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Transcript
Bell Ringer
• What does abolition mean?
• Use your packet!
#1
Not in Textbook
(Use Packet)
Antebellum Era, Civil War, and
Reconstruction
African Americans in the North
• African Americans lived in
all regions of the country
• Most northern states had
emancipated their slaves
but some remained into
the 1830s
• Free blacks who lived in
the North did not have the
same rights as whites
• De facto segregationsegregation based on
tradition, not law
African Americans in the South
• Most African Americans
living in the South were
slaves
• Free blacks living in the
South lived mostly in the
cities and worked as
artisans
• Free blacks were not
granted civil or political
rights in the South
• De jure segregationsegregation through law
The Abolitionist Movement
• The abolitionist movement was
started to end slavery
• African Americans, whites,
northerners, and southerners
• Different protests
– Published newspapers
– Wrote books
– Underground Railroad
• Secret routes fugitive slaves took to
gain freedom in the north and Canada
– Led rebellions
The Abolitionist Movement
• Most northerners were not
abolitionists
• Some abolitionists did not
believe that freed slaves
should have equal rights
• Abolition was not effective
until the mid-1800s
• The Underground Railroad
was not very successful in
the deep south
The Abolitionist Movement
• William Lloyd Garrison
wrote The Liberator
• John Brown was seen as a
religious fanatic by
northerners and a terrorist
by southerners
• Harriet Beecher Stowe’s
Uncle Tom’s Cabin was
successful at gaining
support for abolition
Struggle for Power
• Democracy expanded in
the US as new states
entered the Union
• Expansion led to the
greatest challenge to
democracy and the
Southern elite became
increasingly determined
to maintain slavery
Struggle for Power
• As new western states applied for
admission to the Union, the divisions
between regions grew
• Struggle to maintain the balance of
power between slave and free states
in the federal government
– Equal representation of the states in the
Senate
– Representation based on population in
the House of Representatives
Bell Ringer
• What were the three provisions of the
Missouri Compromise?
• Use your packet!
#2
Maintaining Balance
• In 1820, the Missouri
Compromise was passed to
regulate the states entering
the Union in the Louisiana
Territory
– Maine entered as a free state
– Missouri entered as a slave
state
– The 36˚30’ line was
established to divide the
remaining territory
• North of the line was free
• South of the line was slave
Maintaining Balance
• The annexation of Texas was
delayed for almost a decade
because of the divisiveness
of admitting another large
slave state
• Northerners saw President
Polk’s willingness to give up
the 54˚40’ in Oregon, while
provoking a war with
Mexico over southwest
territories as favoring
slavery
Maintaining Balance
• The Compromise of 1850 was passed
to regulate the states entering the
Union in the territories gained from
the Mexican War
– California entered as a free state
– All other states would be determined by
popular sovereignty
• Popular Sovereignty- a system in which
the residents vote to decide an issue
– Sale of slaves was prohibited in DC
– A fugitive slave law was to be enforced
by the federal government
• Fugitive slave law- designed to ensure that
escaped slaves would be returned into
bondage
Maintaining Balance
• The Kansas-Nebraska Act
overturned the Missouri
Compromise’s 36˚30’ rule
– Established popular
sovereignty in the region
• Pro-slavery and anti-slavery
supporters rushed to Kansas
to populate and fix votes
– The confrontation turned
“Bleeding Kansas” into a
battleground
• The violence that occurred
led to the forming of the
Republican Party
Slavery and the Supreme Court
• In 1856, Dred Scott, a slave who
had previously been taken north
of the 36˚30’ line, sued for his
freedom based on the conditions
of the Missouri Compromise
– The Supreme Court ruled against
Dred Scott declaring the Missouri
Compromise unconstitutional
• The Supreme Court determined
that because slaves were
property and the Constitution
protected the right of slave
owners to their property
regardless of where they took
their slaves
– Congress could not make a law
restricting the expansion of slavery
Slavery and the Supreme Court
• The Dred Scott decision split
the Democratic Party
– Northern Democrats feared
that the Supreme Court,
dominated by southern
Democrats, might rule state
laws against slavery
unconstitutional
– This meant popular
sovereignty would not be
effective in restricting the
spread of slavery
• This split allowed the
Republican candidate,
Abraham Lincoln, to win the
election of 1860
Bell Ringer
#3
• Who was the first, and only, president of the
Confederate States of America?
• Use your packet!
Republican Party
• The Republican Party’s
platform of free soil did not
mean complete abolition of
slavery
– Free soil means stopping the
spread of slavery into
territories
– Non slave-owning whites did
not want to compete with
slave labor in the territories
• With the election of
Abraham Lincoln, many
southerners began to fear
slavery would be abolished
throughout the country
Republican Party
• Lincoln’s election in 1860 led
southern states to meet in a
convention and pass articles of
secession
• Secessionists believed that Lincoln
and the federal government would
not allow slavery to expand into
the territories
– This would upset the balance of
power in the Senate, allowing for
Congress to vote to abolish slavery
• To protect slavery, South Carolina
secessionists led other southern
states in seceding from the Union
– The Confederate States of America
was formed and soon occupied
federal forts that were located in the
South
Split of a Nation
• Secession challenged
democracy
• President Lincoln
pledged to preserve the
Union and democracy
• Confederates fired on
federal troops stationed
at Fort Sumter in
Charleston Harbor, SC
Influences during War
• Economic Resources
– Union- greater industrial capacity, miles
of railroad tracks, manpower, and navy
– Confederacy- “King Cotton” and Britain
provided manufactured goods and ships
• Strategy based on Geography
– Union- Anaconda Plan
• Controlling the Mississippi River
• Taking the capital at Richmond
• Blockading southern ports
– Confederacy- seek support from Britain
and defend their region until the North
tired of the war
Influences during War
• Military Leadership
– South had an advantage in
both military leadership
and geography
• Robert E. Lee effectively
moved the men and material
via railroads between battle
fronts in the East and the
West
• Southerners were also more
familiar with their home
terrain
Influences during War
• Political Leadership
– President Jefferson Davis was
not able to get the
Confederate states to
effectively work together
– President Lincoln was able to
articulate the purpose of the
war as the preservation of the
Union and retain sufficient
public support to continue
the fight despite military
defeats
• Emphasized a “government of
the people, by the people and
for the people”
Bell Ringer
• Describe Sherman’s March to the Sea.
• Use your packet!
#4
The Emancipation Proclamation
• Lincoln feared freeing slaves would
undermine the unity of the North
by irritating the border states
– Border states- slave states that did not
secede from the Union
• Emancipation was originally
promoted as a ‘military measure’
against the Confederacy but it took
on a greater role
– Diplomatic- Britain could no longer
support the South due to opposition
of slavery
– Political- the South had the chance to
make peace and keep their slaves prior
to the enactment of the Proclamation
The Emancipation Proclamation
• The Proclamation did not
immediately free all slaves
– Slaves in regions under Union control
and border states were not included
– Confederate states were likely to ignore
President Lincoln
• Slaves fled to Union lines
– African Americans were allowed to
enlist in the US Army
– African Americans served in segregated
units under the command of white
officers
– The 54th Massachusetts regiment
attacked Fort Wagner in Charleston
Harbor, SC
• Slaves were freed as their homeland
was captured by Union forces
Influential Battles
• Fort Sumter
– Apr. 12, 1861 in S.C.
– Confederate troops attacked
the Union fort
• Bull Run/Manassas
– July 21, 1861 in V.A.
– Confederates defeated the
Union
• Antietam
– Aug. 29-30, 1862 in M.D.
– Union defeated the
Confederates
– 26,000 casualties
• Vicksburg
– May 18- July 4, 1863 in M.S.
– Union defeated the
Confederacy gaining control
of the Mississippi River
• Gettysburg
– July 1-3, 1863 in P.A.
– Union defeated the
Confederacy over 3 days with
100,000 casualties
• Atlanta
– July 22, 1864 in G.A.
– General Sherman burned the
city to the ground
Influential Generals
• Ulysses S. Grant commanded the Union
forces and began the strategy of ‘total war’
– Total war- a war in which every available weapon
is used and the nation’s full financial resources
are devoted
• William T. Sherman’s ‘March to the Sea’
destroyed the South
– Burning cities, farms and crops, destroying
railroad tracks, killing livestock, and salting fields
• Robert E. Lee commanded the Confederate
forces and had a superior military knowledge
– As the war progressed, the South lost their
support from Britain, faced dwindling supplies,
and devastating losses
Impacts of War
• General Lee surrendered to
General Grant on April 9, 1865
at Appomattox Courthouse,
Virginia
• The Civil War preserved the
Union while at the same time
liberating an enslaved minority
• Even with the Union’s defeat of
the Confederacy and the
federal courts ruling secession
null and void, the idea of states’
rights was never defeated
Bell Ringer
#5
• How did the Emancipation Proclamation
weaken the Confederacy?
Beginning of Reconstruction
• Southern states suffered
devastating damage to
factories, farms and
transportation systems, and
heavy loss of men
– The federal government
believed it was the
responsibility of individuals
and state governments to
rebuild southern
infrastructure
• The goal of Reconstruction
was to re-establish full
participation of southern
states in the Union
Beginning of Reconstruction
• The federal government took
an active role in protecting
the rights of the freedman
against the dominate white
southern society
• Southern actions
“radicalized” Reconstruction
policy
– Determined to retain their way
of life, despite the military
defeat
– States passed Black Codes to
limit the rights of freedmen
– Citizens and vigilante groups
engaged in violence
Radical Reconstruction
• Congressional Reconstruction
plan
– Split the former Confederacy
into five military districts
– Enforced the Reconstruction
Amendments
• By amending the Constitution
(13th, 14th, and 15th), Congress
expanded democracy to
protect the rights of the
freedmen
Reconstruction Amendments
• 13th Amendment- freed slaves
throughout the US
– Black Codes were passed to limit
the rights of the newly freed
slaves
• 14th Amendment- recognized the
citizenship of African Americans
– Overturned Dred Scott
– Provided ‘equal protection’ and
‘due process’
• 15th Amendment- right of all
male citizens to vote
– Not be denied based on ‘race,
creed or previous condition of
servitude’
Reconstruction Governments
• ‘Carpetbaggers’- white Republicans
from the North
• ‘Scalawags’- southern-born whites
who supported Reconstruction
• State governments created social
service programs and public
schools to improve conditions for
all people
Bell Ringer
#6
• What were the three Reconstruction
Amendments?
• What did each do for African Americans?
Changes for Freedmen
• The Reconstruction Amendments
allowed African Americans to
create some social freedom
– Many left the plantations to look for
sold family members, but most were
unsuccessful and soon returned
– African Americans formed their own
churches
– The Freedmen’s Bureau established
schools for the former slaves who
had been denied the right to an
education under slavery
– Black colleges were established
Challenges for Freedmen
• Freedmen made significant social
and political progress during
Reconstruction, but they made
little economic progress
– The Freedmen’s Bureau• Helped negotiate labor contracts
between former slaves and landowners
• Provided a system of courts to protect
the rights of former slaves
• Negotiated sharecropping agreements
– Sharecropping left former slaves in a
position of economic dependence and
destitution
The End of Reconstruction
• When the federal government
abandoned their role of protector,
democracy was compromised and
the rights of African Americans
were limited by southern state
governments
– Anti-African American factions (Ku
Klux Klan) were organized to
intimidate black voters in the South
– African Americans were able to vote
only with the protection of federal
troops
– There were never enough troops to
protect African Americans from
intimidation, violence, and lynchings
– The ‘Solid South’ would remain under
the control of white Democrats until
the Civil Rights Era
The End of Reconstruction
• The nation’s interest shifted to the
corruption in the Grant administration,
economic depression in the North, western
settlement, and economic growth
• Reports of violence against African
Americans made Northerners believe
nothing would ever change in the South
• Resistance of southerners in granting equal
citizenship to African Americans lessened
the public and Congress’ resolve to
protecting freedmen
• The disputed election of 1876 led to the
Compromise of 1877
– Republican Rutherford B. Hayes was elected
– Federal troops, and their protection, were
removed from the South
– Officially ended Reconstruction
• The effect of Reconstruction was temporary
and African Americans were left to fend for
themselves
Post Reconstruction
• Southern whites used race to drive
a political wedge between poor
black farmers and poor white
farmers
• Southern states passed laws
requiring African American and
whites to use separate facilities
– Segregation was upheld by the
Supreme Court in the ‘separate but
equal’ ruling of Plessy v. Ferguson
(1896)
– Negated the equal protection
provision of the 14th Amendment
– African Americans were relegated to
second class citizenship in a society
that was separate but not equal
– Jim Crow Laws replaced black codes
and restricted African Americans in
the South
Post Reconstruction
• Poll taxes and literacy tests all but
eliminated the effectiveness of the
15th Amendment
– The grandfather clause assured that
whites who could not read or pay the
tax were able to vote
• Sharecroppers and tenant farmers
faced increasingly difficult economic
conditions when cotton prices fell
• African Americans were
discriminated against in hiring when
textile mills opened in the late
1880s
• Many African Americans fell farther
into poverty and some migrated to
the cities of the North
Bell Ringer
#7
• What were the provisions of the Compromise
of 1877??
African American Leaders
• African Americans responded
to the restrictions placed upon
them by the Jim Crow laws and
their loss of the vote through
poll taxes and literacy tests
• African American leaders
emerged who were united in
their determination to attain
full citizenship but were
divided as to the best strategy
to pursue
• The strategies each advocated
depended on personal
background and the audience
that each addressed
Booker T. Washington
• Born a slave
• Received an education during
Reconstruction
• Founded the Tuskegee Institute
– Provided vocational training for
African Americans
– Blue Collar: welders, blacksmiths,
skilled laborers
• Equality comes from contributing
to the economy
• Did not speak openly against Jim
Crow and Segregation
• Encouraged companies to hire
African Americans, not immigrants
W.E.B. DuBois
• Born free (north)
• Educated (PhD from Harvard)
• African Americans should gain
educations that suit their
talents
– White Collar: doctors, lawyers,
professionals
• Opposed Washington’s strategy
• National Association for the
Advancement of Colored
People (NAACP)
– Full social and political equality
• Popular in the black
community, but not white
Ida B. Wells-Barnet
• Born a slave
• Educated in a “freedom school”
during Reconstruction
• Became a teacher and newspaper
writer
• Forcibly removed from a railroad
car and forced to sit in a coloredonly car
• Outspoken and critical of Jim Crow
• Anti-lynching crusade
– Considered a militant
• Raised awareness of the conditions
for African Americans in the nation
Bell Ringer
•
•
•
•
#8
Turn in homework packets.
Turn in bell ringers.
Turn in Study Guide (if complete).
Make sure your name is on all of your extra
credit (if complete).
• Prepare for your Unit 4: Civil War test.