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Bell Ringer
• What does abolition mean?
• Use your packet!
Not in Textbook
(Use Packet)
Antebellum Era, Civil War, and
African Americans in the North
• African Americans lived in
all regions of the country
• Most northern states had
emancipated their slaves
but some remained into
the 1830s
• Free blacks who lived in
the North did not have the
same rights as whites
• De facto segregationsegregation based on
tradition, not law
African Americans in the South
• Most African Americans
living in the South were
• Free blacks living in the
South lived mostly in the
cities and worked as
• Free blacks were not
granted civil or political
rights in the South
• De jure segregationsegregation through law
The Abolitionist Movement
• The abolitionist movement was
started to end slavery
• African Americans, whites,
northerners, and southerners
• Different protests
– Published newspapers
– Wrote books
– Underground Railroad
• Secret routes fugitive slaves took to
gain freedom in the north and Canada
– Led rebellions
The Abolitionist Movement
• Most northerners were not
• Some abolitionists did not
believe that freed slaves
should have equal rights
• Abolition was not effective
until the mid-1800s
• The Underground Railroad
was not very successful in
the deep south
The Abolitionist Movement
• William Lloyd Garrison
wrote The Liberator
• John Brown was seen as a
religious fanatic by
northerners and a terrorist
by southerners
• Harriet Beecher Stowe’s
Uncle Tom’s Cabin was
successful at gaining
support for abolition
Struggle for Power
• Democracy expanded in
the US as new states
entered the Union
• Expansion led to the
greatest challenge to
democracy and the
Southern elite became
increasingly determined
to maintain slavery
Struggle for Power
• As new western states applied for
admission to the Union, the divisions
between regions grew
• Struggle to maintain the balance of
power between slave and free states
in the federal government
– Equal representation of the states in the
– Representation based on population in
the House of Representatives
Bell Ringer
• What were the three provisions of the
Missouri Compromise?
• Use your packet!
Maintaining Balance
• In 1820, the Missouri
Compromise was passed to
regulate the states entering
the Union in the Louisiana
– Maine entered as a free state
– Missouri entered as a slave
– The 36˚30’ line was
established to divide the
remaining territory
• North of the line was free
• South of the line was slave
Maintaining Balance
• The annexation of Texas was
delayed for almost a decade
because of the divisiveness
of admitting another large
slave state
• Northerners saw President
Polk’s willingness to give up
the 54˚40’ in Oregon, while
provoking a war with
Mexico over southwest
territories as favoring
Maintaining Balance
• The Compromise of 1850 was passed
to regulate the states entering the
Union in the territories gained from
the Mexican War
– California entered as a free state
– All other states would be determined by
popular sovereignty
• Popular Sovereignty- a system in which
the residents vote to decide an issue
– Sale of slaves was prohibited in DC
– A fugitive slave law was to be enforced
by the federal government
• Fugitive slave law- designed to ensure that
escaped slaves would be returned into
Maintaining Balance
• The Kansas-Nebraska Act
overturned the Missouri
Compromise’s 36˚30’ rule
– Established popular
sovereignty in the region
• Pro-slavery and anti-slavery
supporters rushed to Kansas
to populate and fix votes
– The confrontation turned
“Bleeding Kansas” into a
• The violence that occurred
led to the forming of the
Republican Party
Slavery and the Supreme Court
• In 1856, Dred Scott, a slave who
had previously been taken north
of the 36˚30’ line, sued for his
freedom based on the conditions
of the Missouri Compromise
– The Supreme Court ruled against
Dred Scott declaring the Missouri
Compromise unconstitutional
• The Supreme Court determined
that because slaves were
property and the Constitution
protected the right of slave
owners to their property
regardless of where they took
their slaves
– Congress could not make a law
restricting the expansion of slavery
Slavery and the Supreme Court
• The Dred Scott decision split
the Democratic Party
– Northern Democrats feared
that the Supreme Court,
dominated by southern
Democrats, might rule state
laws against slavery
– This meant popular
sovereignty would not be
effective in restricting the
spread of slavery
• This split allowed the
Republican candidate,
Abraham Lincoln, to win the
election of 1860
Bell Ringer
• Who was the first, and only, president of the
Confederate States of America?
• Use your packet!
Republican Party
• The Republican Party’s
platform of free soil did not
mean complete abolition of
– Free soil means stopping the
spread of slavery into
– Non slave-owning whites did
not want to compete with
slave labor in the territories
• With the election of
Abraham Lincoln, many
southerners began to fear
slavery would be abolished
throughout the country
Republican Party
• Lincoln’s election in 1860 led
southern states to meet in a
convention and pass articles of
• Secessionists believed that Lincoln
and the federal government would
not allow slavery to expand into
the territories
– This would upset the balance of
power in the Senate, allowing for
Congress to vote to abolish slavery
• To protect slavery, South Carolina
secessionists led other southern
states in seceding from the Union
– The Confederate States of America
was formed and soon occupied
federal forts that were located in the
Split of a Nation
• Secession challenged
• President Lincoln
pledged to preserve the
Union and democracy
• Confederates fired on
federal troops stationed
at Fort Sumter in
Charleston Harbor, SC
Influences during War
• Economic Resources
– Union- greater industrial capacity, miles
of railroad tracks, manpower, and navy
– Confederacy- “King Cotton” and Britain
provided manufactured goods and ships
• Strategy based on Geography
– Union- Anaconda Plan
• Controlling the Mississippi River
• Taking the capital at Richmond
• Blockading southern ports
– Confederacy- seek support from Britain
and defend their region until the North
tired of the war
Influences during War
• Military Leadership
– South had an advantage in
both military leadership
and geography
• Robert E. Lee effectively
moved the men and material
via railroads between battle
fronts in the East and the
• Southerners were also more
familiar with their home
Influences during War
• Political Leadership
– President Jefferson Davis was
not able to get the
Confederate states to
effectively work together
– President Lincoln was able to
articulate the purpose of the
war as the preservation of the
Union and retain sufficient
public support to continue
the fight despite military
• Emphasized a “government of
the people, by the people and
for the people”
Bell Ringer
• Describe Sherman’s March to the Sea.
• Use your packet!
The Emancipation Proclamation
• Lincoln feared freeing slaves would
undermine the unity of the North
by irritating the border states
– Border states- slave states that did not
secede from the Union
• Emancipation was originally
promoted as a ‘military measure’
against the Confederacy but it took
on a greater role
– Diplomatic- Britain could no longer
support the South due to opposition
of slavery
– Political- the South had the chance to
make peace and keep their slaves prior
to the enactment of the Proclamation
The Emancipation Proclamation
• The Proclamation did not
immediately free all slaves
– Slaves in regions under Union control
and border states were not included
– Confederate states were likely to ignore
President Lincoln
• Slaves fled to Union lines
– African Americans were allowed to
enlist in the US Army
– African Americans served in segregated
units under the command of white
– The 54th Massachusetts regiment
attacked Fort Wagner in Charleston
Harbor, SC
• Slaves were freed as their homeland
was captured by Union forces
Influential Battles
• Fort Sumter
– Apr. 12, 1861 in S.C.
– Confederate troops attacked
the Union fort
• Bull Run/Manassas
– July 21, 1861 in V.A.
– Confederates defeated the
• Antietam
– Aug. 29-30, 1862 in M.D.
– Union defeated the
– 26,000 casualties
• Vicksburg
– May 18- July 4, 1863 in M.S.
– Union defeated the
Confederacy gaining control
of the Mississippi River
• Gettysburg
– July 1-3, 1863 in P.A.
– Union defeated the
Confederacy over 3 days with
100,000 casualties
• Atlanta
– July 22, 1864 in G.A.
– General Sherman burned the
city to the ground
Influential Generals
• Ulysses S. Grant commanded the Union
forces and began the strategy of ‘total war’
– Total war- a war in which every available weapon
is used and the nation’s full financial resources
are devoted
• William T. Sherman’s ‘March to the Sea’
destroyed the South
– Burning cities, farms and crops, destroying
railroad tracks, killing livestock, and salting fields
• Robert E. Lee commanded the Confederate
forces and had a superior military knowledge
– As the war progressed, the South lost their
support from Britain, faced dwindling supplies,
and devastating losses
Impacts of War
• General Lee surrendered to
General Grant on April 9, 1865
at Appomattox Courthouse,
• The Civil War preserved the
Union while at the same time
liberating an enslaved minority
• Even with the Union’s defeat of
the Confederacy and the
federal courts ruling secession
null and void, the idea of states’
rights was never defeated
Bell Ringer
• How did the Emancipation Proclamation
weaken the Confederacy?
Beginning of Reconstruction
• Southern states suffered
devastating damage to
factories, farms and
transportation systems, and
heavy loss of men
– The federal government
believed it was the
responsibility of individuals
and state governments to
rebuild southern
• The goal of Reconstruction
was to re-establish full
participation of southern
states in the Union
Beginning of Reconstruction
• The federal government took
an active role in protecting
the rights of the freedman
against the dominate white
southern society
• Southern actions
“radicalized” Reconstruction
– Determined to retain their way
of life, despite the military
– States passed Black Codes to
limit the rights of freedmen
– Citizens and vigilante groups
engaged in violence
Radical Reconstruction
• Congressional Reconstruction
– Split the former Confederacy
into five military districts
– Enforced the Reconstruction
• By amending the Constitution
(13th, 14th, and 15th), Congress
expanded democracy to
protect the rights of the
Reconstruction Amendments
• 13th Amendment- freed slaves
throughout the US
– Black Codes were passed to limit
the rights of the newly freed
• 14th Amendment- recognized the
citizenship of African Americans
– Overturned Dred Scott
– Provided ‘equal protection’ and
‘due process’
• 15th Amendment- right of all
male citizens to vote
– Not be denied based on ‘race,
creed or previous condition of
Reconstruction Governments
• ‘Carpetbaggers’- white Republicans
from the North
• ‘Scalawags’- southern-born whites
who supported Reconstruction
• State governments created social
service programs and public
schools to improve conditions for
all people
Bell Ringer
• What were the three Reconstruction
• What did each do for African Americans?
Changes for Freedmen
• The Reconstruction Amendments
allowed African Americans to
create some social freedom
– Many left the plantations to look for
sold family members, but most were
unsuccessful and soon returned
– African Americans formed their own
– The Freedmen’s Bureau established
schools for the former slaves who
had been denied the right to an
education under slavery
– Black colleges were established
Challenges for Freedmen
• Freedmen made significant social
and political progress during
Reconstruction, but they made
little economic progress
– The Freedmen’s Bureau• Helped negotiate labor contracts
between former slaves and landowners
• Provided a system of courts to protect
the rights of former slaves
• Negotiated sharecropping agreements
– Sharecropping left former slaves in a
position of economic dependence and
The End of Reconstruction
• When the federal government
abandoned their role of protector,
democracy was compromised and
the rights of African Americans
were limited by southern state
– Anti-African American factions (Ku
Klux Klan) were organized to
intimidate black voters in the South
– African Americans were able to vote
only with the protection of federal
– There were never enough troops to
protect African Americans from
intimidation, violence, and lynchings
– The ‘Solid South’ would remain under
the control of white Democrats until
the Civil Rights Era
The End of Reconstruction
• The nation’s interest shifted to the
corruption in the Grant administration,
economic depression in the North, western
settlement, and economic growth
• Reports of violence against African
Americans made Northerners believe
nothing would ever change in the South
• Resistance of southerners in granting equal
citizenship to African Americans lessened
the public and Congress’ resolve to
protecting freedmen
• The disputed election of 1876 led to the
Compromise of 1877
– Republican Rutherford B. Hayes was elected
– Federal troops, and their protection, were
removed from the South
– Officially ended Reconstruction
• The effect of Reconstruction was temporary
and African Americans were left to fend for
Post Reconstruction
• Southern whites used race to drive
a political wedge between poor
black farmers and poor white
• Southern states passed laws
requiring African American and
whites to use separate facilities
– Segregation was upheld by the
Supreme Court in the ‘separate but
equal’ ruling of Plessy v. Ferguson
– Negated the equal protection
provision of the 14th Amendment
– African Americans were relegated to
second class citizenship in a society
that was separate but not equal
– Jim Crow Laws replaced black codes
and restricted African Americans in
the South
Post Reconstruction
• Poll taxes and literacy tests all but
eliminated the effectiveness of the
15th Amendment
– The grandfather clause assured that
whites who could not read or pay the
tax were able to vote
• Sharecroppers and tenant farmers
faced increasingly difficult economic
conditions when cotton prices fell
• African Americans were
discriminated against in hiring when
textile mills opened in the late
• Many African Americans fell farther
into poverty and some migrated to
the cities of the North
Bell Ringer
• What were the provisions of the Compromise
of 1877??
African American Leaders
• African Americans responded
to the restrictions placed upon
them by the Jim Crow laws and
their loss of the vote through
poll taxes and literacy tests
• African American leaders
emerged who were united in
their determination to attain
full citizenship but were
divided as to the best strategy
to pursue
• The strategies each advocated
depended on personal
background and the audience
that each addressed
Booker T. Washington
• Born a slave
• Received an education during
• Founded the Tuskegee Institute
– Provided vocational training for
African Americans
– Blue Collar: welders, blacksmiths,
skilled laborers
• Equality comes from contributing
to the economy
• Did not speak openly against Jim
Crow and Segregation
• Encouraged companies to hire
African Americans, not immigrants
W.E.B. DuBois
• Born free (north)
• Educated (PhD from Harvard)
• African Americans should gain
educations that suit their
– White Collar: doctors, lawyers,
• Opposed Washington’s strategy
• National Association for the
Advancement of Colored
People (NAACP)
– Full social and political equality
• Popular in the black
community, but not white
Ida B. Wells-Barnet
• Born a slave
• Educated in a “freedom school”
during Reconstruction
• Became a teacher and newspaper
• Forcibly removed from a railroad
car and forced to sit in a coloredonly car
• Outspoken and critical of Jim Crow
• Anti-lynching crusade
– Considered a militant
• Raised awareness of the conditions
for African Americans in the nation
Bell Ringer
Turn in homework packets.
Turn in bell ringers.
Turn in Study Guide (if complete).
Make sure your name is on all of your extra
credit (if complete).
• Prepare for your Unit 4: Civil War test.