* Your assessment is very important for improving the workof artificial intelligence, which forms the content of this project
Download The Survival of the Eastern Empire
Document related concepts
Section Section 1 1 Standards-Based Instruction The Survival of the Eastern Empire Reading Preview Standards at a Glance Students have already learned about the collapse of the Roman Empire in the West. Now, they will examine the shift of power from the West to the East in the Roman Empire that occurred with the rise of Constantine and the establishment of Constantinople. Section Focus Question How did Constantine and his successors establish the Byzantine Empire? Before you begin the lesson for the day, write the Section Focus Question on the board. (Lesson focus: Constantine set up a new capital in the East. Justinian restored some of the lost lands of the Roman Empire.) ■ ■ 34 Chapter 2 Key Terms and People Constantine (KAHN stuhn teen), p. 34 pagan (PAY guhn), p. 34 moat (moht), p. 35 Justinian (juhs TIHN ee uhn), p. 36 Theodora (thee uh DOR uh), p. 36 absolute power (AB suh loot POW uhr), p. 38 Germanic tribes led to the collapse of the Western Roman Empire. But in the East, Roman government, law, and culture survived for another thousand years. In this section, you will read about the rise of a “New Rome” in the Eastern, or Byzantine, Empire. Power Shifts to the East Emperor Constantine founded a new capital at Constantinople, in the eastern part of the Roman Empire. The shift of Roman power to the East began long before the collapse of the Western Empire. As you have read in Chapter 1, military power struggles plagued the late Roman Empire. Diocletian restored order in the late 200s. He ruled from Asia Minor, in the eastern part of the empire. After his death, however, the power struggles resumed. Form students into pairs or groups of four. Distribute the Reading Readiness Guide. Ask students to fill in the first two columns of the chart. Use the Numbered Heads strategy (TE p. T38) to call on students to share one piece of information they already know and one piece of information they want to know. The students will return to these worksheets later. High-Use Words collapse (kuh LAPS), p. 34 foundation (fown DAY shuhn), p. 36 Background Knowledge The invasion of Europe by Vocabulary Builder L2 Teaching Resources, Unit 1, Reading Readiness Guide, p. 42 Vocabulary Builder E-LA Reading 7.2.1 L2 Help students understand the concept of empire. Put this question on the board: What made the Roman Empire an empire? Have students brainstorm for ideas on this topic using the Idea Wave technique (TE p. T38). (Possible answer: It was an empire because it included a number of states that were controlled by one ruler.) Set a Purpose Use Informational Features Features such as maps and charts explain information that is difficult to convey with words alone. Use the features to add information to the written text. First, read the text. Then, study the features for explanations and details. collapse (kuh LAPS) n. sudden failure in the way something works, so that it cannot continue Prepare to Read Build Background Knowledge Reading Skill H-SS 7.1.3 Describe the establishment by Constantine of the new capital in Constantinople and the development of the Byzantine Empire, with an emphasis on the consequences of the development of two distinct European civilizations, Eastern Orthodox and Roman Catholic, and their two distinct views on churchstate relations. The Rise of Constantine A Roman leader named Constantine fought several rivals for control of the empire. Constantine began life as a pagan, or someone who believes in more than one god. Christians believe in only one God. 34 Chapter 2 The Byzantine Empire Universal Access L1 English Language Learners L1 Less Proficient Readers Using a Reading Aid Suggest to students that they use a ruler as an aid for keeping their places as they read. L1 Special Needs Noting the Unfamiliar Tell students to use sticky notes to mark any unfamiliar words or phrases (such as plagued, resumed, or power struggles). Periodically help students by checking to see that they understand these unfamiliar words. After a great victory in 324, Constantine became sole ruler of the empire. By this time, he had abandoned his pagan beliefs and become a Christian. As emperor, he supported the growth of the Church. Constantine decided to move the capital of his government eastward to the site of an old Greek city called Byzantium. Unlike pagan old Rome, his “New Rome” was to be a Christian city. Constantine named the new capital Constantinople, which means “city of Constantine.” Today, Constantinople is known as Istanbul, Turkey. The people of Constantinople did not call themselves Byzantines. They thought of themselves as Romans living in the Roman Empire. The term Byzantine was created much later by historians to describe the later Eastern Roman Empire. Teach Power Shifts to the East H-SS 7.1.3 Instruction ■ High-Use Words Before teaching this section, preteach the high-use words collapse and foundation using the strategy on TE p. 33. Key Terms Following the instructions on p. 7, have students continue to preview key terms. The New Capital Constantine chose an excellent loca- ■ tion for his new capital. The city lay at the south end of the Bosporus, a strait that links the Black Sea and the Mediterranean Sea. The Bosporus also lies between southeast Europe and southwest Asia. Waterways, caravan tracks, and paved Roman roads made Constantinople a crossroads for trade between Asia and Europe. The new capital was also much easier to defend than Rome was. Built on a peninsula, most of the city was surrounded by the sea. Thick walls and a moat, or trench filled with water, protected the city from attack by land. From Constantinople, Roman armies could quickly travel to the empire’s eastern frontiers. The copyright holder The copyright holder has not granted has not granted permission to display this image in permission to display this electronic format. Please see the teacher's image in electronic edition of your textbook for this image. format. Please see the teacher's edition of yourssmm1009c06 - TK Image textbook for this image. Image ssmm1010c06 - TK L2 Vocabulary Builder To help students better understand the concept of power, which is important to the understanding of this lesson, use the Concept Lesson, Power. Provide students with copies of the Concept Organizer. Teaching Resources, Unit 1, Concept Lesson, p. 49; Concept Organizer, p. 5 Emperor Constantine The Roman emperor Constantine, shown here, made the city of Constantinople the empire’s new capital. He gave it the name Constantinople, or “city of Constantine.” Critical Thinking: Draw Conclusions What conclusions can you draw about the power of a man who named a city after himself and appeared on coins and in sculptures? Section 1 The Survival of the Eastern Empire ■ Read Power Shifts to the East using the ReQuest strategy (TE p. T37). ■ Ask: What major change did Constantine make to the Roman Empire? (He moved the capital from Rome to Byzantium and changed the city’s name to Constantinople.) ■ Ask: Why did Constantine move the capital from Rome to Byzantium? (Byzantium was in a better location. Also, the Romans worshiped many gods, and Constantine wanted a Christian empire.) ■ Ask: What effect did Constantine’s decision have on the future of the Byzantine Empire? (The Eastern Empire survived despite the fall of the Western Empire.) 35 History Background Capital Name Changes Constantine changed the name of Byzantium to Constantinople in 324. For the next several hundred years, the city was attacked by Persians, Arabs, and nomadic peoples. In 1453, the Ottoman Empire conquered the city. The city became part of Turkey. Its name was officially changed to Istanbul in 1930. What Is Asia Minor? Many maps of this period show a place called Asia Minor. Asia Minor is a name sometimes used for the peninsula between the Black Sea and the Mediterranean. It was one of the first locations in which Greek and Roman societies flourished. It was conquered by the Ottomans in 1071. Today, it is the country of Turkey. Answer Draw Conclusions Possible answer: Con- stantine was not merely powerful, he also dominated—or wanted to dominate— public life. Chapter 2 Section 1 35 Constantinople: Capital of the Byzantine Empire Discovery School Video Constantinople: Capital of the Byzantine Empire Constantinople was the eastern capital of the Roman Empire, and it was the Roman emperor Constantine the Great who renamed the city for himself in A.D. 330. The city’s strategic location along East– West trade routes made it a constant target for invaders. This segment explores this great city, vital to so many different cultures throughout history. Questions From the Video Why was Constantinople, now called Istanbul, so desirable to the various groups who fought over it? (Students may say that the city’s strategic location along East–West trade routes made Constantinople desirable.) Why would the Byzantine Empire’s brightest and most talented people come to Constantinople? (Students may explain that since Constantinople was the capital, talented people would have the best chance to win important jobs there. People could have been attracted by the city’s wealth as well.) Constantinople flourished as the capital of the Eastern Roman Empire and later the Byzantine Empire. The city was strategically located on the strait that separates Europe and Asia. This map, drawn in the 1400s, gives a bird’s-eye view of Constantinople. Critical Thinking: Interpret Maps How did the location of Constantinople make it easy to defend? Discovery School Video View Constantinople: Capital of the Byzantine Empire to learn more about Constantinople in Byzantine times. E-LA 7.2.1 Use Informational Features Have students begin to fill in the Interactive Reading and Notetaking Study Guide. Vocabulary Builder foundation (fown DAY shuhn) n. conditions that will make it possible for something to be successful Monitor Progress Answers Interpret Maps Possible response: Because much of the city was surrounded by water, invaders would probably approach by ship, making it difficult for them to approach quickly or secretly. Reading Skill Possible answer: The map shows the city’s location relative to the water, which is discussed in the caption and the text. Possible answer: Constantinople was at the crossroads of European and Asian trade routes. Rome was near the Mediterranean Sea, but Constantinople was on both the Mediterranean Sea and the Black Sea. Rome was a pagan city. Constantinople was Christian. 36 Chapter 2 Fortified wall surrounds city Asia Independent Practice As students fill in the Notetaking Study Guide, circulate to make sure students understand how the Byzantine Empire was established. Provide assistance as needed. Europe Hagia Sophia Read the text at right and study the map above. How do the map and the caption add information to the text? Interactive Reading and Notetaking Study Guide, Chapter 2, Section 1 (Adapted version also available.) The copyright holder has not granted permission to display this image in electronic format. Please see the teacher's edition of your textbook for this image. City nearly surrounded by water Constantinople’s strategic location, plus its good harbors, made it an ideal trading center. Ships and caravans came to the city with spices from India, furs from Russia, silk from China, and grain from Egypt. This trade made Constantinople rich. Constantine used this wealth to make his new city as magnificent as the old Rome. He built palaces, government buildings, marketplaces, and a stadium for chariot races. Constantine laid the foundation for the future Byzantine Empire. Some years after his death, the Roman Empire was divided into an Eastern and a Western empire. The capital of the Eastern Empire was Constantinople. After the Western Empire fell in 476, the Eastern, or Byzantine, Empire survived. How was Constantinople different from Rome? Justinian and Theodora Justinian and Theodora expanded the Byzantine Empire and increased the emperor’s power. 36 The first great Byzantine emperor was Justinian. Justinian ruled for nearly 40 years, from 527 to 565. Justinian and his wife, Theodora, were a colorful and unusual royal couple. Chapter 2 The Byzantine Empire Universal Access L3 Advanced Readers L3 Gifted and Talented Advisers to Justinian As students are reading about the Nika Rebellion (alluded to on page 38), help them understand that Justinian had more than one option for dealing with the rioters. Ask students to imagine that they are advisers to Justinian during the crisis. Encourage students to brainstorm for some ways that Justinian could deal with the rebellion. (through diplomacy or military intervention) Have students identify the pros and cons of each approach. Remind students that Justinian had limited technology for dealing with rioters and that he did not have to worry about being reelected. Justinian was born to a family of peasants. His uncle began his career as an impoverished soldier and battled his way up through the army to the throne. Justinian was his successor. Theodora’s father was a bear trainer in the circus. When she grew up, she became a performer. Both Justinian and Theodora were talented, intelligent, and self-confident. Justinian and Theodora H-SS 7.1.3 Instruction Read Justinian and Theodora with students. Remind students to look for support of the main idea. ■ Ask students to find the words in the text that tell Justinian’s goal when he became emperor. (“Justinian dreamed of restoring Rome’s lost empire.”) ■ Ask: In what way did Justinian’s conquests weaken the empire? (Wars were very costly and left the empire unable to defend itself well.) ■ Introduce the Byzantine Monarchy worksheet. After students have completed the worksheet, ask: Which beliefs could prevent people from questioning the emperor’s authority? (the assertions that could not be proved) Justinian’s Conquests Justinian dreamed of restoring Rome’s lost empire. “We have good hope that God will allow us to reconquer the lands of the old Roman Empire,” he wrote, “which have been lost through indolence [laziness].” He worked for more than thirty years trying to do just that. As the map on this page shows, Justinian did win back lands around the Mediterranean. During his reign, the Byzantine Empire reached its greatest size. His many wars, however, left the empire with severe money problems. In the coming years, attackers from outside would gradually chip away most of the territory he had gained. Teaching Resources, Unit 1, Byzantine Monarchy, p. 45 Byzantine Empire, 565 Key Independent Practice Byzantine Empire, 565 N 40° City Black Sea ITALY Rome E 60° . Da n u b e R N A eg T ris ig ASIA MINOR Se 20°E 10°E S 50°E 0° phr ate sR . 30°N Jerusalem 0 km Alexandria . le R Ni EGYPT Eu 40°E 30°E Sea W Antioch a erranean As students fill in the Notetaking Study Guide, circulate to make sure they understand how Justinian and Theodora contributed to the establishment of the Byzantine Empire. Provide assistance as needed. E R. e an Medit Have students complete the Notetaking Study Guide. (Adapted version available.) Monitor Progress Constantinople NORTH AFRICA L2 ■ 500 Tell students to fill in the last column of the Reading Readiness Guide. Ask them to evaluate if what they learned was what they expected to learn. 0 miles 500 Azimuthal Equal-Area Projection At its peak, the Byzantine Empire extended from Egypt and southwest Asia to present-day Spain. (a) Locate About how far is Constantinople from Rome? (b) Compare How does the area of the Byzantine Empire compare with the area of the Roman Empire, as shown on the map on page 13? Teaching Resources, Unit 1, Reading Readiness Guide, p. 42 For: Interactive map Visit: PHSchool.com Web Code: mxp-1021 Section 1 The Survival of the Eastern Empire To further assess student understanding, use the Progress Monitoring Transparency. 37 Progress Monitoring Transparencies, Chapter 2, Section 1 History Background Imperial Politics Justinian rose to power mainly through military support. Upon achieving the throne, he needed to assert his authority over the aristocracy. He did so through political warfare. He claimed that his power came from God, and he persecuted pagan aristocrats and people who expressed opinions in opposition to Christian teachings. Many members of the senate were unhappy with Justinian’s rule. During the Nika Rebellion in 532, these senators hoped to use this expression of discontent to remove Justinian’s advisers and Justinian from power. Unfortunately for the rebelling senators, Justinian crushed the revolt. Answer (a) about 800 miles (b) The Byzantine Empire included much of the Roman territory in the East but did not cover much of Western Europe. Chapter 2 Section 1 37 The copyright holder has not granted permission to display this image in electronic format. Please see the teacher's edition of your textbook for this image. Assess and Reteach Assess Progress L2 Have students complete Check Your Progress. Administer the Section Quiz. Teaching Resources, Section Quiz, p. 52 Progress Monitoring Transparencies, Chapter 2, Section 1 Reteach L1 If students need more instruction, have them read this section in the Interactive Reading and Notetaking Study Guide. Emperor Justinian This mosaic shows the Byzantine emperor Justinian. Critical Thinking: Evaluate Information Which details in this image show that Justinian was respected and powerful? Interactive Reading and Notetaking Study Guide, Chapter 2, Section 1 (Adapted version available) Extend L3 Have half of the students write a fact sheet titled Differences in the Eastern and Western Empires. The other half should write a fact sheet titled Similarities in the Eastern and Western Empires. Post the fact sheets on a bulletin board. Section Justinian’s Legacy Although Justinian did not succeed in restoring the Roman Empire, he had other accomplishments. His greatest gift to the world was Justinian’s Code, which you will read more about later. This law code is the foundation for several modern legal systems. In 532, an urban revolt in Constantinople challenged Justinian’s power. Ruthlessly crushing this revolt helped him gain absolute power, or unlimited authority, over the empire. After this revolt destroyed much of the city, Justinian launched a grand rebuilding program. The greatest of the new buildings was a church called the Hagia Sophia (HAY jee uh soh FEE uh), or Holy Wisdom, which still stands today. It is regarded as one of the world’s most beautiful buildings. (See page 46.) How did Justinian strengthen his control over the Byzantine Empire? Looking Back and Ahead In this section, you have read how the Byzantine Empire developed from the Eastern Roman Empire. In the next section, you will see how differences in worship led to a permanent split in the Christian Church. 1 Check Your Progress H-SS: 7.1.3; E-LA: Reading 7.2.1 Section 1 Check Your Progress 1. (a) on land that connects the Black Sea and the Mediterranean Sea (b) It was a crossroads between Asia and Europe; this helped make it wealthy. 2. (a) to regain Rome’s lost land (b) Accomplishments: The Byzantine Empire was its greatest size during Justinian’s reign; he defeated the revolt of 532; he established Justinian’s Code; he built grand buildings. Failures: He spent a lot of money on wars. Attackers took most of the gained territory. (c) The Hagia Sophia still stands. Comprehension and Critical Thinking 1. (a) Recall Describe the physical setting of the city of Constantinople. (b) Trace Cause and Effect How did the city’s setting influence its history? 2. (a) Recall What was Justinian’s dream for the empire? (b) Compare Compare the accomplishments of Justinian’s reign with his failures. (c) Link Past and Present Which of Justinian’s accomplishments survive today? 3. Possible answer: I can see how Constan- tinople lies at a strategic spot. 38 Reading Skill 3. Use Informational Features Study the map on page 37. How does the map extend your understanding beyond the written text? Vocabulary Builder Read each sentence below. If the sentence is true, write yes and explain why. If the sentence is not true, write no and explain why. 4. Pagans believe in more than one god. 5. Byzantine citizens had absolute power over their government. For: Self-test with instant help Visit: PHSchool.com Web Code: mxa-1021 Writing 6. The following sentences introduce a short essay on Constantinople. Read these sentences, and write a topic sentence expressing the main idea of the paragraph. Sea routes through Constantinople connected the Black Sea and the Mediterranean Sea. Land routes connected this city to both Europe and Asia. Trade flowed into and out of Constantinople. Armies could defend the city and the Eastern Empire easily. It was the ideal location for the emperor and his officials. Chapter 2 The Byzantine Empire 4. Yes. Pagans have many gods. 5. No. Byzantine citizens were subject to the absolute power of Justinian. 6. Possible answer: Constantine chose Constantinople because of its location. Answers expanded the empire through conquest, crushed a rebellion, created a legal system Evaluate Information Possible answers: his crown, the halo around his head 38 Chapter 2 Writing Rubrics Share rubrics with students before they write their topic sentence. Score 1 Score 2 Score 3 Score 4 Sentence is incomplete. Sentence is vague and not about the main idea. Sentence mentions the main topic of location. Sentence is logical and summarizes the main idea of the other sentences.