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Transcript
CS490 Windows Internals
Solutions for Assignment 1
Solution 1:
Answer the following questions and give a short explanation of your answers and
their applicability in context of the Windows operating system:
a. List four objectives for the design of an operating system!

Portability, extensibility, performance, ease-of-use, maintainability,
stability, recoverability, availability
b. Give two examples for operating system functionality that has to be
implemented in kernel mode and user mode respectively!

Kernel mode: CPU scheduling, memory management, interprocess
communication

User mode: user account management, printer spooling
Solution 2:
Explain the structuring of the Windows kernel. List five kernel mode components.
Executive Services
Kernel
Mode
System Services
I/O Manager
Cache
Manager
File System
Drivers
Network
Drivers
Hardware
Device Drivers
Object
Manager
Security
Reference
Monitor
Process
Manager
Local
Procedure
Call
Facility
Microkernel
Hardware Abstraction Layer (HAL)
Hardware

Process Manager

Object Manager

Cache Manager

LPC (local procedure call) Facility

Configuration Manager

Memory Manager

Security Reference Monitor

I/O Manager
Virtual
Memory
Manager
Window
Manager
Graphics
Device
Interface
WIN32K.SYS
Graphics
Device
Drivers

Power Manager

Plug-and-Play Manager
Solution 3:
Explain why Windows NT 4 move windows manager and graphics services from
running in the context of the Windows Subsystem process to a set of callable
services running in kernel mode.
The primary reason for this shift was to improve overall system performance.
Having a separate server process that contains the Windows graphics
subsystem required multiple thread and process context switches, which
consumed considerable CPU cycles and memory resources even though the
original design was highly optimized.
Solution 4:
Windows applications refer to operating system objects via handles. Discuss the
effect of changing permissions (access rights) for an OS resource on those
applications that have already opened the resource.
Since permissions are only checked in the process of opening a handle via
object manager, changing access rights for an OS resource does not affect
applications that have already opened the resource. All changes are effective
only when attempting to open the resource the next time.