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Music for Small Ensemble Holborne: Pavane ‘The image of melancholy’ and Galliard ‘Ecce quam bonum’ (p.191) Context Published with, other pieces for consort by Holborne, in 1599. Intended for domestic performance by amateurs in well off Elizabethan houses, not for public concerts, which did not exist at the time. Instrumentation Not composed for any specific instruments, but covers a range from treble to bass (3 1/2 octaves in total) Could be performed by a consort of viols (as in the recording) or recorders or by a mixture of instruments (referred to as a ‘broken consort’) Structure Pavane and Galliard a common pairing of courtly dances during the 16th century. Pavane is slow and in duple time Galliard is fast and in triple time Both pieces comprise three sections, each one repeated Melody and Rhythm Melodic lines move generally by step, with few large leaps – similar to vocal music, especially in the Pavane Opening motive of the Pavane (descending 4th from tonic to dominant, starting from a long note) is a symbol of melancholy in Elizabethan music. See Dowland’s song Flow my tears on p.347 of the Anthology, which starts with the same idea Galliard is rhythmically more complex, especially in the opening section, with its syncopations (see line 4) Texture Contrapuntal – somewhat like a civilised conversation between the five players: each part has a melodic line of its own Imitation between the parts Lines cross over each other at times – bars 34-7 of the Pavane involve the three top parts overlapping at the same pitch, for example – so that the overall effect is of a closely woven musical cloth The bottom line is generally less active than the others, forming a bass line and restricted largely to the root or third of the harmony; even so, it does have its moments, as in bars 50-2 of the Pavane Pavane contrapuntal throughout. Galliard largely homophonic in middle section Harmony and tonality Diatonic and basically consonant – based on triadic harmony Dissonances are carefully prepared and resolved as suspensions – a note is held over from one chord to become a dissonance in the next, then falls to become a consonance in the new harmony. The D played by part 2 in bars 3-4 is an example: it forms part of a D major chord in bar 3 and becomes a suspended 7th over an E in the bass in bar 4, falling via a decorative pair of quavers to C sharp False relations occur when two different versions of the same note are found in close proximity. See bar 11, where the third line plays C sharp on the first beat and the top part has a C natural later in the bar Pavane in D major. Middle section cadences on dominant (A major) Galliard in D minor (despite the lack of a B flat in the key signature). Cadences on D major (tierce de Picardie) at the end of first and third sections, A major in the second.