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Transcript
Lesson Plan
Course Title
Electronics
Session Title
The Nature of Matter
Performance Objectives
Upon completion of this lesson, the student will be able to describe the atomic models,
electron orbits and shells, and how valence electrons determine conductivity. The knowledge
will be evidenced by correctly performing the procedures outlined on the assignment sheet and
by scoring 70 percent on the exam.
Specific Objectives
 Match terms associated with the nature of matter to the correct definitions
 Determine the location of different atomic particles
 Distinguish between inner and outer orbits
 Relate outer shell electrons to electricity and chemistry
 Describe the random drift of electrons
 Describe how the number of valence electrons determines conductivity
Preparation
TEKS Correlations
This lesson, as published, correlates to the following TEKS. Any changes/alterations to the
activities may result in the elimination of any or all of the TEKS listed.
Electronics

130.368 (c)
o (5) The student implements the concepts and skills that form the technical
knowledge of electronics using project-based assessments. The student
is expected to:
(C) demonstrate knowledge of the fundamentals of electronics theory.
o
(7) The student uses engineering design methodologies. The student
is expected to:
(A) understand and discuss principles of ideation;
(B) think critically, identify the system constraints, and make
fact-based decisions;
(C) use rational thinking to develop or improve a product;
Copyright © Texas Education Agency, 2013. All rights reserved.
1
(D) apply decision-making strategies when developing solutions;
(E) use an engineering notebook to record prototypes, corrections, and
mistakes in the design process; and
(F) use an engineering notebook to record the final design, construction,
and manipulation of finished projects.
o
(8) The student learns the function and application of the tools, equipment, and
materials used in electronics through project-based assignments. The student
is expected to:
(A) safely use tools and laboratory equipment to construct and
repair circuits;
(B) use precision measuring instruments to analyze circuits
and prototypes;
(C) describe and perform measurements using oscilloscopes; and
(D) use multiple software applications to simulate circuit behavior and
present concepts.
Interdisciplinary Correlations
Chemistry

112.35 (c)
o (4) Science concepts. The student knows the characteristics of matter and can
analyze the relationships between chemical and physical changes and properties.
The student is expected to:
(A) differentiate between physical and chemical changes and
properties; and
(B) identify extensive and intensive properties.
o
(5) Science concepts. The student understands the historical development of the
Periodic Table and can apply its predictive power. The student is expected to:
(A) explain the use of chemical and physical properties in the historical
development of the Periodic Table;
(B) use the Periodic Table to identify and explain the properties of
chemical families, including alkali metals, alkaline earth metals, halogens,
noble gases, and transition metals; and
(C) use the Periodic Table to identify and explain periodic trends,
Including atomic and ionic radii, electronegativity, and ionization energy.
o
(6) Science concepts. The student knows and understands the historical
development of atomic theory. The student is expected to:
(E) express the arrangement of electrons in atoms through electron
Copyright © Texas Education Agency, 2013. All rights reserved.
2
configurations and Lewis valence electron dot structures.
English Language Arts and Reading, English II

110.32 (b)
o (1) Reading/Vocabulary Development. Students understand new vocabulary and
use it when reading and writing. Students are expected to:
(A) determine the meaning of grade-level technical academic English
words in multiple content areas (e.g., science, mathematics, social
studies, the arts) derived from Latin, Greek, or other linguistic roots and
affixes; and
(E) use a dictionary, a glossary, or a thesaurus (printed or electronic) to
determine or confirm the meanings of words and phrases, including their
connotations and denotations, and their etymology.

110.32 (b)
o (9) Reading/Comprehension of Informational Text/Expository Text. Students
analyze, make inferences and draw conclusions about expository text and
provide evidence from text to support their understanding. Students
are expected to:
(B) distinguish among different kinds of evidence (e.g., logical, empirical,
anecdotal) used to support conclusions and arguments in texts;
(C) make and defend subtle inferences and complex conclusions about
the ideas in text and their organizational patterns; and
(D) synthesize and make logical connections between ideas and details in
several texts selected to reflect a range of viewpoints on the same topic
and support those findings with textual evidence.

110.32 (b)
o (24) Listening and Speaking/Listening. Students will use comprehension skills to
listen attentively to others in formal and informal settings. Students will continue
to apply earlier standards with greater complexity. Students are expected to:
(A) listen responsively to a speaker by taking notes that summarize,
synthesize, or highlight the speaker's ideas for critical reflection and by
asking questions related to the content for clarification and
elaboration; and
(B) follow and give complex oral instructions to perform specific tasks,
answer questions, solve problems, and complete processes.
Copyright © Texas Education Agency, 2013. All rights reserved.
3
Occupational Correlation
Reference
O*Net www.onetonline.org
Job Title
Chemical Technicians
O*Net Number
19-4031.00
Reported Job Titles
Laboratory Technician (Lab Tech), Laboratory Analyst (Lab Analyst), Research Technician,
Analytical Lab Technician, Laboratory Tester (Lab Tester), Research and Development
Technician, Analytical Technician, Chemical Technician, Environmental Lab Technician,
Formulation Technician
Tasks










Monitor product quality to ensure compliance with standards and specifications.
Compile and interpret results of tests and analyses.
Set up and conduct chemical experiments, tests, and analyses, using techniques such as
chromatography, spectroscopy, physical or chemical separation techniques,
or microscopy.
Conduct chemical or physical laboratory tests to assist scientists in making qualitative or
quantitative analyses of solids, liquids, or gaseous materials.
Provide and maintain a safe work environment by participating in safety programs,
committees, or teams and by conducting laboratory or plant safety audits.
Prepare chemical solutions for products or processes, following standardized formulas,
or create experimental formulas.
Maintain, clean, or sterilize laboratory instruments or equipment.
Write technical reports or prepare graphs or charts to document experimental results.
Provide technical support or assistance to chemists or engineers.
Order and inventory materials to maintain supplies.
Soft Skills
Reading Comprehension/ Critical Thinking/ Monitoring/ Writing/ Active Listening/Quality
Control Analysis/ Time Management/ Complex Problem Solving/ Speaking
Copyright © Texas Education Agency, 2013. All rights reserved.
4
References
 Buchla, D. and Floyd, T. (2005). The science of electronics: DC/AC. (Chapter 4). Upper
Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Prentice Hall.
 Floyd, T. (1993). Principles of electric circuits: electron flow version. Don Mills, Ontario:
Macmillian Publishing Co.
 Robertson, L. (1980). Basic electronics I. Stillwater, OK: Mid-American Vocational
Curriculum Consortium, Inc.
Instructional Aids
 The Nature of Matter slide presentation and notes
 The Nature of Matter Terminology and Concepts Activity
 The Nature of Matter Terminology and Concepts Activity Key
 The Nature of Matter Exam
 The Nature of Matter Exam Key
Materials Needed
 Pencil and paper
 Dry board eraser
 Dry board markers (assorted colors)
 Two bar magnets
Equipment Needed
 Computer
 Overhead projector and screen
 Dry board
Learner Preparation
 Read chapter on current in textbook
 Complete activities
 Watch slide presentation/ take notes on material
Introduction
Introduction (LSI Quadrant I)
Say
Electronics is all about the use and control of electrons. Before we can talk about specific
electronic devices, we have to understand a little more about electrons.
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5
Ask
Who knows where electrons come from?
Say
That is right; electrons are a part of every atom. We need to talk a little bit about atoms, how
different atoms have different numbers of electrons, and why.
Outline
Teachers can use the slide presentation, notes pages, and handouts in conjunction with the
following outline.
Outline (LSI Quadrant II)
I.
Introduction
A. Overview presentation with students.
B. Review terms and definitions with students.
C. Terms are important because they form the
foundation for understanding why some
electrons are used one way (as conductors) and
why other electrons are used another way (as
insulators).
D. Properties come from an understanding of
atoms and how atoms act, group, and react.
Teacher Notes
Begin The Nature of Matter
slide presentation.
(Slides 1-4)
II.
Atoms
(Slides 5-6)
A. There are two models of an atom.
1. An older solar system model—called the
Bohr model—looks at electrons as particles
orbiting a nucleus the same way planets orbit
the sun.
2. A modern Cloud model treats an electron not
like a particle but like a wave.
B. Make sure students note the location of all the
atomic particles.
III.
Elements and Compounds
A. Review fundamental definitions that lay the
groundwork for understanding matter and
where electrons come from.
(Slides 7-8)
Distribute The Nature of
Matter Terminology and
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6
B. How does this relate to electricity?
Concepts Activity and have
students complete.
IV.
Electrons and Orbits
A. Electrons do not just move around a nucleus
randomly; they form patterns.
B. These patterns represent individual quantized
energy values where only certain values
are allowed.
C. We call these “layers” or “orbits” because that is
an easy concept to understand, but the orbits
can have odd three-dimensional shapes.
D. There is a mathematical formula that determines
how many electrons go into each orbit.
E. Only outer shell electrons are important because
these are the only ones that can become free or
form bonds between atoms.
(Slides 9-14)
V.
Periodic Table of the Elements
A. This table can help students determine how
electrons arrange themselves (because they
follow regular patterns).
B. Review the organization and components of the
table, how to read it, and how to see patterns.
(Slides 15-17)
VI.
Free Electrons and Metals
(Slides 18-28)
A. Free electrons are important for conductors.
B. Free electrons are created when the outer shell
(valence) electrons are only very weakly
attracted to the nucleus.
C. Different metals are fairly similar to each other
because—even though they have different
numbers of protons—they almost always have
two electrons in the outer shell.
D. They always have two electrons in the outer shell
because each additional electron, to balance
each additional proton, goes into an inner shell
(graphics on slides 22-28 and 32-40 show
this process).
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7
VII.
Good Conductors
A. The reason copper, gold, and silver each has only
one electron in its outer shell is shown through
the graphics on slides 32-40.
B. A full inner shell makes an atom much more
stable than one that is only partially full.
C. The single outer shell electron is “extra”
(meaning not needed for stability and very
weakly attracted to the nucleus).
D. Review presentation summary before beginning
demonstrations and exam.
(Slides 29-40)
VIII.
Teacher’s Demonstrations
A. Show two bar magnets.
B. Prove the law of electrical charges right.
Search the Internet for a
demonstration to preview (if
needed).
IX.
The Nature of Matter Exam
A. Allow time for students to take the exam.
B. Grade exam with grade key.
Presentation summary: Slide
41
Application
Guided Practice (LSI Quadrant III)
The students will observe, ask questions, and analyze the demonstration presented by
the teacher.
Independent Practice (LSI Quadrant III)
1. The student will replicate the demonstrations.
2. The student will answer the discussion questions in The Nature of Matter Terminology
and Concepts Activity and turn them in for evaluation.
Summary
Review (LSI Quadrants I and IV)
Provide a brief review before the exam.
Evaluation
Informal Assessment (LSI Quadrant III)
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The teacher will monitor each student or small group as they individually work to complete the
assignments. If re-teach is needed on any information or procedure, all those involved will stop
and participate in the re-teach.
Formal Assessment (LSI Quadrant III, IV)
 Use The Nature of Matter Terminology and Concepts Activity Key to grade the activity.
 Use The Nature of Matter Exam and The Nature of Matter Exam Key.
Extension
Extension/Enrichment (LSI Quadrant IV)
The concepts learned here will be used throughout future lessons.
Copyright © Texas Education Agency, 2013. All rights reserved.
9
Name:_________________________________Class:__________Date:___/___/___
The Nature of Matter
Terminology and Concepts Activity
1. Fill in the blanks with the proper word (spelled correctly).
a. When substances are together but not joined chemically, the result is called a
________________________________________________________________.
b. The lightest of the three elementary particles is the _____________________.
c. The ____________________________________ is the smallest unit of matter.
d. The elementary atomic particle having no charge is the __________________.
e. Anything that occupies space is called ________________________________.
f. The __________________________ has a positive charge and is in the nucleus
of an atom.
g. __________________________ is matter that is composed of identical atoms.
h. Atoms of different elements, when joined together chemically, are called
________________________________________________________________.
i. The basic unit of a compound is the __________________________________.
2. Are free electrons found in the “inner” or “outer” orbits of an atom?
3. Describe “random drift” of electrons in an element.
4. Which one of the following statements is a true statement about the nature
of matter?
A Two electrons that are close to each other will attract each other.
B Two neutrons that are close to each other will attract each other.
C Two neutrons that are close to each other will repel each other.
D Two protons close to each other will repel each other.
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Name:_________________________________Class:__________Date:___/___/___
5. Which of the following statements is a false statement about the nature of matter?
A Two electrons that are close to each other will repel each other.
B Two neutrons that are close to each other will do nothing to each other.
C Two neutrons that are close to each other will attract each other.
D A proton and an electron close to each other will attract each other.
6. Label the parts of the atom in the diagram below.
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11
The Nature of Matter
Terminology and Concepts Activity Key
1. Fill in the blanks with the proper word (spelled correctly).
a. When substances are together but not joined chemically, the result is called a
___MIXTURE_____________________________________________________.
b. The lightest of the three elementary particles is the ___ELECTRON_________.
c. The ___ATOM____________________________ is the smallest unit of matter.
d. The elementary atomic particle having no charge is the ___NEUTRON______.
e. Anything that occupies space is called ___MATTER______________________.
f. The ___PROTON_____ has a positive charge and is in the nucleus of an atom.
g. ___AN ELEMENT___________ is matter that is composed of identical atoms.
h. Atoms of different elements, when joined together chemically, are called ___
__ A COMPOUND__________________________________________________.
i. The basic unit of a compound is the ___MOLECULE_____________________.
2. Are free electrons found in the “inner” or “OUTER” orbits of an atom?
3. Describe “random drift” of electrons in an element.
It is the random movement of an electron from the outer orbit of one atom to the
outer orbit of another.
4. Which one of the following statements is a true statement about the nature
of matter?
A Two electrons that are close to each other will attract each other.
B Two neutrons that are close to each other will attract each other.
C Two neutrons that are close to each other will repel each other.
D Two protons close to each other will repel each other.
Copyright © Texas Education Agency, 2013. All rights reserved.
12
The Nature of Matter
Terminology and Concepts Activity Key (continued)
5. Which of the following statements is a false statement about the nature of matter?
A Two electrons that are close to each other will repel each other.
B Two neutrons that are close to each other will do nothing to each other.
C Two neutrons that are close to each other will attract each other.
D A proton and an electron close to each other will attract each other.
6. Label the parts of the atom in the diagram below.
A Electrons
B Nucleus
C Neutron
D Proton
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13
Name:_________________________________Class:__________Date:___/___/___
The Nature of Matter Exam
Match the terms to the correct definitions.
1. Matter
A Matter composed entirely of identical atoms
2. Atom
B Results when atoms of different elements are
joined chemically
3. Element
C Smallest unit of matter
4. Compound
D Anything that occupies space; can be solid,
liquid, or gas
Match the term with its description.
5. Molecule
A An electrically charged atom
6. Mixture
B Basic unit of a compound
7. Ion
C An excess or deficiency of electrons
8. Charge
D Results when substances are together, but not
joined chemically
Match the terms to the correct descriptions.
9. Electron
A A heavy, uncharged elementary particle that is
located in the nucleus
10. Neutron
B Particles in the outmost orbit of an atom that
can move freely from one atom to the next
11. Proton
C Lightest, negatively charged elementary particle,
which orbits around the nucleus
12. Free electrons
D Positively charged elementary particle located in
the nucleus
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14
Name:_________________________________Class:__________Date:___/___/___
13. Which particle or name is NOT found in the center of an atom?
A Electron
B Nucleus
C Neutron
D Proton
14. Which of the following describes the outer orbit of electrons of an atom?
A Furthest orbit from the nucleus
B If partially filled, contains free electrons
C Contains no free electrons
D Orbit may be partially filled
15. The movement of an electron from the orbit of one atom to the orbit of another
atom naturally, with no controlling force applied is called:
A Electron drift
B Random drift
C Electromotive force
D Negative particle drift
16. Which of the following statements describes the law of electrical charges?
A Like charges repel
B Unlike charges attract
C All of the above
D None of the above
Copyright © Texas Education Agency, 2013. All rights reserved.
15
The Nature of Matter Exam Key
Match the terms to the correct definitions.
1. Matter
D
A Matter composed entirely of identical atoms
2. Atom
C
B Results when atoms of different elements are
joined chemically
3. Element
A
C Smallest unit of matter
4. Compound
B
D Anything that occupies space; can be solid,
liquid, or gas
Match the term with its descriptions.
5. Molecule
B
A An electrically charged atom
6. Mixture
D
B Basic unit of a compound
7. Ion
A
C An excess or deficiency of electrons
8. Charge
C
D Results when substances are together but not
joined chemically
Match the terms to the correct descriptions.
9. Electron
C
A A heavy, uncharged elementary particle that is
located in the nucleus
10. Neutron
A
B Particles in the outmost orbit of an atom that
can move freely from one atom to the next
11. Proton
D
C Lightest, negatively charged elementary particle,
which orbits around the nucleus
12. Free electrons
B
D Positively charged elementary particle located in
the nucleus
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16
13. Which particle or name is NOT found in the center of an atom?
A Electron
B Nucleus
C Neutron
D Proton
14. Which of the following describes the outer orbit of electrons of an atom?
A Furthest orbit from the nucleus
B If partially filled, contains free electrons
C Contains no free electrons
D Orbit may be partially filled
15. The movement of an electron from the orbit of one atom to the orbit of another
atom naturally, with no controlling force applied is called:
A Electron drift
B random drift
C Electromotive force
D Negative particle drift
16. Which of the following statements describes the law of electrical charges?
A Like charges repel
B Unlike charges attract
C All of the above
D None of the above
Copyright © Texas Education Agency, 2013. All rights reserved.
17