Bell Ringer • What does abolition mean? • Use your packet! #1 Not in Textbook (Use Packet) Antebellum Era, Civil War, and Reconstruction African Americans in the North • African Americans lived in all regions of the country • Most northern states had emancipated their slaves but some remained into the 1830s • Free blacks who lived in the North did not have the same rights as whites • De facto segregationsegregation based on tradition, not law African Americans in the South • Most African Americans living in the South were slaves • Free blacks living in the South lived mostly in the cities and worked as artisans • Free blacks were not granted civil or political rights in the South • De jure segregationsegregation through law The Abolitionist Movement • The abolitionist movement was started to end slavery • African Americans, whites, northerners, and southerners • Different protests – Published newspapers – Wrote books – Underground Railroad • Secret routes fugitive slaves took to gain freedom in the north and Canada – Led rebellions The Abolitionist Movement • Most northerners were not abolitionists • Some abolitionists did not believe that freed slaves should have equal rights • Abolition was not effective until the mid-1800s • The Underground Railroad was not very successful in the deep south The Abolitionist Movement • William Lloyd Garrison wrote The Liberator • John Brown was seen as a religious fanatic by northerners and a terrorist by southerners • Harriet Beecher Stowe’s Uncle Tom’s Cabin was successful at gaining support for abolition Struggle for Power • Democracy expanded in the US as new states entered the Union • Expansion led to the greatest challenge to democracy and the Southern elite became increasingly determined to maintain slavery Struggle for Power • As new western states applied for admission to the Union, the divisions between regions grew • Struggle to maintain the balance of power between slave and free states in the federal government – Equal representation of the states in the Senate – Representation based on population in the House of Representatives Bell Ringer • What were the three provisions of the Missouri Compromise? • Use your packet! #2 Maintaining Balance • In 1820, the Missouri Compromise was passed to regulate the states entering the Union in the Louisiana Territory – Maine entered as a free state – Missouri entered as a slave state – The 36˚30’ line was established to divide the remaining territory • North of the line was free • South of the line was slave Maintaining Balance • The annexation of Texas was delayed for almost a decade because of the divisiveness of admitting another large slave state • Northerners saw President Polk’s willingness to give up the 54˚40’ in Oregon, while provoking a war with Mexico over southwest territories as favoring slavery Maintaining Balance • The Compromise of 1850 was passed to regulate the states entering the Union in the territories gained from the Mexican War – California entered as a free state – All other states would be determined by popular sovereignty • Popular Sovereignty- a system in which the residents vote to decide an issue – Sale of slaves was prohibited in DC – A fugitive slave law was to be enforced by the federal government • Fugitive slave law- designed to ensure that escaped slaves would be returned into bondage Maintaining Balance • The Kansas-Nebraska Act overturned the Missouri Compromise’s 36˚30’ rule – Established popular sovereignty in the region • Pro-slavery and anti-slavery supporters rushed to Kansas to populate and fix votes – The confrontation turned “Bleeding Kansas” into a battleground • The violence that occurred led to the forming of the Republican Party Slavery and the Supreme Court • In 1856, Dred Scott, a slave who had previously been taken north of the 36˚30’ line, sued for his freedom based on the conditions of the Missouri Compromise – The Supreme Court ruled against Dred Scott declaring the Missouri Compromise unconstitutional • The Supreme Court determined that because slaves were property and the Constitution protected the right of slave owners to their property regardless of where they took their slaves – Congress could not make a law restricting the expansion of slavery Slavery and the Supreme Court • The Dred Scott decision split the Democratic Party – Northern Democrats feared that the Supreme Court, dominated by southern Democrats, might rule state laws against slavery unconstitutional – This meant popular sovereignty would not be effective in restricting the spread of slavery • This split allowed the Republican candidate, Abraham Lincoln, to win the election of 1860 Bell Ringer #3 • Who was the first, and only, president of the Confederate States of America? • Use your packet! Republican Party • The Republican Party’s platform of free soil did not mean complete abolition of slavery – Free soil means stopping the spread of slavery into territories – Non slave-owning whites did not want to compete with slave labor in the territories • With the election of Abraham Lincoln, many southerners began to fear slavery would be abolished throughout the country Republican Party • Lincoln’s election in 1860 led southern states to meet in a convention and pass articles of secession • Secessionists believed that Lincoln and the federal government would not allow slavery to expand into the territories – This would upset the balance of power in the Senate, allowing for Congress to vote to abolish slavery • To protect slavery, South Carolina secessionists led other southern states in seceding from the Union – The Confederate States of America was formed and soon occupied federal forts that were located in the South Split of a Nation • Secession challenged democracy • President Lincoln pledged to preserve the Union and democracy • Confederates fired on federal troops stationed at Fort Sumter in Charleston Harbor, SC Influences during War • Economic Resources – Union- greater industrial capacity, miles of railroad tracks, manpower, and navy – Confederacy- “King Cotton” and Britain provided manufactured goods and ships • Strategy based on Geography – Union- Anaconda Plan • Controlling the Mississippi River • Taking the capital at Richmond • Blockading southern ports – Confederacy- seek support from Britain and defend their region until the North tired of the war Influences during War • Military Leadership – South had an advantage in both military leadership and geography • Robert E. Lee effectively moved the men and material via railroads between battle fronts in the East and the West • Southerners were also more familiar with their home terrain Influences during War • Political Leadership – President Jefferson Davis was not able to get the Confederate states to effectively work together – President Lincoln was able to articulate the purpose of the war as the preservation of the Union and retain sufficient public support to continue the fight despite military defeats • Emphasized a “government of the people, by the people and for the people” Bell Ringer • Describe Sherman’s March to the Sea. • Use your packet! #4 The Emancipation Proclamation • Lincoln feared freeing slaves would undermine the unity of the North by irritating the border states – Border states- slave states that did not secede from the Union • Emancipation was originally promoted as a ‘military measure’ against the Confederacy but it took on a greater role – Diplomatic- Britain could no longer support the South due to opposition of slavery – Political- the South had the chance to make peace and keep their slaves prior to the enactment of the Proclamation The Emancipation Proclamation • The Proclamation did not immediately free all slaves – Slaves in regions under Union control and border states were not included – Confederate states were likely to ignore President Lincoln • Slaves fled to Union lines – African Americans were allowed to enlist in the US Army – African Americans served in segregated units under the command of white officers – The 54th Massachusetts regiment attacked Fort Wagner in Charleston Harbor, SC • Slaves were freed as their homeland was captured by Union forces Influential Battles • Fort Sumter – Apr. 12, 1861 in S.C. – Confederate troops attacked the Union fort • Bull Run/Manassas – July 21, 1861 in V.A. – Confederates defeated the Union • Antietam – Aug. 29-30, 1862 in M.D. – Union defeated the Confederates – 26,000 casualties • Vicksburg – May 18- July 4, 1863 in M.S. – Union defeated the Confederacy gaining control of the Mississippi River • Gettysburg – July 1-3, 1863 in P.A. – Union defeated the Confederacy over 3 days with 100,000 casualties • Atlanta – July 22, 1864 in G.A. – General Sherman burned the city to the ground Influential Generals • Ulysses S. Grant commanded the Union forces and began the strategy of ‘total war’ – Total war- a war in which every available weapon is used and the nation’s full financial resources are devoted • William T. Sherman’s ‘March to the Sea’ destroyed the South – Burning cities, farms and crops, destroying railroad tracks, killing livestock, and salting fields • Robert E. Lee commanded the Confederate forces and had a superior military knowledge – As the war progressed, the South lost their support from Britain, faced dwindling supplies, and devastating losses Impacts of War • General Lee surrendered to General Grant on April 9, 1865 at Appomattox Courthouse, Virginia • The Civil War preserved the Union while at the same time liberating an enslaved minority • Even with the Union’s defeat of the Confederacy and the federal courts ruling secession null and void, the idea of states’ rights was never defeated Bell Ringer #5 • How did the Emancipation Proclamation weaken the Confederacy? Beginning of Reconstruction • Southern states suffered devastating damage to factories, farms and transportation systems, and heavy loss of men – The federal government believed it was the responsibility of individuals and state governments to rebuild southern infrastructure • The goal of Reconstruction was to re-establish full participation of southern states in the Union Beginning of Reconstruction • The federal government took an active role in protecting the rights of the freedman against the dominate white southern society • Southern actions “radicalized” Reconstruction policy – Determined to retain their way of life, despite the military defeat – States passed Black Codes to limit the rights of freedmen – Citizens and vigilante groups engaged in violence Radical Reconstruction • Congressional Reconstruction plan – Split the former Confederacy into five military districts – Enforced the Reconstruction Amendments • By amending the Constitution (13th, 14th, and 15th), Congress expanded democracy to protect the rights of the freedmen Reconstruction Amendments • 13th Amendment- freed slaves throughout the US – Black Codes were passed to limit the rights of the newly freed slaves • 14th Amendment- recognized the citizenship of African Americans – Overturned Dred Scott – Provided ‘equal protection’ and ‘due process’ • 15th Amendment- right of all male citizens to vote – Not be denied based on ‘race, creed or previous condition of servitude’ Reconstruction Governments • ‘Carpetbaggers’- white Republicans from the North • ‘Scalawags’- southern-born whites who supported Reconstruction • State governments created social service programs and public schools to improve conditions for all people Bell Ringer #6 • What were the three Reconstruction Amendments? • What did each do for African Americans? Changes for Freedmen • The Reconstruction Amendments allowed African Americans to create some social freedom – Many left the plantations to look for sold family members, but most were unsuccessful and soon returned – African Americans formed their own churches – The Freedmen’s Bureau established schools for the former slaves who had been denied the right to an education under slavery – Black colleges were established Challenges for Freedmen • Freedmen made significant social and political progress during Reconstruction, but they made little economic progress – The Freedmen’s Bureau• Helped negotiate labor contracts between former slaves and landowners • Provided a system of courts to protect the rights of former slaves • Negotiated sharecropping agreements – Sharecropping left former slaves in a position of economic dependence and destitution The End of Reconstruction • When the federal government abandoned their role of protector, democracy was compromised and the rights of African Americans were limited by southern state governments – Anti-African American factions (Ku Klux Klan) were organized to intimidate black voters in the South – African Americans were able to vote only with the protection of federal troops – There were never enough troops to protect African Americans from intimidation, violence, and lynchings – The ‘Solid South’ would remain under the control of white Democrats until the Civil Rights Era The End of Reconstruction • The nation’s interest shifted to the corruption in the Grant administration, economic depression in the North, western settlement, and economic growth • Reports of violence against African Americans made Northerners believe nothing would ever change in the South • Resistance of southerners in granting equal citizenship to African Americans lessened the public and Congress’ resolve to protecting freedmen • The disputed election of 1876 led to the Compromise of 1877 – Republican Rutherford B. Hayes was elected – Federal troops, and their protection, were removed from the South – Officially ended Reconstruction • The effect of Reconstruction was temporary and African Americans were left to fend for themselves Post Reconstruction • Southern whites used race to drive a political wedge between poor black farmers and poor white farmers • Southern states passed laws requiring African American and whites to use separate facilities – Segregation was upheld by the Supreme Court in the ‘separate but equal’ ruling of Plessy v. Ferguson (1896) – Negated the equal protection provision of the 14th Amendment – African Americans were relegated to second class citizenship in a society that was separate but not equal – Jim Crow Laws replaced black codes and restricted African Americans in the South Post Reconstruction • Poll taxes and literacy tests all but eliminated the effectiveness of the 15th Amendment – The grandfather clause assured that whites who could not read or pay the tax were able to vote • Sharecroppers and tenant farmers faced increasingly difficult economic conditions when cotton prices fell • African Americans were discriminated against in hiring when textile mills opened in the late 1880s • Many African Americans fell farther into poverty and some migrated to the cities of the North Bell Ringer #7 • What were the provisions of the Compromise of 1877?? African American Leaders • African Americans responded to the restrictions placed upon them by the Jim Crow laws and their loss of the vote through poll taxes and literacy tests • African American leaders emerged who were united in their determination to attain full citizenship but were divided as to the best strategy to pursue • The strategies each advocated depended on personal background and the audience that each addressed Booker T. Washington • Born a slave • Received an education during Reconstruction • Founded the Tuskegee Institute – Provided vocational training for African Americans – Blue Collar: welders, blacksmiths, skilled laborers • Equality comes from contributing to the economy • Did not speak openly against Jim Crow and Segregation • Encouraged companies to hire African Americans, not immigrants W.E.B. DuBois • Born free (north) • Educated (PhD from Harvard) • African Americans should gain educations that suit their talents – White Collar: doctors, lawyers, professionals • Opposed Washington’s strategy • National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP) – Full social and political equality • Popular in the black community, but not white Ida B. Wells-Barnet • Born a slave • Educated in a “freedom school” during Reconstruction • Became a teacher and newspaper writer • Forcibly removed from a railroad car and forced to sit in a coloredonly car • Outspoken and critical of Jim Crow • Anti-lynching crusade – Considered a militant • Raised awareness of the conditions for African Americans in the nation Bell Ringer • • • • #8 Turn in homework packets. Turn in bell ringers. Turn in Study Guide (if complete). Make sure your name is on all of your extra credit (if complete). • Prepare for your Unit 4: Civil War test.