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Spotlight on Terminology and Language – ESL Pointers Heart palpitations are a fast or irregular heartbeat. Heart palpitations may occur in response to anxiety. Module 38: The Major Psychological Disorders Page 468 “Sally experienced her first panic attack out of the blue, 3 weeks after completing her senior year in college.” When something happens “out of the blue” it is unexpected. Page 468 “In the restaurant, she began to feel dizzy.” When someone feels dizzy they are unsteady and feel as if they are about to lose their balance. Page 469 “Clothes shopping is done only when necessary, lest static on garments send her running from the store.” Lest means “in case.” She only does clothes shopping when she cannot avoid it, just in case the static from the clothes scares her. Page 469 “Although the objective danger posed by an anxiety-producing stimulus (which can be just about anything, as you can see from the list in Figure 1) is typically small or nonexistent, to the individual suffering from the phobia the danger is great, and a full-blown panic attack may follow exposure to the stimulus.” Something that is nonexistent is absent or does not exist. Gastric sensations are those that come from the stomach. Page 470 “It may be that recurring high levels of emotional arousal experienced by patients with panic disorder desensitizes them to emotional stimuli (Pillay et al., 2006; 2007).” When stimulating events are repeated enough to no longer cause arousal, they are said to be desensitizing. Page 470 “In other cases, though, people with the disorder feel that something dreadful is about to happen but can’t identify the reason, experiencing ‘free-floating’ anxiety.” Free-floating anxiety is anxiety without an apparent or identifiable cause. Page 470 “In obsessive-compulsive disorder, people are plagued by unwanted thoughts, called obsessions, or feel that they must carry out actions, termed compulsions, against their will.” These symptoms plague the recipient; they’re very bothersome. Page 470 “A woman may hear the same tune running through her head over and over.” A tune is a song; music. Page 470 “Instead, during an attack, such as the ones experienced by Sally in the case described earlier, anxiety suddenly – and often without warning – rises to a peak, and an individual feels a sense of impending, unavoidable doom.” The event is impending; it is imminent. The event is approaching rapidly. Doom points to an unhappy end, a terrible fate or ruin. Page 470 “Although the physical symptoms differ from person to person, they may include heart palpitations, shortness of breath, unusual amounts of sweating, faintness and dizziness, an urge to urinate, gastric sensations, and—in extreme cases—a sense of imminent death.” Page 471 “As part of an obsessive-compulsive disorder, people may also experience compulsions, irresistible urges to repeatedly carry out some act that seems strange and unreasonable, even to them.” Irresistible urges are overwhelming urges – a person plagued with irresistible urges finds they must carry out some compulsion. Page 472 “Although such compulsive rituals lead to some immediate reduction of anxiety, in the long term the anxiety returns.” A compulsive ritual is a habit or behavior that must be performed. Page 472 “In fact people with severe cases lead lives filled with unrelenting tension (Goodman, Rudorfer, & Maser, 2000; Penzel, 2000).” Page 475 “I seemed to myself to be dull, boring, inadequate, thick brained, unlit, unresponsive, chill skinned, bloodless, and sparrow drab.” A person calling himself unlit means he thought his mind was not active, like a light bulb that was not on. Unrelenting is insistent and merciless. Page 472 “For example, people with anxiety disorders may view a friendly puppy as a ferocious and savage pit bull, or they may see an air disaster looming every moment they are in the vicinity of an airplane.” Chill skinned would describe someone physically inert, almost like a dead body. Page 476 “Mania is an extended state of intense, wild elation.” Elation is being excited and enthusiastic. Something that is ferocious behaves in a very fierce or savage way. A savage is a wild violent or vicious person ore beast. When something is looming it refers to the fact that something threatening or bad is about to happen. Page 473 “It is not that the ‘symptoms’ are faked; instead, it is the misinterpretation of those sensations as evidence of some serious illness— often in the face of inarguable medical evidence to the contrary—that characterizes hypochondriasis (Fallon & Feinstein, 2001; Noyes et al., 2003; Olatunji, 2008).” “When something is inarguable it is impossible to deny or take an opposing view about it. Page 474 “For instance, a person in good health who wakes up blind may react in a bland, matterof-fact way.” When we react in a bland way the reaction is emotionless and with any interest. Page 476 “He purchased a large number of cuckoo clocks and then an expensive car, which he planned to use as a mobile showroom for his wares, anticipating that he would make a great deal of money.” A cuckoo clock is a clock that tells time with sounds like a cuckoo bird’s call, usually accompanied by the appearance of a mechanical bird from behind a door. Page 476 “He proceeded to ‘tear around town’ buying and selling clocks and other merchandise, and when he was not out, he was continuously on the phone making ‘deals’.” To tear, in this case, means to move quickly. So tearing around town would mean going to all parts of the town rapidly. Page 477 “For instance, historical analysis of the composer Robert Schumann’s music shows that he was most prolific during periods of mania.” Prolific means to produce much. Page 474 “By dissociating key parts of the personality, people are able to keep disturbing memories or perceptions from reaching conscious awareness, thereby reducing their anxiety (Maldonado & Spiegel, 2003; Houghtalen & Talbot, 2007).” Dissociating means separating and keeping them apart. Page 477 “Despite the creative fires that may be lit by mania, persons who experience this disorder often show a recklessness that produces self-injury—emotionally and sometimes physically.” Recklessness is being unconcerned about the consequences of actions, and placing one’s self or others in danger. Page 477 “They may alienate others with their talkativeness, inflated self-esteem, and indifference to the needs of others.” Page 480 “I use Cover Girl creamy natural makeup.” If someone makes others feel as though they do not matter, they alienate them. Cover Girl is a brand of cosmetics or makeup sold in U.S. stores. Page 478 “By focusing on the negative side of situations, they feel inept and unable to act constructively to change their environment. In sum, their negative cognitions lead to feelings of depression (Newman et al., 2002).” Page 480 “Oral Roberts has been here to visit me...This place is where Mad magazine is published.” Oral Roberts is a U.S. television religious personality. Someone who is inept is unable to do their job. Page 478 “Brain imaging studies suggest that people with depression experience a general blunting of emotional reactions.” Mad magazine is a magazine that became popular in the U.S. during the 1960’s. It uses humor and satire to make fun of popular culture. A blunting of emotional response refers to a lessening or weakening of that response. Page 480 “The Nixons make Noxon metal polish.” Page 479 “Other recent explanations of depression derive from evolutionary psychology, which considers how behavior is influenced by our genetic inheritance from our ancestors.” Richard Nixon was the 37th president of the U.S and was the only president to resign from office. Derive means to come from a something. Page 479 “When people fruitlessly pursue an ever-elusive goal, depression begins, ending pursuit of the goal.” When something is fruitless it produces nothing or is unproductive Page 479 “The various theories of depression have not provided a complete answer to an elusive question that has dogged researchers: Why does depression occur in approximately twice as many women as men—a pattern (shown in Figure 7)that is similar across a variety of cultures?” Page 481 “He’s down to the smokestack, looking through the smoke trying to get the balloon gassed up you know.” A smokestack is pipe used to vent smoke or steam out of an engine. Page 481 “As this selection illustrates, although the basic grammatical structure may be intact, the substance of thinking characteristic of schizophrenia is often illogical, garbled, and lacking in meaningful content (Holden, 2003; Heinrichs, 2005) When something is garbled it is jumbled or distorted. When someone does something doggedly they are determined to continue and will not give up, even when faced with problems and obstacles. Page 482 “For example, a person with schizophrenia may laugh uproariously at a funeral or react with anger when being helped by someone.” Page 480 “In addition, 25 to 50 percent of women who take oral contraceptives report symptoms of depression, and depression that occurs after the birth of a child is linked to hormonal changes.” Something uproarious is very loud and funny. Oral contraceptives are birth control pills taken by mouth. Page 485 “Rather than being able to screen out unimportant or inconsequential stimuli and focus on the most important things in the environment, people with schizophrenia may be excessively receptive to virtually everything in their environment.” If something does not matter, it is inconsequential. Page 485 “But that was petty compared with the stuff I did later.” Petty means trivial or small. Page 486 “Still, no one has been able to pinpoint the specific causes of antisocial personalities, and it is likely that some combination of factors is responsible (Nigg & Goldsmith, 1994; Rosenstein & Horowitz, 1996; Costa & Widiger, 2002).” The head of a pin is very tiny, so if you pinpoint something, you are directing your attention to a small area. Page 486 “Their emotional volatility leads to impulsive and self-destructive behavior.” Because of their emotional volatility their moods and tempers are unpredictable and changeable. Page 487 “There are several other categories of personality disorder, ranging in severity from individuals who may simply be regarded by others as eccentric, obnoxious, or difficult to people who act in a manner that is criminal and dangerous to others.” Someone who is eccentric has odd habits and does things differently from others. Obnoxious means making other people uncomfortable and annoyed. Page 487 “Although they are not out of touch with reality in the way that people with schizophrenia are, people with personality disorders lead lives that put them on the fringes of society (Millon, Davis, & Millon, 2000; Trull & Widiger, 2003). “ The fringe of something is its outer edge. Page 487 “Rather than showing profound sadness or hopelessness, childhood depression may produce the expression of exaggerated fears, clinginess, or avoidance of everyday activities.” Clinginess occurs when something sticks closely to someone or something else.