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FRESHMAN FIITNESS UNIT STUDY GUIDE 5 Components of Physical Fitness 1. Flexibility: The ability to move a particular joint through a range of motion. A flexible person is less subject to injuries, possesses good posture, and experiences less back pain. Stretching increases flexibility and reduces muscle soreness. Stretches are held for 10 – 15 seconds and should follow a warm-up (light jog). 2. Muscular Strength: The ability of a muscle to exert force. Using heavy resistance (weight) against muscles and few repetitions (4-8). 3. Muscular Endurance: The ability of a muscle to continue activity requiring strength. Using light resistance (weight) against muscles and higher repetitions (10-15). 4. Cardiovascular Endurance: The ability of the body systems (heart, lungs and circulatory system) to maintain efficient functioning during and after exercise. A person that exercises often will be able to carry out daily work and leisure time activities with less tire and fatigue. Examples include: jogging, walking briskly, biking, and swimming. To receive benefits the heart must remain at, at least 65% of maximum heart rate for at least 20 minutes and be done at least 3 days per week. 5. Body Composition: The make-up of the body in lean body mass and fat mass. It is usually referred to as a percentage of fat to lean body weight. People that are overweight have a greater chance of getting diabetes, heart disease, high blood pressure and high cholesterol. Lean people have a greater life expectancy than overweight people do. Benefits of Regular Physical Activity Improve self image, weight control, posture, and flexibility Healthier appearance Decreased risk of diabetes, high blood pressure, heart disease, and osteoporosis The Fit Principle F= Frequency of exercise (3-5 days per week) I= Intensity of exercise (65-85% of max heart rate) T= Time/duration of exercise (20-60 continuous minutes) Higher intensity workouts will requite less time and lower intensity workouts will require more time. It is advisable for persons just starting an exercise program to start slowly and gradually increase intensity as their cardiovascular endurance improves. Weight Training Information (Safety) Spotters are necessary when using free weights (ex. Squats, bench press) Make sure to use collars when lifting barbells. Secure them firmly. Wear a weight belt when lifting heavy weights. Always put weights away when finished using them Be safe when in the weight room. No horseplay. Principles/Rules Muscles must be worked to temporary exhaustion which will result in increased muscle mass. A weight should be selected that can be lifted for 10 repetitions, since we are working on muscular endurance. The exercises must be performed correctly and the weight must be lifted through the full range of motion (complete contraction and extension). Weight should be balanced, locked on the bar with collars, and a spotter in place before the lift begins As weight is lifted, air is exhaled (blown down) and as the weight returns to starting position, air is inhaled (breathe in). The lift should take 2 seconds to work the weight and 4 seconds to return the weight to the starting position. Isolate the muscle area being worked on. Do not jerk or bounce weights during the lift. Muscle gains begin to decrease or regress 72 hours after rest. The muscle needs 36-42 hours to recover between lifts so muscle can build and recover from damage. This does not mean you can’t lift the next day, just not the same muscle. Major Muscles of the Body Biceps Triceps Pectoral Deltoid Abs Gluteus Quadriceps Hamstring Gastrocnemius = = = = = = = = = Front of upper arm Back of upper arm Chest Shoulder Stomach Buttocks Front of thigh Back of thigh Calf Target Heart Rate A target heart rate is a calculated number that tells us how hard we should be working during our workout. If our heart rate is below the target number we may not be working hard enough, and therefore have to increase our workout intensity. This number must be adjusted every week as you become more fit, because your resting heart rate should decrease.