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Standards-Based Instruction
The Survival of the
Eastern Empire
Reading Preview
Standards at a Glance
Students have already learned about the
collapse of the Roman Empire in the
West. Now, they will examine the shift of
power from the West to the East in the
Roman Empire that occurred with the
rise of Constantine and the establishment of Constantinople.
Section Focus Question
How did Constantine and his successors establish the Byzantine
Before you begin the lesson for the day,
write the Section Focus Question on the
board. (Lesson focus: Constantine set up a
new capital in the East. Justinian restored some
of the lost lands of the Roman Empire.)
34 Chapter 2
Key Terms and People
Constantine (KAHN stuhn teen), p. 34
pagan (PAY guhn), p. 34
moat (moht), p. 35
Justinian (juhs TIHN ee uhn), p. 36
Theodora (thee uh DOR uh), p. 36
absolute power (AB suh loot POW uhr),
p. 38
Germanic tribes led to the collapse of the Western Roman
Empire. But in the East, Roman government, law, and culture
survived for another thousand years. In this section, you will
read about the rise of a “New Rome” in the Eastern, or Byzantine, Empire.
Power Shifts to the East
Emperor Constantine
founded a new capital at
Constantinople, in the eastern
part of the Roman Empire.
The shift of Roman power to the East began long before the
collapse of the Western Empire. As you have read in Chapter 1,
military power struggles plagued the late Roman Empire. Diocletian restored order in the late 200s. He ruled from Asia
Minor, in the eastern part of the empire. After his death, however, the power struggles resumed.
Form students into pairs or groups of
four. Distribute the Reading Readiness
Guide. Ask students to fill in the first
two columns of the chart.
Use the Numbered Heads strategy (TE
p. T38) to call on students to share one
piece of information they already know
and one piece of information they want
to know. The students will return to
these worksheets later.
High-Use Words
collapse (kuh LAPS), p. 34
foundation (fown DAY shuhn), p. 36
Background Knowledge The invasion of Europe by
Vocabulary Builder
Teaching Resources, Unit 1,
Reading Readiness Guide, p. 42
Vocabulary Builder
E-LA Reading 7.2.1
Help students understand the concept of
empire. Put this question on the board:
What made the Roman Empire an
empire? Have students brainstorm for
ideas on this topic using the Idea Wave
technique (TE p. T38). (Possible answer: It
was an empire because it included a number of
states that were controlled by one ruler.)
Set a Purpose
Use Informational
Features Features such
as maps and charts
explain information
that is difficult to
convey with words
alone. Use the features
to add information to
the written text. First,
read the text. Then,
study the features for
explanations and
collapse (kuh LAPS) n. sudden
failure in the way something
works, so that it cannot continue
Prepare to Read
Build Background
Reading Skill
H-SS 7.1.3 Describe the
establishment by Constantine
of the new capital in
Constantinople and the
development of the
Byzantine Empire, with
an emphasis on the
consequences of the
development of two distinct
European civilizations,
Eastern Orthodox and Roman
Catholic, and their two
distinct views on churchstate relations.
The Rise of Constantine A Roman leader named
Constantine fought several rivals for control of the empire.
Constantine began life as a pagan, or someone who believes
in more than one god. Christians believe in only one God.
Chapter 2 The Byzantine Empire
Universal Access
L1 English Language Learners
L1 Less Proficient Readers
Using a Reading Aid Suggest to students
that they use a ruler as an aid for keeping
their places as they read.
L1 Special Needs
Noting the Unfamiliar Tell students to
use sticky notes to mark any unfamiliar
words or phrases (such as plagued, resumed,
or power struggles). Periodically help students by checking to see that they understand these unfamiliar words.
After a great victory in 324, Constantine became sole ruler
of the empire. By this time, he had abandoned his pagan
beliefs and become a Christian. As emperor, he supported the
growth of the Church.
Constantine decided to move the capital of his government
eastward to the site of an old Greek city called Byzantium.
Unlike pagan old Rome, his “New Rome” was to be a Christian city. Constantine named the new capital Constantinople,
which means “city of Constantine.” Today, Constantinople is
known as Istanbul, Turkey.
The people of Constantinople did not call themselves
Byzantines. They thought of themselves as Romans living in
the Roman Empire. The term Byzantine was created much later
by historians to describe the later Eastern Roman Empire.
Power Shifts to the East
H-SS 7.1.3
High-Use Words Before teaching this
section, preteach the high-use words
collapse and foundation using the strategy on TE p. 33.
Key Terms Following the instructions
on p. 7, have students continue to preview key terms.
The New Capital Constantine chose an excellent loca-
tion for his new capital. The city lay at the south end of the
Bosporus, a strait that links the Black Sea and the Mediterranean Sea. The Bosporus also lies between southeast Europe
and southwest Asia. Waterways, caravan tracks, and paved
Roman roads made Constantinople a crossroads for trade
between Asia and Europe.
The new capital was also much easier to defend than Rome
was. Built on a peninsula, most of the city was surrounded by
the sea. Thick walls and a moat, or trench filled with water,
protected the city from attack by land. From Constantinople,
Roman armies could quickly travel to the empire’s eastern
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permission to display this image in
permission to display this
electronic format. Please see the teacher's
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edition of your textbook for this image.
format. Please see the
teacher's edition
of yourssmm1009c06 - TK
textbook for this image.
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Vocabulary Builder
To help students better understand the
concept of power, which is important to
the understanding of this lesson, use the
Concept Lesson, Power. Provide students with copies of the Concept Organizer.
Teaching Resources, Unit 1,
Concept Lesson, p. 49; Concept Organizer, p. 5
Emperor Constantine
The Roman emperor
Constantine, shown here, made
the city of Constantinople the
empire’s new capital. He gave it
the name Constantinople, or
“city of Constantine.” Critical
Thinking: Draw Conclusions
What conclusions can you
draw about the power of a
man who named a city after
himself and appeared on coins
and in sculptures?
Section 1 The Survival of the Eastern Empire
Read Power Shifts to the East using the
ReQuest strategy (TE p. T37).
Ask: What major change did Constantine make to the Roman Empire? (He
moved the capital from Rome to Byzantium
and changed the city’s name to Constantinople.)
Ask: Why did Constantine move the
capital from Rome to Byzantium? (Byzantium was in a better location. Also, the
Romans worshiped many gods, and Constantine wanted a Christian empire.)
Ask: What effect did Constantine’s
decision have on the future of the Byzantine Empire? (The Eastern Empire survived despite the fall of the Western Empire.)
History Background
Capital Name Changes Constantine
changed the name of Byzantium to Constantinople in 324. For the next several
hundred years, the city was attacked by
Persians, Arabs, and nomadic peoples. In
1453, the Ottoman Empire conquered the
city. The city became part of Turkey. Its
name was officially changed to Istanbul in
What Is Asia Minor? Many maps of this
period show a place called Asia Minor.
Asia Minor is a name sometimes used for
the peninsula between the Black Sea and
the Mediterranean. It was one of the first
locations in which Greek and Roman societies flourished. It was conquered by the
Ottomans in 1071. Today, it is the country
of Turkey.
Draw Conclusions Possible answer: Con-
stantine was not merely powerful, he also
dominated—or wanted to dominate—
public life.
Chapter 2 Section 1 35
Constantinople: Capital of the Byzantine Empire
Discovery School Video
Constantinople: Capital of the Byzantine
Constantinople was the eastern capital of
the Roman Empire, and it was the Roman
emperor Constantine the Great who
renamed the city for himself in A.D. 330.
The city’s strategic location along East–
West trade routes made it a constant target
for invaders. This segment explores this
great city, vital to so many different cultures throughout history.
Questions From the Video
Why was Constantinople, now called
Istanbul, so desirable to the various groups
who fought over it? (Students may say that
the city’s strategic location along East–West
trade routes made Constantinople desirable.)
Why would the Byzantine Empire’s
brightest and most talented people come to
Constantinople? (Students may explain that
since Constantinople was the capital, talented
people would have the best chance to win
important jobs there. People could have been
attracted by the city’s wealth as well.)
Constantinople flourished as
the capital of the Eastern
Roman Empire and later the
Byzantine Empire. The city was
strategically located on the
strait that separates Europe
and Asia. This map, drawn
in the 1400s, gives a bird’s-eye
view of Constantinople.
Critical Thinking: Interpret
Maps How did the location of
Constantinople make it easy to
Discovery School Video View
Constantinople: Capital of the
Byzantine Empire to learn more
about Constantinople in Byzantine times.
E-LA 7.2.1 Use
Have students begin to fill in the Interactive Reading and Notetaking Study Guide.
Vocabulary Builder
foundation (fown DAY shuhn) n.
conditions that will make it
possible for something to be
Monitor Progress
Interpret Maps Possible response:
Because much of the city was surrounded
by water, invaders would probably
approach by ship, making it difficult for
them to approach quickly or secretly.
Reading Skill Possible answer:
The map shows the city’s location relative
to the water, which is discussed in the
caption and the text.
Possible answer: Constantinople was at the crossroads of European
and Asian trade routes. Rome was near the
Mediterranean Sea, but Constantinople
was on both the Mediterranean Sea and
the Black Sea. Rome was a pagan city.
Constantinople was Christian.
36 Chapter 2
Fortified wall surrounds city
Independent Practice
As students fill in the Notetaking Study
Guide, circulate to make sure students
understand how the Byzantine Empire
was established. Provide assistance as
Hagia Sophia
Read the text at right and
study the map above. How do
the map and the caption add
information to the text?
Interactive Reading and Notetaking Study Guide, Chapter 2, Section 1
(Adapted version also available.)
The copyright holder has not granted permission to display this image in
electronic format. Please see the teacher's edition of your textbook for this image.
City nearly surrounded by water
Constantinople’s strategic location, plus its good harbors,
made it an ideal trading center. Ships and caravans came to the
city with spices from India, furs from Russia, silk from China,
and grain from Egypt. This trade made Constantinople rich.
Constantine used this wealth to make his new city as magnificent as the old Rome. He built palaces, government buildings, marketplaces, and a stadium for chariot races.
Constantine laid the foundation for the future Byzantine
Empire. Some years after his death, the Roman Empire was
divided into an Eastern and a Western empire. The capital of
the Eastern Empire was Constantinople. After the Western
Empire fell in 476, the Eastern, or Byzantine, Empire survived.
How was Constantinople different from Rome?
Justinian and Theodora
Justinian and Theodora
expanded the Byzantine
Empire and increased the
emperor’s power.
The first great Byzantine emperor was Justinian. Justinian
ruled for nearly 40 years, from 527 to 565. Justinian and his
wife, Theodora, were a colorful and unusual royal couple.
Chapter 2 The Byzantine Empire
Universal Access
L3 Advanced Readers
L3 Gifted and Talented
Advisers to Justinian As students are
reading about the Nika Rebellion (alluded
to on page 38), help them understand that
Justinian had more than one option for
dealing with the rioters. Ask students to
imagine that they are advisers to Justinian
during the crisis. Encourage students to
brainstorm for some ways that Justinian
could deal with the rebellion. (through
diplomacy or military intervention) Have students identify the pros and cons of each
approach. Remind students that Justinian
had limited technology for dealing with
rioters and that he did not have to worry
about being reelected.
Justinian was born to a family of peasants. His uncle began his
career as an impoverished soldier and battled his way up
through the army to the throne. Justinian was his successor.
Theodora’s father was a bear trainer in the circus. When she
grew up, she became a performer. Both Justinian and
Theodora were talented, intelligent, and self-confident.
Justinian and Theodora
H-SS 7.1.3
Read Justinian and Theodora with students. Remind students to look for support of the main idea.
Ask students to find the words in the
text that tell Justinian’s goal when he
became emperor. (“Justinian dreamed of
restoring Rome’s lost empire.”)
Ask: In what way did Justinian’s conquests weaken the empire? (Wars were
very costly and left the empire unable to
defend itself well.)
Introduce the Byzantine Monarchy
worksheet. After students have completed the worksheet, ask: Which
beliefs could prevent people from
questioning the emperor’s authority?
(the assertions that could not be proved)
Justinian’s Conquests Justinian dreamed of restoring
Rome’s lost empire. “We have good hope that God will allow
us to reconquer the lands of the old Roman Empire,” he wrote,
“which have been lost through indolence [laziness].” He
worked for more than thirty years trying to do just that.
As the map on this page shows, Justinian did win back
lands around the Mediterranean. During his reign, the Byzantine Empire reached its greatest size. His many wars, however,
left the empire with severe money problems. In the coming
years, attackers from outside would gradually chip away most
of the territory he had gained.
Teaching Resources, Unit 1,
Byzantine Monarchy, p. 45
Byzantine Empire, 565
Independent Practice
Byzantine Empire, 565
Black Sea
Da n u b e R
A eg
0 km
le R
As students fill in the Notetaking Study
Guide, circulate to make sure they understand how Justinian and Theodora contributed to the establishment of the Byzantine
Empire. Provide assistance as needed.
e an
Have students complete the Notetaking
Study Guide. (Adapted version available.)
Monitor Progress
Tell students to fill in the last column of the
Reading Readiness Guide. Ask them to
evaluate if what they learned was what
they expected to learn.
0 miles
Azimuthal Equal-Area Projection
At its peak, the Byzantine Empire extended from Egypt and southwest
Asia to present-day Spain.
(a) Locate About how far is Constantinople from Rome?
(b) Compare How does the area of the Byzantine Empire compare with
the area of the Roman Empire, as shown on the map on page 13?
Teaching Resources, Unit 1,
Reading Readiness Guide, p. 42
For: Interactive map
Web Code: mxp-1021
Section 1 The Survival of the Eastern Empire
To further assess student understanding,
use the Progress Monitoring Transparency.
Progress Monitoring Transparencies, Chapter 2, Section 1
History Background
Imperial Politics Justinian rose to power
mainly through military support. Upon
achieving the throne, he needed to assert
his authority over the aristocracy. He did
so through political warfare. He claimed
that his power came from God, and he
persecuted pagan aristocrats and people
who expressed opinions in opposition to
Christian teachings. Many members of the
senate were unhappy with Justinian’s rule.
During the Nika Rebellion in 532, these
senators hoped to use this expression of
discontent to remove Justinian’s advisers
and Justinian from power. Unfortunately
for the rebelling senators, Justinian
crushed the revolt.
(a) about 800 miles (b) The
Byzantine Empire included much of the
Roman territory in the East but did not
cover much of Western Europe.
Chapter 2 Section 1 37
The copyright holder has not granted
permission to display this image in
electronic format. Please see the
teacher's edition of your textbook for this
Assess and Reteach
Assess Progress
Have students complete Check Your
Progress. Administer the Section Quiz.
Teaching Resources, Section
Quiz, p. 52
Progress Monitoring Transparencies, Chapter 2, Section 1
If students need more instruction, have
them read this section in the Interactive
Reading and Notetaking Study Guide.
Emperor Justinian
This mosaic shows the
Byzantine emperor Justinian.
Critical Thinking: Evaluate
Information Which details in
this image show that Justinian
was respected and powerful?
Interactive Reading and
Notetaking Study Guide, Chapter 2,
Section 1 (Adapted version available)
Have half of the students write a fact sheet
titled Differences in the Eastern and Western Empires. The other half should write a
fact sheet titled Similarities in the Eastern
and Western Empires. Post the fact sheets
on a bulletin board.
Justinian’s Legacy Although Justinian did not succeed
in restoring the Roman Empire, he had other accomplishments. His greatest gift to the world was Justinian’s Code,
which you will read more about later. This law code is the
foundation for several modern legal systems. In 532, an urban
revolt in Constantinople challenged Justinian’s power. Ruthlessly crushing this revolt helped him gain absolute power,
or unlimited authority, over the empire.
After this revolt destroyed much of the city, Justinian
launched a grand rebuilding program. The greatest of the new
buildings was a church called the Hagia Sophia (HAY jee uh
soh FEE uh), or Holy Wisdom, which still stands today. It is
regarded as one of the world’s most beautiful buildings. (See
page 46.)
How did Justinian strengthen his control over the
Byzantine Empire?
Looking Back and Ahead In this section, you have
read how the Byzantine Empire developed from the Eastern
Roman Empire. In the next section, you will see how differences
in worship led to a permanent split in the Christian Church.
1 Check Your Progress
H-SS: 7.1.3; E-LA: Reading 7.2.1
Section 1 Check Your Progress
1. (a) on land that connects the Black Sea
and the Mediterranean Sea
(b) It was a crossroads between Asia
and Europe; this helped make it
2. (a) to regain Rome’s lost land
(b) Accomplishments: The Byzantine
Empire was its greatest size during Justinian’s reign; he defeated the revolt of
532; he established Justinian’s Code; he
built grand buildings. Failures: He spent
a lot of money on wars. Attackers took
most of the gained territory.
(c) The Hagia Sophia still stands.
and Critical Thinking
1. (a) Recall Describe the
physical setting of the city
of Constantinople.
(b) Trace Cause and
Effect How did the city’s
setting influence its history?
2. (a) Recall What was Justinian’s dream for the empire?
(b) Compare Compare the
accomplishments of Justinian’s reign with his failures.
(c) Link Past and Present
Which of Justinian’s accomplishments survive today?
3. Possible answer: I can see how Constan-
tinople lies at a strategic spot.
Reading Skill
3. Use Informational Features
Study the map on page 37.
How does the map extend
your understanding beyond
the written text?
Vocabulary Builder
Read each sentence below. If
the sentence is true, write yes
and explain why. If the sentence is not true, write no and
explain why.
4. Pagans believe in more than
one god.
5. Byzantine citizens had
absolute power over their
For: Self-test with instant help
Web Code: mxa-1021
6. The following sentences
introduce a short essay on
Constantinople. Read these
sentences, and write a topic
sentence expressing the
main idea of the paragraph.
Sea routes through Constantinople connected the Black Sea
and the Mediterranean Sea.
Land routes connected this city
to both Europe and Asia. Trade
flowed into and out of Constantinople. Armies could
defend the city and the Eastern
Empire easily. It was the ideal
location for the emperor and
his officials.
Chapter 2 The Byzantine Empire
4. Yes. Pagans have many gods.
5. No. Byzantine citizens were subject to
the absolute power of Justinian.
6. Possible answer: Constantine chose
Constantinople because of its location.
expanded the empire through
conquest, crushed a rebellion, created a
legal system
Evaluate Information Possible answers:
his crown, the halo around his head
38 Chapter 2
Writing Rubrics Share rubrics with students before they write their topic sentence.
Score 1
Score 2
Score 3
Score 4
Sentence is incomplete.
Sentence is vague and not about the main idea.
Sentence mentions the main topic of location.
Sentence is logical and summarizes the main idea of the other sentences.