out of survival, created
toxins within their leaves to ward off predators. In fact, the majority of plant species have
various kinds of fungi associated with their root systems in a kind of symbiotic association
known as mycorrhiza. This fungi helps the plants gain water and mineral nutrients from the
soil, while the plant gives the fungi carbohydrates manufactured in photosynthesis. Some
plants serve as homes for endophytic fungi that protect the plant from herbivores by
producing toxins. An endophytic fungi is an organism, especially a fungus or microorganism,
that lives inside a plant, in a parasitic or has a symbiotic relationship. The fungal endophyte,
Neotyphodium coenophialum, in tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea) does tremendous
economic damage to the cattle industry in the U.S.
Today, fescue toxicity in cattle is a serious problem. It causes a roughening of the
animal‘s coat in the summer and intolerance to heat. Cattle that graze on tall fescue are more
likely to stay in the shade or wade in the water in hot weather. In the winter, a condition
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known as "fescue foot" might afflict cattle. This results from vasoconstriction of the blood
vessels especially in the extremities, and causes a gangrenous condition. Untreated, the hoof
might slough off. Additionally, cattle may experience decreased weight gains and poor milk
production when heavily grazing infected tall fescue pasture. To deter toxicosis cattle should
be given alternative feed to dilute their infected tall fescue intake (Ball, 1993). Fescue pollen
is a significant contributor to hay fever.
However, the answer to a healthy plant is still not being addressed. For it is not the
protection human beings can bring upon the plants that will give us nutritional well
developed produce, but rather the replenishment of our soils with the minerals and probiotics
the plants need to live, survive, and become vehicles of nutrition to our human bodies.
More than ninety years ago, farmers were forced into using pesticides and converted
their organic farms into chemical ones. They knew that that they did not need to use so many
dangerous poisons since they once were able to achieve good yields and high quality produce
without them. However, the agribusiness was taking over due to the belief that chemicals
were necessary essential, progressive, economically more feasible, miraculous and even
heroic. Many organic farmers warned about health issues and the ignorant farmers were
being feed information from the manufacturers of these profitable chemicals that they were
not only safe to use, but also necessary to make a profit, to conduct the Second World War,
and to feed all the hungry people in the world. ―To read the label and follow the instructions,
you can‘t get hurt‖ they would say (Allen, 2008).
Many editorials in rural journals in the late 1930s and early 1940‘s would conclude
that spray-residue analysis is distorted by the natural presence of lead, arsenic, and fluorine in
a person‘s body. Magazines with these contributing articles would argue that necessary and
natural quantities of poisons significantly increased the level of lead and arsenic when federal
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investigators checked for residues in people or test animals. They claimed that the lead and
arsenic are totally safe in spite of irrefutable evidence that both were deadly (Allen, 2008).
Fluoride pesticides were very effective against the pests, and chemical corporations
aggressively began to promote their use as the fluoride sales soared until DDT became
popular.
5.3.2 DDT
Arsenic was deadly, but nothing could beat the new modern day insecticides. The vast
majority of the pesticides fell into one of two large groups of chemicals. One was represented
by Dichloro-Diphenyl-Trichloro-ethane (DDT), which is known as the chlorinated
hydrocarbons group. The other group consists of the organic phosphorus insecticide,
parathion. Parathion is an organophosphate compound. It is a potent insecticide and acaricide
(Acari group, which includes ticks and mites.).
DDT was first synthesized by a German chemist in 1874, but not yet developed as an
insecticide until 1939 by IG Farben. It was considered harmless because it was used during
wartime as a dusting of soldiers, refugees, and prisoners to combat lice with no ill effects.
However, this could have been because it was delivered in a powder form and not readily
absorbable through the skin. But, once it‘s mixed in oil as it was to be used on plants, then it
became highly toxic to all organisms, including humans. As it entered the body, it is stored in
organs rich in fatty substances, i.e. adrenals, testes, and thyroid. Other organs assaulted by
this chemical are the liver, kidneys, and parts of the intestinal tract.
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Figure 77. LACCO DDT dust and duster ad. From
California Cultivator, April 13, 1946. Illustration from
The War on Bugs (Allen, 2008)
As our plants began to be sprayed because of the insects consuming weak and sick
plants, DDT would be absorbed until quite high levels were reached. Once consumed, minute
quantities would bring about physiological changes within the body. Animal experiments
showed that only 3 parts per million proved to inhibit an essential enzyme in the heart
muscles and only 5 parts per million brought about necrosis and disintegration of liver cells.
DDT and many other related chemicals are passed along from one organism to
another until it has worked its way up the food chain. The plants grown to feed livestock that
were sprayed with DDT, eventually the chemical would be found in the tissues of the
livestock animals. From the animals to humans, it was inevitable. By 1950, The Food and
Drug Administration (FDA) scientists were testing human breast milk and recovered residues
of DDT that not only were fed to the new born infant, but most likely that fetus was exposed
while intrauterine. The FDA scientists stated in 1950 that it is ―extremely likely the potential
hazard of DDT has been underestimated.‖ Yet it persists in our soil and foodstuffs (Carson,
1962).
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DDT was banned in the United States in 1972 because it contributed to the near
extinction of birds, including the bald eagle and the peregrine falcon. Not necessarily because
of the danger it presents to human beings. Its use was banned or restricted in many other
countries, however there are proposals to ban it from all use. Chlorinated hydrocarbons group
and organophosphate compound are all built on a basis of carbon atoms which are also the
building blocks of life and for that reason, it is classified as ―organic.‖ Synthetic organic
insecticides do not naturally occur in the environment, but are synthesized by man. Since all
these compounds have carbon and hydrogen atoms as the basis of their molecule, as do living
plants and animals, they are referred to as organic compounds.
5.3.3 Dioxin
Although dioxins have been banned from the ingredients of pesticides in Australia for
more than a decade, many dioxins emerged in the manufacturing process and there was no
end-stage monitoring to protect consumers and the public, said University of Queensland
scientist Dr Caroline Gaus (Gaus, Science Alert, 2010). As an environmental scientist, she
worked on dioxins last year, 2010, and prompted governments around the world to suspend
the use of some pesticides she says are contributing more to the problem and authorities need
to act urgently.
Dioxins and dioxin-like compounds belong to a range of chemical compounds which
are known to exhibit ―dioxin-like‖ toxicity. 2,3,7,8- tetrachlorodibenzo para dioxin (TCDD)
is the actual chemical name of Dioxin. The name "dioxins" is often used for the family of
structurally and chemically related polychlorinated dibenzo para dioxins (PCDDs) and
polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs). Certain dioxin-like olychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs)
similar in toxicity are also labeled as dioxins. Over 419 types of dioxin-related compounds
have been identified, however, somewhere around 30 of these are considered to the most
toxic in relation to TCDD (World Health Organization, 2010).
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Figure 78. Dioxins are linked to a range of cancers and are
considered one of the most toxic man-made chemicals. They can
cause adverse health effects in humans and wildlife including
cancer, and act on development, reproduction and the endocrine
system. Illustration from Science Alert.
Just as DDT enters the body and finds its way to fatty tissues and organs, so do
dioxins and they too are highly toxic to our human bodies. Through experiments they have
learned that dioxins half-life in the body is estimated to be seven to eleven years. Humans
will obtain these toxins through our foods. The higher in the animal food chain one goes, the
higher the concentration of dioxins. Once it finds its way into the human body the destruction
is endless. These chemicals are also known as xeno-estrogens, meaning that they mimic
estrogen making an individual estrogen toxic. Because of this dioxins can cause reproductive
and developmental problems, damage to the immune system, interfere with hormones and
will cause cancer. There is no getting away from dioxins for all people have been exposed to
these toxic chemicals.
Many countries are now aware of this toxic problem and monitor their food supply for
dioxins. There are several sited incidents of dioxin contamination throughout the world. In
2004 in the Netherlands it was found at high levels in the milk through the animal feed.
Tested again for contamination it was detected in high levels in the actual animal feed in
2006. In Ireland a recall of many tons of pork meat and pork products took place in 2008.
Over 200 times more dioxins than the safe limit were detected in samples of pork. The
contamination was traced back to contaminated feed (World Health Organization, 2010).
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In 2007, the EPA detected the highest level of dioxin ever discovered in Michigan‘s
rivers and lakes in waterways near Dow's global headquarters located in Midland, Michigan.
Dioxin levels in some places were a thousand times higher than the residential standard,
according to the Michigan Department of Environmental Quality. A recent study found
women living in Midland, as well as Saginaw and Bay counties, have significantly higher
rates of breast cancer and it was dioxin to blame. A class action lawsuit is pending (Lappe',
2011).
In July 2007, high levels of dioxins were detected in a food additive, guar gum traced
from India that was contaminated with pentachlorophenol (PCP), a pesticide no longer in use.
PCP contains dioxins as contamination. The European Commission issued a health warning
to its Member States.
Belgium in 1999, high levels of dioxins were found in poultry, eggs, and pork along
with other nearby countries due to contaminated animal feed with illegally disposed PCBbased waste industrial oil.
In 1998, high levels of dioxins in milk sold in Germany were traced to citrus pulp
pellets used as animal feed exported from Brazil. The investigation resulted in a ban on all
citrus pulp imports to the EU from Brazil.
Dioxins are here to stay and there are short-term exposure and long-term exposure
issues. The short term exposure of dioxins in humans results in skin lesions, darkening of the
skin, and altered liver function. Long-term exposure is linked to impairment of the immune
system, the developing nervous system, the endocrine system and reproductive functions and
cancer. TCDD was evaluated by the WHO‘s International Agency for Research on Cancer
(IARC) in 1997. Based on animal data and on human epidemiology data, TCDD was
classified by International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) as a "known human
carcinogen‖ (World Health Organization, 2011).
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5.3.4 Fluoride
Warning: Keep out of the reach of children under 6 years of age. If you accidentally swallow
more than the amount used for brushing teeth, seek professional assistance or contact a
Poison Control center immediately
Another hazardous chemical that limited our soil‘s capabilities to bring nutritional
components to our body was fluoride. The filtered water used in both the lettuce and
wheatgrass trial was free from fluoride. There was no indication that fluoride had a marked
difference on the plants nutritional value, however, the fluoride used to water our plants for
consumption will transfer the fluoride to the human body and that is a health concern.
Fluoride was used as a pesticide and just like the other issues with our soil, it was one
more obstacle in our quest for a disease free life. In the early 1930‘s, it was Hitler who asked
his scientists to find him an odorless drug that could secretively be administered to the
German people to make them less resistant to domination. I.G. Farben, at Hitler‘s demand
came up with sodium fluoride. This chemical will find its way to the rear occipital of the left
lobe of the brain which is responsible for the individual‘s power to resist domination.
Repeated doses of minute amounts of sodium fluoride will reduce the individual‘s power to
resist domination (Walters, 2006). Over a gradual period of time, the brain will become
poisoned and this occipital region of the brain will narcotizes. In large doses, sodium fluoride
causes paralysis and death. When sodium fluoride enters the body, it allows a muscle to
move one way, but blocks it from a corresponding reaction or contraction. However, when an
individual receives minute doses of it on a continuous basis, such as in drinking water,
brushing your teeth, or consuming it via our vegetables and fruit, the effect is a marked
weakening of the will, dental fluorosis, osteoporosis, and blocks the iodine from doing its job
with the thyroid in converting T4 to T3. It worked so well that Eli Lilly introduced an
antidepressant to the world in the early 90‘s. "Based on documents recently obtained by
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FREEDOM under the Freedom of Information Act, as of September 16, 1993, 28,623 reports
of adverse reactions to Prozac had been received by the FDA. These included such effects as
delirium, hallucinations, convulsions, violent hostility, aggression, psychosis, 1,885 suicide
attempts, 1,734 deaths, and 1,089 by suicide‖ (Loren, 2006).
Fluoride had also entered the food supply from sulfuryl fluoride, which was used as a
fumigant. Large quantities were found in processed wheat and dried eggs, among others.
Fortunately sulfuryl fluoride has now been banned by the FDA.
However, fluoride has been added to water in the form of hexafluorosilicic acid (an
industrial waste product). Fluoride is a binary compound of fluorine, which is a highly
corrosive and poisonous element used in a wide variety of industrial compounds. The
misinformation about how great it is may continue, but the reality is that fluoride is an acute
toxin with a rating slightly higher than lead, and is one of the most bone seeking elements
known to mankind. In fact, the US Public Health Service has stated that fluoride makes our
bones more brittle and our dental enamel more porous. It was microbiologist Professor Albert
Schatz (winner of the Nobel Prize and the man who discovered Streptomycin, the cure for
tuberculosis and numerous other bacterial infections) has been quoted as saying,
"Fluoridation is the greatest fraud that has ever been perpetrated, and it has been perpetrated
on more people than any other fraud has" (Britt, 2010).
According to an article that appeared in the 1998 April-May issue of Nexus Magazine
(some 50 years after United States authorities began adding fluoride to public water supplies
to reduce cavities in children's teeth), there are quite a few declassified government
documents suddenly turning up that are revealing a surprising connection between the use of
fluoride and the dawning of the nuclear age (Toxic Secrets,Nexus Magazine, 1998).
Today, two-thirds of US public drinking water is fluoridated, yet many municipalities
still resist the practice, disbelieving the government's assurances of safety. Nature designed
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drinking water to help us clean out our system, to help us flush it out, not pollute it. Ever
since the US prevailed by building the world‘s first atomic bomb, our nation‘s public health
leaders have maintained that low doses of fluoride are safe for people and good for children‘s
teeth.
Let‘s re-examine the facts in light of the hundreds of once-secret WWII-era
documents that are starting to come forth, including declassified papers of the Manhattan
Project -- the ultra-secret US Military program that produced the atomic bomb. According to
these documents, fluoride was the key chemical in atomic bomb production, and millions of
tons were essential for the manufacture of bomb-grade uranium and plutonium for nuclear
weapons throughout the Cold War. And as one of the most toxic chemicals known to the
environment fluoride emerged as the leading chemical health hazard of the US atomic bomb
program, both for workers, local farmers, and for nearby communities.
What is also scary is that the US Government's conflict of interest and its motive to
prove fluoride safe in the furious debate over water fluoridation since the 1950's has only
recently been made clear to the general public, let alone civilian researchers, health
professionals and journalists. These declassified documents resonate with a growing body of
scientific evidence and a chorus of questions about the health effects of fluoride in the
environment. Human exposure to fluoride has mushroomed since WWII, due not only to
fluoridated water and toothpaste, but to environmental pollution by major industries, from
aluminum to pesticides, where fluoride is a critical industrial chemical as well as a waste byproduct. Fluoride is everywhere, in the environment, food, water, and all our vegetables,
fruits, and grains are being watered, everyday, with fluorinated water.
The impact can be seen literally in the smiles of our children. Large numbers (up to
eighty percent in some cities) of young Americans now have dental fluorosis, the first visible
sign of excessive fluoride exposure, resulting in whitish flecks or spots, particularly on the
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front teeth, or dark spots or stripes in more severe cases. And even less known to the public is
the damage fluoride does to the bones, and how scientists are finally beginning to link the
increase of stress fractures among young people in this country with the increase of water
fluoridation over the years.
Fluoride is more toxic than lead, and is only slightly less toxic than arsenic (Clinical
Toxicology of Commercial Products, 1984). There are a series of quotes by highly
recognized doctors and scientists that have expressed their educated thoughts about fluoride:
"I am appalled at the prospect of using water as a vehicle for drugs. Fluoride is a
corrosive poison that will produce serious effects on a long-range basis. Any attempt to use
water this way is deplorable." -- Dr. Charles Gordon Heyd, Past President of the American
Medical Association (National Water Center, 2010).
"The American Medical Association is NOT prepared to state that no harm will be
done to any person by water fluoridation. The AMA has not carried out any research work,
either long-term or short term, regarding the possibility of any side effects." -- Dr. Flanagan,
Assistant Director of Enviromental Health, American Medical Association.
"Fluoride may be destroying our bones, our teeth, and overall health… it doesn‘t need
to be added to our water and we may be taking unnecessary risks by doing so." -- Dr. Hardy
Limeback, a le Canadian fluoride authority, former fluoride advocate and long-standing
consultant to the Canadian Dental Association. Now a Professor of Dentistry at the
University of Toronto.
"The evidence against the safety of this public health policy keeps mounting; it is too
compelling to ignore." -- Dr. Phyllis Mullenix, Children's Hospital, Boston. Dr. Dean Burk,
former Director & Chief Chemist Emeritus of U. S. National Cancer Institute, introduced the
MRI scan: "Fluoride causes more human cancer death, and causes it faster, than any other
chemical‖ (National Water Center, 2010).
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"By 1983, I was thoroughly convinced that fluoridation caused more harm than good.
I expressed the opinion that some of these children with dental fluorosis could, just possibly,
have suffered harm to their bones." -- Dr. Colquhoun, former Principal Dental Officer for
Auckland New Zealand (Colquhoun, 1997).
"Based on data from the National Academy of Sciences, current levels of fluoride
exposure in drinking water may cause arthritis in a substantial portion of the population long
before they reach old age." -- Dr. Robert Carton, former EPA scientist.
Fluoride's alleged safety in low doses rests on the postwar work done at the University
of Rochester in anticipation of lawsuits against the bomb program for human injury. The
University of Rochester's classified fluoride studies, code-name "Program F", were started
during the war and continued up until the early 1950's. Program F was not about children's
teeth. It grew directly out of litigation against the bomb program, and its main purpose was to
furnish scientific ammunition which the government and its nuclear contractors could use to
defeat lawsuits for human injury. It was quite clear that the bomb program required human
studies of fluoride‘s effects, just as it needed human studies of plutonium‘s effects. In May of
1945, Newburgh, New York quietly fluoridated its water, and over the next 10 years, its
residents were secretly studied by the New York State Health Department. The study was
conducted by potential law suit defendants who were obviously bias to begin with. Even
recent Newburg Mayor, Audrey Carey (she held office from 1992-1999), was quoted after
learning about these experiments, "I'm shocked… beyond words. It reminds me of the
Tuskegee experiment that was done on syphilis patients down in Alabama." Carey was
appalled that any kind of experimentation could be done to people without their knowledge
and consent (Griffiths and Bryson 1997).
The question was, ―How much fluoride is too much? Fifty years ago, when fluoride
was first recommended for municipal water supplies, there were no other sources of fluoride
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in a person's diet. The "optimum" dose of 1 PPM (parts per million) was proposed because if
a person drank four 8 oz glasses of water, they would be receiving about 1 mg of fluoride.
Now, however, because fluoride can be found in just about everything you eat or drink, if
your son or daughter has only one soft drink, a glass of milk, and a bowl of processed cereal
(and no other food the entire day), he or she will more than likely be receiving 230% of the
recommended "optimal" dose. That's equivalent to a pill a little bigger than an aspirin.
The following is a list of 56 cities rejecting fluoridation since 1990.
Whitehorse, Yukon Terr., Can.
Ste. Genevieve, Missouri
Salt Lake City, Utah
Grand Island, Nebraska
Norfolk, Nebraska
Scottsbluff, Nebraska
Aurora, Nebraska
Stromsburg, Nebraska
North Platte, Nebraska
Washington, Missouri
Santa Cruz, California
Kitimat, British Columbia, Canada
Hot Springs, Arkansas
Ridgefield, Oregon
Methuen, Massachusetts
Brisbane, Australia
Spokane, Washington
Largo, Florida
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Clearwater, Florida
North Redington Beach, Florida
Amsterdam, New York
Suisun City, California
Yardly, Pennsylvania
Erie, Pennsylvania
Western Nassau County, New York
Kelowna, British Columbia, Can.
Gothenburg, Nebraska
Worcester, Massachusetts
Bloomer, Wisconsin
Kodiak, Alaska
Carle Place, New York
Winter Springs, Florida
Pasco, Florida
York, Pennsylvania
Bradenton, Florida
Thurmont, Maryland
Albany, New York
Middletown, Maryland
Sarnia, Ontario, Canada
Barnstable, (Cape Cod) Mass.
Wagoner, Oklahoma
Redwood Valley, California
Los Altos Hills,(Purissima) California
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Campbell River, British Columbia, Can.
Port Hardy, British Columbia, Can.
Squarnish, British Columbia, Can.
Milltown, Wisconsin
Bellingham, Washington
Washoe County, Nevada
Comox Courtenay, B. C., Can.
Palm Beach County, Florida
Ketchikan, Alaska
Toxicity is worse in hot climates because more water is consumed. It is also likely if
someone eats or drinks food high in fluoride such as tea, coffee, reconstituted fruit juice,
grapes or raisins that have had fluoride insecticide , cryolite, sodium aluminofluoride,
Na3AlF6, also found in dried eggs, soy beans, and carbonated drinks. Fluoride interferes with
the hydroxylation of proline to hydroxyproline (Sharma, 1982). Therefore fluoride exposure
disrupts the synthesis of collagen and leads to the breakdown of collagen in bone, tendon,
muscle, skin, cartilage, lungs, kidney, trachea and arteries (Susheela & Mohan, 1981). That is
the type of damage you'd expect to see in connective tissue disorders. It will also cause
damage to ligaments resembling arthritis. It has been found that the elastic properties of the
ascending aorta are impaired in patients with endemic fluorosis (Varol, 2010).
Fluoride inhibits the immune cells at those times when an infection activates them
(Weisman, 1972). Another serious effect is bone cancer found in young boys, but not girls.
During the growth spurt during 6 to 8 years the bone cancer rate is 8 times higher in boys
living in fluoridated areas than in non poisoned water areas (Bassin, 2006). Fluoride confuses
the immune system and causes it to attack the body's own tissues, and increases the tumor
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growth rate in cancer prone individuals (Taylor. 1965). There is increased incidence of
melanotic tumors following treatment with sodium fluoride (Herskowitz, 1963).
More than 100 animal studies have linked fluoride to brain damage, and 24 additional
studies in humans have found an association between high levels of fluoride in drinking water
and reduced intelligence (Ding, 2010) (Weisman, 1972). Thus, low levels of fluoride in
drinking water, even within the range of levels currently allowed, negatively impact
children's intelligence and dental health (Liu, 2010).
In spite of all this information, fluoride is still being added to water supply that feeds
our vegetables, fruits, and livestock which is breaking the former Delaney amendment law
prohibiting adding cancer causing chemicals to our food supply.
US EPA Office of Pesticides informed Fluoride Action Network (FAN) on January
10, 2011 that they have granted all of FAN's Objections to the use of sulfuryl fluoride on the
grounds that children are overexposed to fluoride. It will be seen if DOW AgroSciences does
not mount a substantive defense against these grounds, the majority of foods will not be
fumigated with sulfuryl fluoride beginning the year 2014 and all food fumigation with
sulfuryl fluoride will end in three years. This is the first time in Environmental Protection
Agency's history that they have granted an Objection.
Figure 79. Molecular structure of sulfuryl fluoride. Produced exclusively
by Dow AgroSciences. Illustration from Fluoride Action Network
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5.4 Sick Soil, Sick People
The future for mankind is in the hands of the farmer. Medicine and healing cannot
remain the property of the pharmaceutical companies. It must be the farmer‘s role to service
the soil and those billions of microorganisms. The soils must feed the crops and animals, all
of which require the proper minerals for proper genetic expression.
Modern day medicine has been looking for the ―cure‖ needle in the haystack not
realizing that it‘s the hay that is in trouble. The doctors hope to treat the symptoms and numb
pain with drugs, yet little attention is paid to disease and causes.
Some of the most important minerals like selenium, magnesium, chromium, and
calcium are in a direct relationship to the health of our cells, and yet they are missing in the
majority of our foods. Today, America, land of the great opportunity and one of the richest
countries in the world, is number one in Cancer, Heart Disease, Diabetes, Obesity, and
Hypothyroidism. Medicine is a multi-billon dollar business as our institutions continue to
search with an enormous voracious money appetite for the ―cure‖ and very little attention is
given to the ―cause.‖ There is some focus on ―prevention,‖ but the incredulous lack of focus
to the ―cause‖ remains the same. Professional, corporate Alzheimer‘s set into the minds that
rule the machines that run the county and have forgotten that human being‘s physicals needs
must be met to achieve a healthy life.
5.4.1 Cancer and selenium
In 2007, the National Cancer Institute estimated that approximately 11.7 million
Americans either had a history of cancer or were living with cancer. However, about
1,596,670 new cancer cases are expected to be diagnosed today in 2011. This estimate does
not include carcinoma in situ (noninvasive cancer) of any site except urinary bladder, and
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does not include basal and squamous cell skin cancers, which are not required to be reported
to cancer registries (Clark, 1996).
As of 2011, close to 571,950 Americans are expected to die of cancer, more than
1,500 people a day. Cancer is the second most common cause of death in the US, exceeded
only by heart disease. In the US, cancer accounts for nearly 1 of every 4 deaths (American
Cancer Society, 2011).
Selenium is a nutritionally essential trace element that naturally occurs in the soil, just
like iron, copper, and zinc. It enters our bodies through our food via plants and animals and to
a lesser extent, water. Plants absorb selenium from the soil into their leaves, stems, seeds and
fruits. When animals eat plants containing selenium it will be stored in their tissues (Walters,
2006).
Several studies have suggested a possible link between cancer and selenium
deficiency (Russo, 1997). Without selenium, our bodies cannot function correctly. Out of the
entire mineral family, selenium is the king! It activates our body‘s own antioxidant system
through the enzyme glutathione peroxidase. This fortifies the immune system and has many
benefits, from protecting us against cancer, to being an amazing antioxidant and improving
the function of the thyroid .
The small farmer is going out of business unless they become embedded in the
chemical world. Farmers can only make a profit by growing soy, corn, or wheat. Farmers
then have to use all their land to grow these huge crops, and that means they can‘t have
animals there living in the same place to re-fertilize it with its native nutrients and minerals.
They only fertilize with factory-made chemicals, so the crops don‘t have one of our most
important nutrients that you used to get from the soil, selenium.
A double blind trial that included 1,300 people found that those given 200 mcg of a
yeast-based selenium per day for 4 ½ years had a 50% drop in the cancer death rate compared
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to those in the placebo group. If a drug had performed similarly in any such trial it would
make headlines and be hailed as a wonder drug. Another study found that men consuming the
most selenium through diet developed 65% fewer cases of advanced prostate cancer than
those with lower selenium intake (Yoshizawa, 1998).
The Journal of the American Medical Association published a study showing that
people supplementing with selenium had a 20% reduced chance of dying from any cause, and
a 50% reduce chance of dying from cancer.
The study reported a 50% decrease in total cancer incidence as well as a 63%
reduction in prostate cancer, a 58% reduction in colorectal cancer and a 48% reduction in
lung cancer. Only 6 of the 1,312 subjects had selenium blood levels below that achievable by
the RDA prior to supplementation (Reid, 2006). This study proved that dietary supplements
were of great benefit, however, it also confirmed the need for supplementation due to the lack
of selenium in our soils and plants today.
After extensive scrutiny of the data only the evidence for reduction of prostate cancer
is now accepted as statistically significant for a 42% reduction in prostate cancer. The data
still shows a total cancer mortality reduction of 51% (Duffield-Lillico, 2002)
5.4.2 Deficiency of Selenium
Geographic studies have found that in parts of the world where soil and the foods
people eat are low in selenium, rates of colon, liver, lung and prostate cancer are all
significantly higher (Greenwood-Robins, 2004). One well known risk of selenium deficiency
is called ―Keshan‘s disease.‖ It‘s named after a province in China where people weren‘t
getting enough selenium. Named after Keshan County of Heilongjiang province, Northeast
China, where symptoms were first noted, this disease is a congestive cardiomyopathy caused
by a combination of dietary deficiency of selenium and the presence of a mutated strain of
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Coxsackie virus. These symptoms were later found prevalent in a wide belt extending from
northeast to southwest China, all due to selenium-deficient soil.
Often fatal, the disease afflicts children and women of child bearing age,
characterized by heart failure and pulmonary edema. Supplementation with selenium reduces
the pain and suffering from this disease.
Governments and huge agribusiness companies are forcing chemicals upon the
farmers and growers in the rest of the world, too. Mineral deprivation is rampant and
selenium is among the biggest loss.
Selenium is also essential for making sperm (Moslemi, 2011). The male reproductive
system depends on it and this might be one of the reasons why sperm counts are dropping
everywhere in the United States (Hawkes & Turek, 2001). This noticeable drop began right
after the Great Depression and the so-called, ―Dirty Thirties‖ aka Dust Bowl, when many of
the industrial farming practices were introduced (Swan, 2000). When massive single-crop
farming was introduced in Europe during the 1970‘s, their sperm counts began to drop even
faster (Carlsen, 1992). In 1990, University of Missouri reviewed 61 studies published since
1938 that looked at sperm counts for over 15,000 people in the United States (Halweil, 1999).
Figure 80. A study found average sperm counts for men in the
United States had dropped by over 55 percent – from 113×106/ml
in 1938 to just over 50×106/ml in 1988. And counts are dropping
1.5 percent per year. Illustration from My Health & Fitness website
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The University of North Carolina did a study showing that an increase of just onetenth of a part per million of selenium in your body could decrease the risk of osteoarthritis
by 15 to 20 percent. The higher the amount of selenium, the more the risk would drop
(Williamson, 2005).
Selenium is a vital mineral involved making critical thyroid hormones T3 and T4.
Your body uses selenium to make glutathione peroxidase, a powerful antioxidant along with
increasing your number of Natural Killer T-cells. This mineral helps you drop your risk of
many kinds of cancer, including lung, liver, colon and prostate cancer (Williamson, 2005).
Selenium‘s function with glutathione acts as a powerful antioxidant helping the body
to combat damage done by free radicals. Oxidation damage in the body is responsible for
most degenerative diseases, skin damage, along with damage to our internal organs. In
conditions such as arthritis, selenium also works as an anti-inflammatory.
As a scavenger of toxic metals in the body, selenium works as an antagonist of
mercury, lead, aluminum and cadmium. It also increases our white blood cell activity which
is the main thrust of our immune system. A study at Liverpool University examined the
effects of selenium supplementation on the polio virus. The results showed that the
supplement increased cellular immune response, and produced a more rapid eradication of
the virus (Broome, 2004).
The daily recommended amount of selenium is 55 micrograms up to 200 micrograms
per day. This is a very small amount but the issue is that you can‘t get this amount from our
foods anymore because our soils are depleted. We must supplement.
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Table 5
Selenium is found in most multi-nutrient supplements. It may also be obtained as a
separate supplement in various forms, including: selenium-rich yeast and sodium selenite.
BEST FOOD SOURCES OF SELENIUM
mcg per 100g
Wheat germ
111
Brazil nuts
103
Whole-wheat
66
Sunflower seeds
60
Oats
56
Source: U.S. Department of Agriculture-Agricultural Research Service (2011)
5.4.3 Heart Disease and magnesium
In the United States today, every 34 seconds a person dies from heart disease. That‘s
more than 2,500 people a day. Furthermore, every 20 seconds a person has a heart attack and
at least 250,000 people die each year before they can reach the hospital. Since 1900, cardio
vascular disease has been the number one killer in the United States and is now neck and
neck with cancer.
One of the most important minerals for the maintenance of the heart muscle is
magnesium. This mineral has also been deficient in our soils for close to 100 years.
Magnesium is involved in almost every bodily function including more than 50 biochemical
reactions. It is vital to enzyme activity and its deficiency interferes with the transmission of
nerve and muscle impulses, causing irritability and nervousness.
Our plants use light and chlorophyll to manufacture carbohydrates from carbon
dioxide and water in the plant environment. The leaves produce most of the carbohydrates,
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but stems and buds are also contributors. Chlorophyll brings life to the plant as the center of
the molecule is magnesium. It is the single mineral most wiped out by the consumption of
phosphoric acid. Phosphoric acid is not only found in sodas, but has many other various uses.
In manufacturing, it is a chemical intermediate or reagent in the production of numerous
phosphate fertilizers, agricultural feeds, waxes, polishes, soaps, and detergents (HSDB,
1995).
Magnesium deficiency can be found with individuals who‘s feet have a bad odor,
muscles are performing poorly, bowels are blocked, kidneys not functioning, poor sleep, back
pain, irregular heart palpitations, eyelids twitch, osteoporosis, high blood pressure, and
migraine headaches. Because of the lack of magnesium within our soils today, it is important
to supplement our diets (Liebscher, 2003). The best way to lose what little magnesium we
have is through the use of diuretics, drinking coffee, and consuming caffeine through sodas.
Magnesium serves many crucial roles in the human body. It synergistically works
with three other crucial minerals, calcium, sodium, and potassium as it helps transmit
electrical impulses across the nerves and muscles, regulates blood pressure, bone building
and is essential for brain and liver functions. It calms nerves, promotes cell growth, supports
the excretory process, and increases tissue elasticity (Walters, 2006).
Magnesium helps with muscle contraction and relaxation. Because the heart is a
muscle, this is extremely important mineral. Magnesium helps reduce muscle spasm and
regulates blood clotting. In addition, magnesium is required for the production of adenosine
triphosphate (ATP), the spark plug of which the body depends on to perform all its physical,
mental and biochemical work (Gaby, 1994).
One of the most common diseases within the cardio-vascular area is atherosclerosis,
the development of hardening of the arteries. Magnesium was found to help prevent this
condition fourfold (Vitale, 1957).
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Autopsies performed on the hearts of individuals who died from congestive heart
failure reveled changes similar to those seen in animals feed a diet deficient in magnesium
(Wener, 1964). Heart disease itself causes a loss of magnesium from the heart muscle, which
in turn further exacerbates the disease. In one study, patients with cardiomyopathy had 65
percent less magnesium in their heart muscles than did healthy individuals (Frustaci, 1987).
Cardiac arrhythmias (abnormal heart rhythm) have been treated with magnesium both
orally and intravenously with much success. A life-threatening arrhythmia known as torsades
de pointes has been successfully treated with magnesium (Tzivoni, 1984). Another condition
with the heart is called, angina. This is chest pain that often occurs in the heart of individuals
during exertion or stress. In 1958, a South African physician reported that an appreciable
number of angina patients had been helped with dramatic and almost unbelievable results
with magnesium therapy (Malkiel-Shapiro, 1958).
Magnesium supplementation has been given in many studies to help reduce high
levels of cholesterol and elevated levels of High Density Lipoproteins (HDL). One particular
study each patient received 400mg of magnesium daily for an average of 118 days. The
average total cholesterol level fell from 297 to 257 milligrams per deciliters. The HDL
cholesterol increased from 35.2 to 46.7 mg/dl. Both of these changes were statistically
significant and would be expected to reduce cardiovascular risk (Davis, 1984).
The beginning of the coronary heart disease (CHD) epidemic in the 1920s and 1930‘s
began when physicians in the United States and United Kingdom began witnessing an
uncommon disease that was rapidly becoming the leading cause of death. By the 1950‘s, their
worst nightmares had come true. A decade later, the idea that heart disease was once
uncommon faded and became a common form of death to the public.
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Figure 81. According to U.S. National Vital Statistics records beginning in
1900, CHD was rarely given as the cause of death by physicians until after
1930. Illustration from Whole Health Source
The line for CHD deaths begins in the lower left-hand part of the graph. It is important to
understand that before 1900, very few people died of heart disease. Since then, heart disease
has become the number one killer in the United States. The invention of new technologies
such as the electrocardiogram facilitated better and quicker diagnosis, but due to the
processing of our foods and lack of nutrition within our plants and soil, there is no technology
that can prevent heart disease other than changing our diets, and supplementing our bodies
and our soils (World Health Organization, 2009).
5.4.4 Deficiency of Magnesium
These physical ―Clinical‖ signs of magnesium deficiency are clearly related to both its
physiological role and its significant impact on the healthy balance of minerals such as
calcium and potassium. Tics, muscle spasms and cramps, seizures, anxiety, and irregular
heart rhythms are among the classic signs and symptoms of low magnesium. Other not so
obvious ―Sub-Clinical‖ symptoms are present but concealed by an inability to distinguish
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their signs from other disease states. Caused by low magnesium intake prevalent in nearly all
industrialized nations, they can include migraine headaches, insomnia, depression, and
chronic fatigue, among others (Werner, 1964).
In sub-clinical magnesium deficiency has been a growing attention largely due to
epidemiological links found between ongoing chronic low magnesium and some of the more
troubling chronic diseases such as hypertension, asthma and osteoporosis. Compounding the
problem is the survival mechanism of the body when it is functioning on low levels of
magnesium. The body actually strips magnesium and calcium from the bones during these
periods (McCarthy, Kumar, 1999).
Table 6
The classic physical signs of low magnesium are listed in the table below (Fox, 2003),
(DiSilvestro, 2004), (Kimura, 2007):
Neurological:
Metabolic:
Behavioral Disturbances
Increased intracellular calcium
Irritability and anxiety
Hyperglycemia
Lethargy
Calcium deficiency
Impaired memory and cognitive function
Potassium deficiency
Anorexia or loss of appetite
Cardiovascular:
Nausea and vomiting
Irregular or rapid heartbeat
Seizures
Coronary spasms
Muscular:
Weakness
Muscle spasms
Tics
Among Children:
Growth retardation or ―failure to thrive‖
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Muscles Cramps
Hyperactive reflexes
Impaired muscle coordination
Tremors
Involuntary eye movements and vertigo
Difficulty swallowing
The conditions that are related to low Magnesium, or otherwise known as
hypomagnesemia, represent possible indicators of chronic latent magnesium deficiency (Elin,
2000).

Depression

Chronic fatigue syndrome

ADHD

Epilepsy

Parkinson‘s disease

Sleep problems

Migraine

Cluster headaches

Osteoporosis

Premenstrual syndrome

Chest pain (angina)

Cardiac arrhythmias

Coronary artery disease and atherosclerosis

Hypertension

Type II diabetes
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
Asthma
The World Health Organization has estimated that three quarters of Americans do not
meet the Recommended Daily Intake (RDI) of magnesium. Average magnesium intake in the
U.S. has dwindled to less than half what it was a century ago:

In the year 1900: 500 mg per day

In the year 2007: 175-225 mg per day (Altura, 2007)
We tout magnesium-rich foods include whole grains, leafy greens, nuts and seeds that
should be in our diets. Foods like these were once common in diets around the world, but as
food processing began stripping available minerals out of our produce, the need to
supplement increased. However, not only are whole and unrefined foods high in magnesium
are becoming increasingly rare in the modern diet, the soils we grow our produce in have
been robbed of this vital mineral and in order to solve the bigger problem, we need to start at
the soil first.
5.4.5 Diabetes and Chromium
Contrary to Louis Pasteur, people do not necessary get sick because of the germs in
our environment. It was Pasteur's belief that germs caused disease and had to be controlled or
eliminated before a cure became evident. This was known as "The Germ Theory." There was
another portion of the science/political arena believed that germs were not actually the cause
of disease, but rather are an effect, or consequence of it. Obviously, this latter belief would
have never yielded the kind of revenue that conventional medicine has. An "ounce of
prevention" might have great value to the wise and caring, but not to the pharmaceutical
companies. The bottom line was that Pasteur's theory was simpler, had better economic
perspectives, and was more in accordance with the old concepts of disease as being caused by
demons and devils outside of us.
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Professor Pierre Jacques Antoine Bechamp, in some circles, is regarded as one of the
founders of modern medicine and biology. He was a man, although still relatively unknown,
who deserves an honored place as one of the giants of modern science. As an academic icon
and researcher in 19th century France, Bechamp was widely known as both a teacher and an
innovator. Around 1854, while still a Professor at the School of Pharmacy in the Faculty of
Science at Strasbourg, he took up the study of fermentation.
Bechamp believed that the body‘s environment produced a place for microorganisms
to become diseased bacteria and that improving the body‘s internal environment could alter
bacteria into harmless, even useful ―microzymia.‖ It was Miss Ethel Douglas Hume, author
of the book Bechamp or Pasteur? written in 1923 was quoted in saying, ―Bechamp had
demonstrated the connection between a disturbed state of body and the disturbed state of its
indwelling particles, which, upon an unfortunate alteration in their surroundings, are
hampered in their normal multiplication as healthy microzymas and are consequently prone
to develop into organisms of varied shape, known as bacteria‖ (Hume, 1923).
Bechamp believed that the germ theory was false and that illness was practically
always due to errors of diet or manner of living. The germs being present solely as
scavengers of dead and waste tissues and foods, and not as the cause of the disease. Since the
1850‘s, we have been developing new drugs to attack and kill the disease invaders and the
result has been epidemics of cancers and sicknesses and diseases. To quote Bechamp,
―Bacteria are a symptom rather than the final cause of disease.‖
In the Pasteur vs Bechamp war, Pasteur won his point because he was politically in
bed with Napoleon III where the money lived. And the simplicity of Pasteur‘s theory was as
he stated, ―Germs live in the air, and every once in a while get into a human body, and cause
illness. Nothing to it at all. All you have to do is kill germs and diseases is licked‖ (Pearson,
1942).
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Now, mainstream medicine believes that virtually all illness is caused by germs or
genetic hereditary weakness, as well as deformities and trauma injuries. Their solution and
strategy is to have us believe that there are over 10,000 different diseases and that each of
these diseases requires outside intervention from drugs and surgery. The truth is that most
illness is due to cellular malfunction caused by cellular toxicities and cellular malnutrition,
both of which can be avoided and overcome naturally. As the world‘s most famous nurse,
Florence Nightingale, stated, "There are no specific diseases only specific disease conditions"
(Pitcairn, 1911).
However, once again, we are missing the very point that insects don‘t eat healthy
plants. Germs don‘t make healthy people sick! At the turn of the twentieth century, people
were becoming fragile, weak, susceptible, and sick. Just like the soil becoming deficient and
the plants in turn became fragile, weak, susceptible, and sick so too came the insects. But, our
choice of rectifying this problem was similar to Pasteur‘s thinking. He believed that germs
get into our bodies and all we have to do is make drugs to kill those germs and the world
would be rid of disease. So, the chemical companies took on the same believe in that when
plants were getting sick and being eaten by insects all they had to do was make pesticides and
chemicals to control and kill the insects and they would rid the farms of all their little pests!
One disease that Pasteur couldn‘t find any germs for is diabetes. This disease, also
known as Type 1 diabetes has been one of the most devastating diseases known to man, and it
has been recognized for over two thousand years. However, there is no history of type 2
diabetes, or any other differentiation between different types of diabetes, until the twentieth
century. It was not until 1935 that it was discovered that there were multiple types of
diabetes, and it could be said that this is where the history of type 2 diabetes truly began.
It was in 1935 that Roger Hinsworth discovered that there were, in fact, two different
types of diabetes. Those which were sensitive to insulin, Type 1, and those that were not,
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Type 2. It was the breakthrough of insulin in 1921 that made it possible for doctors when they
noticed that insulin injections were having less of an effect on some diabetic patients. In the
1950's, a new medication was developed that is considered to be the beginnings of the history
of type 2 diabetes treatments. From then on, type 2 diabetes history pretty much ran alongside
that of type 1.
Diabetes has grown worldwide at an alarming rate and according to various studies
and the World Health Organization (WHO), the number of people with diabetes in the world
is at least 240 million, and is expected to grow by 380 million by year 2025.
The International Diabetes Federation (IDF) estimates that 285 million people around
the world have diabetes. This total is expected to rise to 560 million within 20 years. Each
year an additional 8-10 million people develop diabetes (International Diabetes Federation,
2011).
Despite the differences in the projections by various health organizations, it is clear
that diabetes is an ever-growing epidemic with no end in sight.
It is now known that Type 2 diabetes is more related to your diet, lifestyle, and physical
activity more so than being related to family genes.
Starting in the second half of the 20th century, the prevalence of non-insulindependent, type 2 diabetes increased substantially when our soils were being treated with
more chemicals and pesticides along with the produce being processed and refined
(Cheraskin, 1968). Not only were people consuming more sugar in their diets, but also
lacking a very important mineral in the soil and plants that would help the body metabolize
sugar, and that would be chromium.
Chromium is an essential mineral that controls insulin and is not only deficient in the
soils today but is lost in processed foods. Chromium is one of the key minerals involved in
controlling both blood sugar levels and fat levels. As the main component of Glucose
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Tolerance Factor (GTF), chromium assists insulin in reducing blood glucose, by stimulating
glucose uptake by the muscles and other tissues. A biologically active form of chromium
participates in glucose metabolism by enhancing the effects of insulin. Insulin is secreted by
specific cells in the pancreas called, islet cells or islets of Langerhans. Their function is in
response to increased blood glucose levels, whether it be after a meal or emotional or
physical stress. Insulin binds to insulin receptors on the surface of the islet cells, which
activates the receptors and stimulates glucose uptake by cells. This interaction with insulin
receptors provides the cells with glucose for energy and prevents blood glucose levels from
becoming elevated. Insulin is not just involved in carbohydrate metabolism, but also
influences the metabolism of fat and protein. Lack of insulin results in impaired glucose
tolerance or type 2 diabetes, also known as non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus
(NIDDM). Type 2 diabetes is characterized by elevated blood glucose levels and insulin
resistance (Food and Nutritional Board, 2001).
According to some studies, Chromium Picolinate, a nutritional supplement, can have
a significant effect on diabetes. Human studies have suggested that chromium picolinate
decreases insulin levels and improves blood sugar metabolism in both obese people and
people with type 2 diabetes. Richard Anderson, of the US Department of Agriculture, made a
positive assessment of Chromium stating, ―Essentially all the studies using chromium
picolinate supplementation for impaired glucose intolerance and diabetes showed a positive
effect.‖ However, had individuals been getting enough of this mineral from their foods, and
eating unrefined foods, could they have been preventing Type 2 diabetes?
When chromium levels are low, the circulating level of GTF is low, and insulin is
then less effective in reducing blood sugar. Blood sugar levels therefore remain high,
stimulating further insulin release, which is still blocked from being effective. This cycle and
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its exhausting effects are known as insulin resistance, the condition leading to up to full
blown diabetes.
There are several functions of Chromium in the body
Regulation of blood sugar
Moderates cholesterol levels
Contributes to lean muscle mass
Promotes arterial health
Boosts immune system
Stimulates protein synthesis
5.4.6 Chromium deficiency
The short term symptoms of chromium deficiency are those of glucose intolerance,
such as hypoglycemia and mood swings associated with rapid and large swings in blood
glucose levels, especially after carbohydrate rich meals. This is especially important if the
carbohydrates involved have a high glycemic index.
Longer term, the problems can be expected are those associated with diabetes, which
is an almost inevitable consequence of chromium deficiency. High blood pressure, heart
disease, stroke and obesity are all to be expected.
Symptoms of Chromium deficiency
Lack of energy/fatigue
Inability to concentrate or focus mentally
Abnormally elevated blood sugar
Intestinal bloating and gas
Sleepiness following a meal
Rapid weight gain, inability to shed pounds
Increased blood triglyceride level
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High blood pressure
Psychological depression
Increased blood insulin level
Increased LDL cholesterol (bad cholesterol)
Decreased HDL cholesterol (good cholesterol)
Chromium also enhances glucose utilization within the brain. For this reason, a severe
deficiency of chromium can cause fatigue, nerve damage and various psychiatric disorders.
The standard American diet (or S.A.D.) includes very few chromium rich foods which make
it very difficult for individuals to obtain the chromium they need from their diet. However,
the foods that are supposed to be rich in chromium are still not up to the appropriate level to
help a failing human system. The body is unable to make its own chromium and as aging
takes place, the ability to absorb it becomes extremely difficult. Therefore, supplementation
is required.
There is little information and no official recommendations regarding chromium
requirements. Studies have shown doses of 200 - 400 mcg/day to be effective in aiding
weight loss, especially in the obese. A general guide is children, 50 - 150 mcg/day, adults
100-400mcg/day. In cases of obesity, doses up to 600 mcg a day have been shown to be
effective and well-tolerated, possibly due to the poor absorption of some forms of chromium
supplements.
Table 7
Sources of Dietary Chromium
Source
mcg/100g
Egg yolks
183
Molasses
121
111
Brewers yeast
117
Beef
57
Grape juice
47
Whole wheat Bread
42
Wheat Bran
38
Raw Cane Sugar
35
Rye Bread
30
Honey
29
Potatoes
27
Wheat Germ
23
Green bell Pepper
19
Chicken (leg)
18
Whole wheat pasta
15
Apple
14
Parsnips
13
Cornmeal
12
Spinach
10
Bananas
10
Carrots
9
Haddock
7
Blueberries
5
Source: National Institute of Health
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5.4.7 Thyroid and Iodine
The relationship between thyroid function and iodine levels within the body have
been known for over 50 years. The thyroid gland has to make thyroid hormone and without
adequate amounts of iodine present, it will fall short in doing so. T4 thyroid (levothyroxine)
hormone has four iodine molecules attached to it while T3 thyroid (triiodothyronine) has only
three. When there is not enough iodine in the body, the thyroid gland will be unable to make
the necessary thyroid hormone which makes the gland susceptible to developing a goiter
(Abraham, 2002). Lack of iodine in the soil translates to low levels of iodine within the food
which then leads to poor thyroid function (Brownstein, 2002).
Many areas of the world have soil that is so poor in iodine that these areas are referred
to as the ―goiter belt.‖ There is an increased number of people dealing with goiters in these
areas found in the inland region of the US, encompassing the Great Lakes, Midwest, and
intermountain regions. Diets consistent of foods grown on iodine-depleted soil that have
shown the development of goiter.
Iodine deficiency is the number one cause of thyroid disorders. Beginning in the mid
20th century this deficiency was recognized as a simple problem with a simple treatment. But
today, it is occurring at epidemic proportions. Approximately 1.5 billion people of the earth‘s
population live in iodine-deficient areas (WHO, 2010). This includes vast areas of the United
States where the iodine levels have fallen by 50% over the last 30 years and autoimmune
disorders and hyperthyroid symptoms have been increasing at a rapid pace.
In the 1800‘s, nearly 200 years ago, the soil was being robbed of its precious minerals
and the probiotics were being killed by all the chemicals and insecticides. It was shown back
then, that the cause of a goiter was iodine deficiency and the treatment of a goiter was the use
of iodine. That is why in the 1920‘s, the United States added iodine to salt to help solve this
issue. However, the amount of iodine added to salt is only 77 mcg per gram of salt which
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does prevent a goiter, but is not adequate to manage the rest of the body‘s needs (Venkatesh,
1995). Most importantly, iodized salt is insufficient for maintaining proper thyroid function
(Brownstein, 2002).
Fluoride blocks the uptake and utilization of iodide, which is a compound of iodine, in
target cells (Abraham, 2007). Fluoride has been found to inhibit the thyroid along with
fluoride symptoms having many similarities to low thyroid. This showed up in children in
India who had fluoride in their blood were also diagnosed with thyroid abnormality. Fluoride
poisoning reached as far as South Africa as it was found to cause goiters there. A
government-sponsored report has concluded that levels of fluoride that people are regularly
exposed to in drinking water can cause serious malfunctioning of the thyroid gland, leading
to even more serious health problems. Fluoride depresses thyroid activity (Von Mundy,
1963).
5.4.8 Fluorinated Pesticides
Fluoride pesticides are bioaccumulations found in humans, wildlife, and soil.
The main pesticides are:
Cryolite: (sodium aluminum fluoride) - mainly used on grapes, fruits, and potatoes.
EPA allows fluoride tolerances of 7 ppm, except for kiwifruit, which has a residue tolerance
of 15 ppm (Archer, 1979).
Sulfuryl fluoride is an acutely toxic fumigant received its first-time approval for use
on stored food commodities (raw and processed) in the US in January 2004. This approval
allows the highest levels of fluoride residue levels in food in the history of the EPA.
Sodium fluoride or fluoride salts are used to enhance the strength of teeth by the formation of
fluorapatite, a naturally occurring component of tooth enamel. Although sodium fluoride is
also used to fluoridate water and, indeed, is the standard by which other water-fluoridation
compounds are gauged, the lethal dose for a 154 lb human is estimated at 5–10 gm. Sodium
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fluoride is classed as toxic by both inhalation (of dusts or aerosols) and ingestion. In high
enough doses, it has been shown to affect the heart and circulatory system (Bourne, 1986).
Fluorinated pesticides are called, "organofluorines" to describe organic pesticides
containing fluorine in their chemical formula. The toxicity of the fluorinated compound is not
due to the release of a free fluoride ion, but to the particular molecular structure of the
compound. It appears that fluorinated pesticides are used to intensify pesticide and biological
activity (Fluoride Action Network, 2007).
5.5 Genetically Modified Organisms
By now, over 200 years of soil destruction causing plants to become sick and fragile
sitting ducks waiting for voracious insects to consume them, the choice was made to create
stronger more powerful pesticides. It is in the nature of insects to mutate in order to survive
each insecticide used upon them. Constant utilization of any insecticide allowed the insects to
acquire a natural tolerance and immunity to it. However, one such chemical, known as Ready
Roundup by Monsanto Chemical Company, became the weapon of choice against the new
breed of pests, mutating weeds.
Pesticides are generally chemicals, biological agents, antimicrobial, or disinfectants.
They are designed to repel, control, attract and then terminate pests. They are commonly, but
not always, made to kill or poison their targets. Herbicides are often used to control all types
of weeds in industrial areas. They are also often used on roadways and railroad tracks to
prevent unwanted plant or weed obstructions on the tracks. Selective types of herbicides,
such as Monsanto‘s Ready Roundup, are more commonly used on gardens, lawns, and golf
courses, since the desire is to only kill specific weeds and not to eradicate all the plants
(Institute For Responsible Technology, 2011).
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5.5.1 Glyphosate
More than 30% of all herbicides sprayed contain glyphosate which is known as the
world‘s bestselling weed killer. It was patented by Monsanto for use in their Roundup brand,
which became more popular when they introduced ―Roundup Ready‖ crops starting in 1996
(Institute For Responsible Technology, 2011).
Figure 82. Alfalfa Nutrients reduced by Glyphostate. Third year,
second cutting analysis. Glyphosate applied one time in the
previous year. Illustration from Infinite Unknown
What‘s interesting is that the herbicide doesn‘t destroy plants directly. Indirectly, it
creates conditions that stirs up disease-causing organisms in the soil, and at the same time
wipes out plant defenses against those diseases (Institute For Responsible Technology, 2011).
These genetically modified organism (GMO) plants, which include soy, corn, cotton,
canola, and sugar beets, have inserted genetic material from viruses and bacteria that allows
the crops to withstand applications of normally deadly Roundup (Institute For Responsible
Technology, 2011). Among the issues with GMOs, the manufacture of herbicide tolerant
(HT) biotech crops, particularly Monsanto's Ready Roundup crops, has resulted in the
creation of hard-to-kill "superweeds" (Randerson, 2002).
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These so-called 'superweeds' result from accidental crosses between neighboring
crops that have been genetically modified to resist different herbicides. Farmers are often
forced to resort to older stronger herbicides to remove them (Randerson, 2002).
Figure 83. Wheat affected after 10 years of glyphosate
field applications. Illustration from Infinite Unknown
There is new research, today, that exposes disastrous ecological damage of these
genetically modified (GM) crops that are tolerant to Ready Roundup with Glyphosate.
Glyphosate is the chemical name for that compound that is attributed for herbicidal action.
Ready Roundup is a formulated product that includes other components other than glyphosate
in order to increase its penetration into plant cells or its activity as an herbicide. When you
have a genetically engineered crop that‘s resistant to glyphosate, that not only permits the
wider use of the glyphosate, the extended exposure to it, but it also permits the application
directly upon that crop which we are consuming.
5.5.2 Glyphosate poisons the soil for all plants
What you see after continued use of these herbicides are groups of organisms that
cease to exist in the soil. There is a dramatic change within the soil‘s microflora which
increases soil diseases. This is because glyphosate is not only a very powerful herbicide but
also a dangerously powerful biocide that stimulates soil born-diseases and affects the nutrient
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bioavailability for the crops. One of the organisms that disappear from the soil because of
glyphosate are those organisms that make manganese available to the plants. When
manganese is reduced within the plants, they become susceptible to pathogens that cause
disease to the plant (Huber, 2010)
Figure 84. Glyphosate (N-(phoshonomethyl)glycine)
Glyphosate (N-(phoshonomethyl)glycine) is a broad-spectrum
herbicide initially patented by Monsanto in the 1970s under the
trade name Roundup.
In 2010, Dr. Don M. Huber speaks of an epidemic of Goss‘s Wilt on corn and sudden
death on soy beans. The farmers have had to increase the usage of glyphosate in order to get a
handle on killing more than usual pathogens within the soil. As an herbicide, its primary
action is to suppress resistance and increase disease. Any weed that is killed by glyphosate
increases its susceptibly to diseases. The quality of these crops that are produced for food or
feed, they are finding very high population of these pathogens that cause disease (Huber,
2010). The ecological disaster has been unfolding amid mounting evidence of the herbicide
adverse impacts on human and animal health (Ho, 2009).
Research published in 1979 already showed that glyphosate absorbed through plant
foliage after application was transported systemically toward the roots and eventually
released into the rhizopshere (the narrow region of soil that is directly influenced by root
secretions and associated soil microorganisms) where it changes the whole ecology of the
soil, resulting in increased colonization of plant roots by pathogenic species such as Fusarium
and Phytophorthora, as well as Pythium in bean plants.
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Figure 85 . Corn with Fusarium, Cuccumber with Phytophorthora, and French beans with
Pythium. Illustration from WikiGardener
In addition, glyphosate increases excretion of an underlying layer from roots that may
be metabolized by specific pathogens, such as amino acids and glyphosate itself, thus feeding
these pathogens to flourish. In the meantime, glyphosate and its breakdown products such as
Aminomethylphosphonic Acid Accumulation (AMPA) are poisonous to susceptible
organisms, many of which are beneficial (Reddy, 2004).
Pseudomonas are important multifunctional bacteria in the rhizospere that produce
numerous off-shoot metabolites that suppress harmful microbes. These are known as
gammaproteobacteria, belonging to the family Pseudomonadaceae. Gammaproteobacteria is a
class of several medically, ecologically and scientifically important groups of bacteria, such
as the Enterobacteriaceae (Escherichia coli), Vibrionaceae and Pseudomonadaceae.
Glyphosate and Glyphosate Tolerant (GT) soybean significantly decrease these beneficial
Pseudomonas species in the rhizosphere, thereby further encouraging the growth of the
fungal pathogens by suppressing their bacterial antagonists.
Manganese oxidation and reduction are primarily carried out by bacteria in the
rhizosphere, and have a major impact on plant nutrient availability and metabolism.
Oxidation of manganese is suspected by many of being a means by which a bacterial cell
obtains its energy. A low ratio of organisms that reduce manganese to manganese oxidizers
was found for GT soybean treated with glyphosate compared with non-GT soybean,
suggesting less manganese is available for the plant.
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It has now been noted that glyphosate is being released through the roots of dying
plants (weeds) and will be transferred to living plants nearby that are not treated with
glyphosate via the roots. This is showing that glyphosate applied to weeds or other vegetation
is being transferred to trees and causing disease and yield losses (Ho and Cherry, 2010).
GT crops and glyphosate use have become serious threats to the sustainability of
agriculture and food production. It appears through observation that the use of glyphosate and
the Monsanto‘s Roundup Ready cropping system that this presents major threats to human
and animal health.
5.5.3 Estrogen Toxicity
There was an urgent message delivered at the third meeting of the open-ended ad hoc
Working Group on Bio-safety of the UN-Convention on Biological Diversity in Montreal
(see Appendix 1). On October 13, 1997 it was issued because plant estrogens are known to
effect humans, especially young children, who are very susceptible. Monsanto genetically
engineered soybeans are in approximately 60% of soybean products you have probably
ingested today!
5.6 Solution
It would have never been a huge expense or large undertaking to restore the soils to a
good balance to prevent the intoxication of chemicals and fragility of the plants making them
subjects of desire for insects. This would have been a prophylactic beginning to control of
human and animal diseases. Each farmer could have determined by analysis the precise
chemistry of the soil and then corrected any deficiencies by adding to the soil the missing
elements in order to restore its balance. A good practice for the modern day physician to keep
in mind. As of today, human beings are paying the price for the decision that was ignored to
replenish the soil rather than poison it.
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Due to the advancement of chemistry, we are far more knowledgeable in deciphering
which minerals and probiotics are lacking where as in the earlier years, chemistry with
insecticides, pesticides, and herbicides seemed to be the quick fix.
As seen by the lettuce and wheatgrass trials, if soils are seriously deficient in minerals
and probiotics the plants cannot produce plant life competent to maintain our needs. With
continuing the practice of tiling and stripping the soils, the loss of nutritional components
needed for quality plants dissipate and the health conditions only becomes worse.
It is important to note that human beings need to protect themselves from infection or
disease by taking in an adequate supply of minerals through our food and to achieve a
nutritional balance. In doing so, it is possible to create a natural method of immunization. For
human beings are not drug deficient but nutritionally deficient.
If we had focused our attention on prevention of disease by choosing to restore nature
back to its balance, the cure for most illnesses might not have become the straw that is
breaking the economic system. Once the soil was robbed of vital nutrients, the individual
became the victim waiting to be slaughtered by the chemicals brought forth by the
pharmaceutical companies and chemical corporations.
There is no prejudice when it comes to disease, as it preys on the undernourishment
and unfit plants, animals, and human beings. As medicine treats the symptoms and ignores
the source, perhaps returning to the basis of nature would force medicine to rewrite the
books. But, it is really up to the public to begin demanding quality foods, no chemicals, and
stop consuming foods that have been birthed out of Frankstein methods. The farmers are
looking for bigger and better crops which means a good economic condition for them without
subjecting any damaging chemicals to their land which in the long run will take its toll.
Minerals and probiotics can be replaced overnight, but repairing the damage done by
121
chemicals may take years. If we start now, the world could begin improving immediately. For
if we don‘t try to heal the sick soils the sick people will never find their cures!
APENDEX I
122
URGENT APPEAL TO ALL GOVERNMENTS
TO REVOKE THE MARKET APPROVAL OF MONSANTO'S RR-SOYBEAN
Montreal, 13 October 1997
We the undersigned scientists ask all governments to use whatever methods are
available to them to bar from their markets on grounds of injury to public health Monsanto's
genetically engineered Roundup Ready (RR) soybeans. In the case of the European Union, of
course, we urge the individual governments to invoke Article 16 (Directive 90/220). We
make this appeal on the following bases:
1) There is clear scientific evidence that application of glyphosate can increase the
level of plant estrogens. This has been shown for the bean Vicia faba by German researchers
(Sandermann and Wellmann, 1988, in Biosafety, p. 285-292, ed: German Ministry of
Research and Technology). Soya belongs to the same plant family (legumes) as these beans.
2) Plant estrogens are known to affect mammals including humans.
3) Feeding experiments were done on cows with transgenic and ordinary soybeans by
Monsanto. A statistically significant difference in the daily milk fat production between the
test groups was found. Those fed transgenic RR-soybeans produced more fat per day than
those fed ordinary soya. All test groups had the same intake of soya per day (Hammond et al.,
Journal of Nutrition, 1996). We conclude that this is an indication of a substantial difference
between the transgenic and the non-transgenic soybean.
4). Monsanto's application for market approval provided no data on estrogen levels of
RR-soybeans sprayed with glyphosate. All data provided on the concentration level of
different compounds in RR-soybeans was derived from unsprayed beans. Despite the lack of
information on sprayed beans, RR-soybeans were approved. And sprayed beans have since
entered the food chain.
123
We are concerned that the increased milk fat production by cows fed RR-soybeans
may be a direct consequence of higher estrogen levels in those soybeans. Growing numbers
of children are dependent on soy-milk due to allergic reactions to cow's milk. Young children
are especially susceptible to elevated levels of estrogen. Thus there is a clear and serious
health issue at hand.
There is urgent need for further and independent scientific investigation. In
adherence to the precautionary principle, until these investigations are completed, RRsoybeans should no longer be allowed to enter the food chain (Sandermann, 1988).
Dr. Brian Goodwin, UK
Dr. Vandana Shiva, India
Dr. Mae Wan Ho, UK
Dr. Ricarda Steinbrecher, UK
Dr. Hartmut Meyer, Germany
Dr. Beatrix Tappeser, Germany
Dr. Peter Saunders, UK
Christine von Weizsacker, Germany
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APENDEX II
GENETICALLY MODIFIED ORGANISMS (GMO)
January 31, 1992
From: Samuel I. Shibko (HFF-152)
Director, Division of Toxicological Review and Evaluation Toxicology
―At this time it is unlikely that molecular and compositional analysis can reasonably
detect or predict all possible changes in toxicant levels or the development of new toxic
metabolites as a result of genetic modifications introduced by the new methods of
biotechnology. FDA believes that, until sufficient data and experience with the new
techniques of gene transfer have accumulated, the possibility of unexpected, accidental
changes in genetically engineered plants justifies a limit traditional toxicological study with
the edible part of the plant.‖
125
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