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Pick 1 Question to answer:
Use at least 3 separate reasons (supported by 3 separate documents) to support your response:
1.) What conflicts developed as a result of the Scientific Revolution?
2.) How did society change as a result of the Scientific Revolution?
3.) Who benefited and who was harmed by the changes brought about during the Scientific Revolution?
Document A: Source: World History by McDougal Littell, 2006
Although backed by authority and common sense, the geocentric theory did not accurately explain the
movements of the sun, the moon, and planets. This problem troubled a Polish cleric and astronomer named
Nicolaus Copernicus. In the early 1500s, Copernicus became interested in an old Greek idea that the sun
stood at the center of the universe. After studying planetary movements for more than 25 years, Copernicus
reasoned that indeed, stars, the earth, and other planets revolved around the sun.
1. What ideas did Copernicus call into question?
Document B: Source:
Copernican Model:
A Sun‐Centered
Solar System, Department of Physics &
University of Tennessee
The following are diagrams of the universe showing the relationship between the planets and the sun.
Ptolemy’s Geocentric Model
Copernicus’ Heliocentric Model
1. What is the major difference between the heliocentric (sun centered) model and the geocentric (earth
centered) model?
2. Why might people have problems accepting Copernicus’ model?
Document C: Cartoon about Galileo and the Church
Use the following cartoon to answer the questions that follow.
1.) The Greek philosopher and astronomer Aristotle theorized
that moon and stars were made of pure and perfect
substance, and were perfect spheres.
Why would the Catholic Church have supported Aristotle’s
2.) According to the cartoon how does Galileo’s observation
of Aristotle’s “perfect” moon differ?
3.) According to this cartoon, what is the Catholic Church’s view of Galileo’s observations of the moon and
laws of motion that supported Copernicus’ heliocentric model?
Document D: Source: Galileo Galilei,
“Letter to the Grand Duchess Christina”
This is an excerpt from a letter written by Galileo Galilei defending his approach to science.
Some years ago, as Your Serene Highness well knows, I discovered in the heavens many things that had
not been seen before our own age. The newness of these things, as well as some consequences which
followed from them that contradicted ideas commonly held among academic philosophers, stirred up
against me no small number of professors....
Showing a greater fondness for their own opinions than for truth, they sought to deny and disprove the new
things ... To this end they hurled various charges and published numerous writings filled with inaccurate
arguments, and they made the grave mistake of sprinkling these with passages taken from places in the
Bible which they had failed to understand properly, and which were poorly chosen to support their
1. According to Galileo, what happened when he challenged long held ideas?
Document E: Second Cartoon about Galileo and the Church
Use the cartoon about the Church’s treatment of Galileo below to answer the questions.
1.) What “truth” was discovered by Galileo that is depicted burning in the fire with him?
2.) Why is word “fear” shown in the background or shadows?
Document F: Source: Statement of Galileo to the Church during his Trial in 1633
“With sincere heart and unprecedented faith I (reject)…, and detest the aforesaid errors and heresies (of Copernicus)
and also every other error…contrary to the Holy Church, and I swear that in the future I will never again say or
assert…anything that might cause a similar suspicion toward me.” - Galileo
1.) Why would Galileo have made this statement?
Document G: Source: Sir Isaac Newton- Written in the margin of a notebook while a student at
Cambridge. In Richard S. Westfall, Never at Rest (1980), 89.
Plato is my friend, Aristotle is my friend, but my greatest friend is truth.
1. Based on this quote, how does Newton feel about the scientists from Ancient Greece?
Document H: Source: Guide
World History,
Prentice Hall, 1999
. . . At first, the discoveries of Copernicus and Galileo upset many Europeans. Over time, however, a new way
of thinking about science emerged. Scientists began to observe the world around them and to develop ideas
about why things happened. They did experiments to test these ideas. This new way of thinking was called
the scientific method. . . .
1. Based on this excerpt and diagram, what is one way Copernicus, Galileo, and others influenced how
scientists work?