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Transcript
Minerals
Presented by
Janice Hermann, PhD, RD/LD
OCES Adult and Older Adult Nutrition Specialist
Minerals
 Minerals are important and essential to life.
 Minerals are inorganic chemical compounds.
 This means that minerals occur in the simplest
form, as an atom of a single element.
Mineral Storage
 Minerals are stored in the body.
 Since minerals are stored in the body it is possible
to get a toxicity.
Functions
 Minerals have two general body functions;
building and regulating.
 Building
 Minerals are essential for building bones, teeth
and soft tissues.
Functions
 Regulating
 Minerals in body fluids regulate body systems.
 Numerous metabolic process in the body require
minerals.
 Most enzymes need helper molecules.
 Minerals function as cofactors that help
enzymes to function. Minerals are either part
of the enzyme itself or they activate the
enzyme.
Destroying Minerals
 Foods do not need to be handled with special
care to prevent destruction of minerals.
 However; minerals can be bound by other
substances that make it hard for the body to
absorb them, and the can be lost in food
processing.
Minerals
 There are 16 minerals known to be essential.
 Other minerals are still being studied to determine
whether or not they have an essential role in the
body.
 Some minerals are not essential but exist in the
food supply and in the body in small amounts.
 The body only needs minerals in small
amounts; however, it needs them on a regular
basis.
Minerals
 Major minerals
 Sodium
 Chloride
 Potassium
 Calcium
 Phosphorous
 Magnesium
 Sufate
 Trace minerals
 Iron
 Zinc
 Iodine
 Selenium
 Copper
 Manganese
 Fluoride
 Chromium
 Molybdenum
Minerals
 Distinction between major and trace minerals
 All minerals are vital
 Major Minerals
 Present, and needed, in larger amounts in the body
 Need at least 100 mg per day
 More than 5 grams in the body
 Trace minerals
 Present, and needed, in relatively small amounts in
the body
 Need less than 100 mg per day
 Less than 5 grams in the body
Getting The Variety of Minerals
 Normally, a well balanced diet based on the
USDA Daily Food Plan and a variety of foods
will provide enough minerals.
 No singe food can supply all the nutrients in
the right amount.
 A variety of foods is needed to have a healthy
diet.
Calcium
 Recommended Dietary Allowance
 Men (19-70 yr): 1,000 mg/day
 Men (71+ yr): 1,200 mg/day
 Women (19-50 yr): 1,000 mg/day
 Women (51+ yr): 1,200 mg/day
 Upper Level
 Adults (19-50 yr): 2,500 mg/day
 Adults (51+ yr): 2,000 mg/day
Calcium
 Functions
 Mineralization of bones and teeth
 Muscle contraction and relaxation
 Nerve functioning
 Blood clotting
 Blood pressure
Calcium
 Food Sources
 Milk and dairy products
 Dark green-leafy vegetables (bok choy, broccoli,
chard, kale)
 Fish with edible bones
 Calcium set tofu, legumes
Calcium
 Deficiency Symptoms
 Children: Stunted growth
 Adults: Osteoporosis
 Toxicity Symptoms
 Constipation
 Increased risk of kidney stones and poor kidney
function
 Interfere with absorption of other minerals
including iron, magnesium, and zinc
Phosphorous
 Recommended Dietary Allowance
 Adults: 700 mg/day
 Upper Level
 Adults: 4,000 mg/day (19-70 yr)
Phosphorous
 Functions
 Mineralization of bones and teeth
 Part of every cell
 Part of DNA and RNA (genetic material)
 Part of phospholipids
 Functions in energy metabolism
 Maintaining acid-base balance.
Phosphorous
 Food Sources
 All animal tissues (meat, poultry, fish, milk, eggs)
 Deficiency Symptoms
 Muscle weakness
 Bone pain
 Toxicity Symptoms
 Calcification of non-skeletal tissues , particularly
kidneys
Magnesium
 Recommended Dietary Allowance
 Men (19-30 yr): 400 mg/day
 Women (19-30 yr): 310 mg/day
 Upper Level
 Adults: 350 mg nonfood magnesium/day
Magnesium
 Functions
 Bone mineralization
 Building protein
 Enzyme action (part of more than 300 enzymes)
 Normal muscle contraction
 Nerve impulse transmission
 Maintenance of teeth
 Functioning of immune system
Magnesium
 Food Sources
 Nuts, legumes
 Whole grains and whole grain products
 Dark-green vegetables
 Seafood
 Chocolate, cocoa
Magnesium
 Deficiency Symptoms
 Weakness
 Confusion
 Convulsions and bizarre muscle movements (if
extreme)
 Hallucinations
 Growth failure in children
 Toxicity Symptoms
 Diarrhea, dehydration (from nonfood sources).
Chloride
 Adequate Intake
 2,300 mg/day (19-50 yr)
 2,000 mg/day (51-70 yr)
 1,800 mg/day (> 70 yr)
 Upper Limit
 Adults: 3,600 mg/day
Chloride
 Functions
 Maintains normal fluid balance
 Maintains normal electrolyte balance
 Part of hydrochloric acid in the stomach necessary
for protein digestion
Chloride
 Food Sources
 Table salt (sodium chloride)
 Soy sauce and other condiments
 Large amounts in processed foods
 Moderate amounts in meats, milks, eggs
Chloride
 Deficiency Symptoms
 Does not occur under normal circumstances
 Toxicity Symptoms
 Vomiting
Potassium
 Adequate Intake
 Adults: 4,700 mg/day
 Functions
 Maintains normal fluid and electrolyte balance
 Facilitates many reactions
 Supports cell integrity
 Assists in nerve impulse transmission
 Helps with muscle contraction
 Role with blood pressure
Potassium
 Food Sources
 All whole foods: meats, milk, fruits, vegetables,
grains and legumes
Potassium
 Deficiency Symptoms
 Irregular heartbeat
 Muscle weakness
 Glucose intolerance
 Toxicity Symptoms
 Muscle weakness
 Vomiting
 If given in a vein can stop the heart
Sodium
 Adequate Intake
 1,500 mg/day (19-50 yr)
 1,300 mg/day (51-70 yr)
 1,200 mg/day (>70 yr)
 Upper Level
 Adults 2,300 mg/day
Sodium
 Functions
 Maintains normal fluid balance and thus blood
pressure
 Maintains normal electrolyte balance
 Assists in nerve impulse transmission
 Assists with muscle contractions
Sodium
 Food Sources
 Table salt (sodium chloride)
 Soy sauce and other condiments
 Large amounts in processed foods
 Moderate amounts in meats, milks, breads, and
vegetables
Sodium
 Deficiency Symptoms
 Muscle cramps
 Mental apathy
 Loss of appetite loss
 Toxicity Symptoms
 Fluid retention and swelling (edema), high blood
pressure (hypertension).
Chromium
 Adequate Intake
 Men: 35 µg/day
 Women: 25 µg/day
 Functions
 Enhances insulin action and may improve
glucose tolerance.
 Food Sources
 Meats (especially liver), whole grains and
brewer’s yeast
Chromium
 Deficiency
 Diabetes like condition
 Toxicity
 None reported
Copper
 Recommended Dietary Allowance
 Adults: 900 µg/day
 Upper Level
 Adults: 10,000 µg/day (10 mg/day)
Copper
 Functions
 Necessary for the absorption and use of iron in
the formation of hemoglobin
 Component of several enzymes
 Helps release energy from food
 Helps form collagen
Copper
 Food Sources
 Seafood
 Nuts, seeds, legumes
 Whole grains
 Deficiency Symptoms
 Anemia, bone abnormalities
 Toxicity Symptoms
 Liver damage
Fluoride
 Adequate Intake
 Men: 4 mg/day
 Women: 3 mg/day
 Upper Level
 10 mg/day
Fluoride
 Functions
 Maintains health of bones and teeth
 Helps make teeth resistant to decay
 Food Sources
 Fluoridated water
 Tea
 Seafood
Fluoride
 Deficiency Symptoms
 Weakened tooth enamel, susceptibility to tooth
decay
 Toxicity
 Fluorosis (pitting and discoloration of teeth)
Iodine
 Recommended Dietary Allowance
 Adults: 150 µg/day
 Upper Level
 1,100 µg/day
Iodine
 Functions
 A component of two thyroid hormones which help
regulate growth, development and the metabolic
rate
 Food Sources
 Iodized table salt, seafood, bread, dairy products,
plants grown in iodine-rich soil and animals fed
those plants
Iodine
 Deficiency Disease
 Simple goiter, cretinism
 Deficiency Symptoms
 Underactive thyroid gland
 Goiter
 Cretinism: mental and physical retardation in
infants
 Toxicity Symptoms
 Decreased thyroid activity, goiter.
Iron
 Recommended Dietary Allowance
 Men:
8 mg/day
 Women: 18 mg/day (19-50 yr)
 Women: 8 mg/day (51+)
 Upper Level
 Adults: 45 mg/day
Iron
 Functions
 Part of the protein hemoglobin, which carries
oxygen in the blood
 Part of the protein myoglobin in muscles, which
makes oxygen available for muscle contraction
 Necessary for the utilization of energy as part of
the cells’ metabolic machinery
Iron
 Food Sources
 Iron from animal foods is called heme iron. Heme
iron is better absorbed.
 Animal foods include liver, red meats, poultry, pork, fish,
egg yolk, shellfish
 Iron from plant foods is called non-heme iron. Non-
heme iron is not absorbed as easily as heme iron.
 Plant foods include legumes, peanuts, nuts, enriched and
whole grain breads and cereals, dried fruits, green leafy
vegetables
 Combining non-heme iron with heme iron or having a food
rich in vitamin C at the same meal helps absorb non-heme
iron.
Iron
 Deficiency Symptoms
 Anemia, weakness, fatigue, headaches
 Impaired work performance and cognitive
function
 Impaired immunity
 Pale skin, nail-beds, mucous membranes and
palm creases
 Concave nails
 Inability to regulate body temperature (reduced
resistance to cold temperatures)
 Pica
Iron
 Toxicity Symptoms
 Gastrointestinal distress
 Hemochromatosis (iron overload): infections,
fatigue, joint pain, skin pigmentation, organ
damage.
 Iron overload can cause death by accidental poisoning in
children. Children should not take adult level iron
supplements.
Manganese
 Adequate Intake
 Men: 2.3 mg/day
 Women: 1.8 mg/day
 Upper Level
 Adults: 11 mg/day
Manganese
 Functions
 Cofactor for many enzymes.
 Bone formation.
 Food Sources
 Nuts
 Whole grains
 Leafy vegetables
 Tea
Manganese
 Deficiency Symptoms
 Rare
 Toxicity Symptoms
 Nervous system disorders
Molybdenum
 Recommended Dietary Allowance
 Adults: 45 µg/day
 Upper Level
 Adults: 2 mg/day
 Functions
 Cofactor for several enzymes
Molybdenum
 Food Sources
 Legumes
 Cereals
 Nuts
 Deficiency
 Unknown.
 Toxicity
 None reported
Selenium
 Recommended Dietary Allowance
 Adults: 55 µg/day
 Upper Level
 Adults: 400 µg/day
Selenium
 Functions
 Functions as an antioxidant
 Regulates thyroid hormone.
 Food Sources
 Seafood, meat, whole grains, fruits, vegetables
(depending on soil content)
Selenium
 Deficiency Symptoms
 Predisposition to heart disease characterized by
cardiac tissue becoming fibrous (Keshan disease).
 Toxicity Symptoms
 Loss and brittleness of hair and nails
 Skin rash
 Fatigue, irritability
 Nervous system disorders
 Garlic breath odor
Zinc
 Recommended Dietary Allowance
 Men: 11 mg/day
 Women: 8 mg/day
 Upper Level
 Adults: 40 mg/day
Zinc
 Functions
 Part of many enzymes
 Associated with the hormone insulin
 Involved in making genetic material and thus cell
reproduction
 Involved in making proteins and thus affects
tissue growth and repair
 Immune reactions
 Transport of vitamin A
 Taste perception
 Wound healing
 Making sperm
 Normal fetal development
Zinc
 Food Sources
 Protein contain foods: red meats, shellfish,
whole grains
 Some fortified cereals
 Deficiency Symptoms
 Growth retardation, delayed sexual maturation
 Impaired immune function
 Decreased protein synthesis including collage
 Decreased wound healing
 Hair loss
 Eye and skin lesions
 Loss of appetite
Zinc
 Toxicity Symptoms
 Loss of appetite
 Impaired immunity
 Low HDL
 Copper and iron deficiencies
Sulfur
 Functions
 As part of proteins, stabilizes their shape by
forming disulfide bridges
 Part of the vitamins biotin and thiamin
 Part of the hormone insulin
 Food Sources
 All protein contain foods (meats, fish, poultry,
eggs, milk, legumes, nuts)
Sulfur
 Deficiency Symptoms
 None known; protein deficiency would occur first
 Toxicity Symptoms
 Toxicity would occur only if sulfur-containing
amino acids were eaten in excess
 In animals this depresses growth
Other Minerals
 Essentiality
 Research is ongoing to determine if other minerals
are essential including nickel, silicon, cobalt,
boron, time and vanadium.