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5 Components of Physical Fitness
1. Flexibility: The ability to move a particular joint through a range of motion.
 A flexible person is less subject to injuries, possesses good posture, and
experiences less back pain.
 Stretching increases flexibility and reduces muscle soreness.
 Stretches are held for 10 – 15 seconds and should follow a warm-up (light jog).
2. Muscular Strength: The ability of a muscle to exert force.
 Using heavy resistance (weight) against muscles and few repetitions (4-8).
3. Muscular Endurance: The ability of a muscle to continue activity requiring strength.
 Using light resistance (weight) against muscles and higher repetitions (10-15).
4. Cardiovascular Endurance: The ability of the body systems (heart, lungs and circulatory
system) to maintain efficient functioning during and after exercise.
 A person that exercises often will be able to carry out daily work and leisure time
activities with less tire and fatigue. Examples include: jogging, walking briskly,
biking, and swimming.
 To receive benefits the heart must remain at, at least 65% of maximum heart rate
for at least 20 minutes and be done at least 3 days per week.
5. Body Composition: The make-up of the body in lean body mass and fat mass. It is
usually referred to as a percentage of fat to lean body weight.
 People that are overweight have a greater chance of getting diabetes, heart
disease, high blood pressure and high cholesterol.
 Lean people have a greater life expectancy than overweight people do.
Benefits of Regular Physical Activity
 Improve self image, weight control, posture, and flexibility
 Healthier appearance
 Decreased risk of diabetes, high blood pressure, heart disease, and osteoporosis
The Fit Principle
F= Frequency of exercise (3-5 days per week)
I= Intensity of exercise (65-85% of max heart rate)
T= Time/duration of exercise (20-60 continuous minutes)
 Higher intensity workouts will requite less time and lower intensity workouts will
require more time.
 It is advisable for persons just starting an exercise program to start slowly and
gradually increase intensity as their cardiovascular endurance improves.
Weight Training Information (Safety)
 Spotters are necessary when using free weights (ex. Squats, bench press)
 Make sure to use collars when lifting barbells. Secure them firmly.
 Wear a weight belt when lifting heavy weights.
 Always put weights away when finished using them
 Be safe when in the weight room. No horseplay.
 Muscles must be worked to temporary exhaustion which will result in increased
muscle mass.
 A weight should be selected that can be lifted for 10 repetitions, since we are working
on muscular endurance.
 The exercises must be performed correctly and the weight must be lifted through the
full range of motion (complete contraction and extension).
 Weight should be balanced, locked on the bar with collars, and a spotter in place
before the lift begins
 As weight is lifted, air is exhaled (blown down) and as the weight returns to starting
position, air is inhaled (breathe in).
 The lift should take 2 seconds to work the weight and 4 seconds to return the weight
to the starting position.
 Isolate the muscle area being worked on. Do not jerk or bounce weights during the
 Muscle gains begin to decrease or regress 72 hours after rest.
 The muscle needs 36-42 hours to recover between lifts so muscle can build and
recover from damage. This does not mean you can’t lift the next day, just not the
same muscle.
Major Muscles of the Body
 Biceps
 Triceps
 Pectoral
 Deltoid
 Abs
 Gluteus
 Quadriceps
 Hamstring
 Gastrocnemius
Front of upper arm
Back of upper arm
Front of thigh
Back of thigh
Target Heart Rate
A target heart rate is a calculated number that tells us how hard we should be working during our
workout. If our heart rate is below the target number we may not be working hard enough, and
therefore have to increase our workout intensity. This number must be adjusted every week as
you become more fit, because your resting heart rate should decrease.