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Transcript
Weed
Country of origin
Description
Impacts
Control methods
Spread
Introduced
Alligator weed
South America
Water plant, small
white flower heads,
invades waterways
and land. Roots
may be in the
bottom or the whole
plant can form a
floating mat.
On land it replaces
crop plants or
native species.
When growing in
water it can clog up
the whole waterway
and reduces the
amount of oxygen
in water which can
lead to fish kills.
Biocontrol is
alligator weed flea
beetle. Early
detection is the
best method and
removal before the
plant becomes
established. This
plant is confused
with a herb used in
Sri Lankan
cooking. Education
about the
differences will
reduce the spread.
Weed removers
have been used.
Spreads by pieces
breaking off and
travelling in floods
or on machinery.
Seeds do not grow.
First recorded in
Newcastle in 1940 probably came in
ship’s ballast.
Northern Africa to
Pakistan
Tree, salt resistant
and drought
tolerant, small
triangular leaves,
small pinkish-white
flowers.
Affects farming by
consuming large
quantities of water.
This makes the soil
under the trees
salty and not
suitable for native
plants.
Mechanical and
chemical control is
used targeting the
upper catchment.
Seedlings can be
hand weeded.
Athel pine spreads
downstream.
Spreads by seeds
in the wind or plants
in flood water.
Introduced in 1930
for shade, erosion
control, as a
windbreak, and as
drought fodder.
South Africa
Shrub, yellow daisy
Turns coastal
Hand pulling of
Spread by animals
First introduced in
Alternanthera philoxeroides
http://weeds.org.au/cgibin/weedident.cgi?tpl=plant.t
pl&state=nsw&s=&region=sb
&card=W01
Athel pine
Tamarix aphylla
http://weeds.org.au/cgibin/weedident.cgi?tpl=plant.t
pl&state=&s=&ibra=all&card
=T15
Bitou bush and boneseed
flowers and glossy
green leaves, black
seeds.
dunes into
monocultures of
bitou, growing over
and smothering
native vegetation.
This has an effect
on native animals.
seedlings,
biological controls
(8). Mechanical
using bulldozers
and chemical
including aerial
spraying.
Environmental
control by land
management
including fire.
eating berries and
then passing
through the
digestive system.
ship’s ballast in
Newcastle area in
1908.
Eurasia
A scrambling plant
with thorns. Black
berries may contain
up to 80 seeds.
Blackberry is both
an agricultural and
environmental
weed. It prevents
use of recreational
land and the use of
land for grazing.
Biological control is
blackberry leaf rust,
herbicides, grazing
by goats, burning,
slashing.
Spread by seeds
fruits eaten by
foxes, dogs, birds
and people.
Introduced for the
fruit.
South Africa
White and green
flowers, climber
that smothers other
plants by growing
over the top.
It grows over other
plants, takes over
in some natural
areas and shades
citrus and avocado
trees.
Biological control
bridal creeper
leafhopper, rust
fungus and leaf
beetle. Herbicides
are very effective.
Fires and grazing
by wallabies has
shown to be
effective.
Seeds dispersed by
birds or through the
roots. Produces
more than 1000
berries.
Escaped garden
plant, recorded in
1857.
Chrysanthemoides
monilifera
http://weeds.org.au/cgibin/weedident.cgi?tpl=plant.t
pl&state=&s=&ibra=all&card
=S06
Blackberries
Rubus fruticosus agg.
http://weeds.org.au/cgibin/weedident.cgi?tpl=plant.t
pl&state=&s=&ibra=all&card
=S07
Bridal creeper
Asparagus asparagoides
http://weeds.crc.org.au/main/
wom_bridal_creeper.html
http://weeds.org.au/cgibin/weedident.cgi?tpl=plant.t
pl&state=&s=&ibra=all&card
=V08
Cabomba
South America
Water plant,
floating leaves
different from
submerged leaves.
Very fast grower.
It reduces water
storage and can
taint the water.
Mechanical control,
shading and drawdown of the water
are effective.
Spread by plant
fragments.
Introduced as an
aquarium plant.
South America
Tufted grass, up to
one metre high.
Flowers spring and
summer. Has sharp
pointed seeds.
Produces 20 000
seeds per square
metre a year.
Replaces more
desirable grasses
from pastures.
Causes injury to
stock and
downgrades wool.
Combined
herbicides,
mechanical control
and grazing
management.
Biological control is
rust fungus.
Spread by seeds
from flowers and
stems. Farm
equipment must be
cleaned thoroughly.
Introduced for
agricultural
purposes.
Recorded in 1934.
Western Europe
A shrub to 4
metres. Yellow pea
flowers, older
plants spiny, seed
pods hairy.
Provides shelter for
pest species such
as rabbits,
increases
bushfires, reduces
access to grazing.
Herbicide effective
when plants
actively growing,
grazing by sheep
and goats, burning,
mechanical control.
Biological control
by gorse seed
weevil, gorse
spider mite and
gorse thrips.
Spread by seeds
that explode,
sending the seed
some distance.
Along waterways
the seeds are
carried by water.
Machinery from one
area may relocate
seeds.
Introduced as a
hedge plant in the
early 1800s.
Central America
A grass usually 1.5
m tall, leaves clasp
the stem, spread
Threatens northern
wetlands and sugar
cane farms. Blocks
Herbicides are
effective,
mechanical control
Spreads from
seeds and plant
fragments. Seeds
Introduced as
fodder plant in
1970s.
Cabomba caroliniana
http://weeds.org.au/cgibin/weedident.cgi?tpl=plant.t
pl&state=nsw&s=&region=sb
&card=W04
Chilean needle grass
Nassella neesiana
http://weeds.org.au/cgibin/weedident.cgi?tpl=plant.t
pl&state=nsw&s=&region=sb
&card=G12
Gorse
Ulex europaeus
http://weeds.org.au/cgibin/weedident.cgi?tpl=plant.t
pl&state=nsw&s=&region=sb
&card=S23
Hymenachne
Hymenachne amplexicaulis
http://weeds.org.au/cgi-
bin/weedident.cgi?tpl=plant.t
pl&state=&s=&ibra=all&card
=G09
Lantana
seeds in stock feed
and by water, can
grow in flooded
fields.
waterways, causes
flooding, and
threatens drinking
water. Reduces
biodiversity.
and fire, Shading
will kill plants.
travel on flood
waters and spread
by magpie geese.
Tropical America
Garden escapee,
colourful flower
head on the top of
the stems. Forms a
thicket.
Impenetrable
thicket takes over
pastures and
natural areas
preventing use.
Four biological
controls, fire,
mechanical and
revegetation are
useful.
Ripe fruit is black
and is eaten and
dispersed by birds,
layering of plants
produces a
spreading dense
strand.
Spread from
gardens, recorded
in 1841.
South America
Tree or shrub to 10
metres, seeds are
moved by animals
and water. Flowers
are yellow spikes.
Forms dense
impenetrable
thickets, thorns
prevent animals
from getting to
water. Safe refuge
for pest species
such as pigs and
cats.
Mechanical control,
chemical control,
burning, pasture
management and
biological control
(leaf sucking bug
and leaf tying
moth).
Animals eat the
pods and spread
the seeds. Seeds
may be carried in
floodwaters.
Introduced in the
19th century as a
garden plant and as
a fodder plant.
Tropical America
Leaves are
sensitive to touch,
flowers are pink
fluffy balls. Thorns
present.
Dense strands
replace native
vegetation and
reduces
biodiversity,
replaces
Mechanical control,
chemical control,
burning, pasture
management and
biological control
(moths and
Seeds travel in
water, on mud
attached to
machinery and
through animal
droppings.
Introduced as a
garden plant in
1861.
Lantana camara
http://weeds.org.au/cgibin/weedident.cgi?tpl=plant.t
pl&state=nsw&s=&region=sb
&card=S03
http://weeds.crc.org.au/docu
ments/wmg_lantana.pdf
Mesquite
Prosopis spp.
http://weeds.org.au/cgibin/weedident.cgi?tpl=plant.t
pl&state=nt&s=&region=stu&
card=T09
Mimosa pigra
Mimosa pigra
http://weeds.org.au/cgibin/weedident.cgi?tpl=plant.t
pl&state=&s=&ibra=all&card
=S13
Pond apple
Annona glabra
Small tree up (6 m),
cream coloured
leathery flowers.
Roots are
buttressed.
Grows like a
mangrove and
crowds out other
species
Mechanical and
chemical control.
Dispersed by water
movement,
including salt water.
Also spread by pigs
and birds.
Introduced as root
stock for custard
apples in 1886.
Americas
Yellow petals with
an orange spot.
Shrub or small tree.
Covered in prickles.
Replaces native
species and
reduces access to
water. Can dam
waterways.
Mechanical control,
chemical control,
burning, and
biological control
(seed feeding
beetle).
The seeds float and
are spread by
water.
Introduced in the
1800s as an
ornamental shade
and hedge plant.
Tropical America
A shrub to 1.5 m,
white flowers in a
small head (4 mm).
Very short lifecycle.
Can cause allergic
reactions in
humans and taint
milk and meat of
stock.
Mechanical control,
chemical control,
burning, pasture
management and
biological control
nine species of
insects and 2 rusts.
Seeds carried by
water or on farm
machinery.
First recorded in
1955 in
Queensland.
Pakistan and India
Tree with round
fluffy yellow
Halves productivity
of grazing land and
Mechanical control,
chemical control,
Spread by seeds in
animal dung, seeds
Planted as an
ornamental shade
Parkinsonia aculeata
http://weeds.org.au/cgibin/weedident.cgi?tpl=plant.t
pl&state=nsw&s=&region=sb
&card=T17
Parthenium weed
Parthenium hysterophorus
http://weeds.org.au/cgibin/weedident.cgi?tpl=plant.t
pl&state=nsw&s=&region=sb
&card=H02
Prickly acacia
Acacia nilotica ssp. indica
weevils).
Tropical America
and Africa
http://weeds.org.au/cgibin/weedident.cgi?tpl=plant.t
pl&state=&s=&ibra=all&card
=T14
Parkinsonia
grasslands and
hinders mustering
of stock.
http://weeds.org.au/cgibin/weedident.cgi?tpl=plant.t
pl&state=nt&s=&region=stu&
card=T11
Rubber vine
flowers, thorny,
leaves are ferny.
restricts access to
waterways.
Threatens
biodiversity in
native areas.
burning, pasture
management (do
not overgraze) and
biological control
(six insects
released).
may be washed
downstream.
tree in the early
1900s, also used
as a fodder plant.
Madagascar
A vine, shrub to 3
m high, glossy dark
green leaves, and
purple and white
trumpet flowers.
Grows over the top
of native trees,
threatens to choke
waterways.
Mechanical control,
chemical control,
burning and
biological control.
Seeds spread by
wind and water.
Planted in gardens
in the 1860s.
South America
Free floating water
plant. Reproduces
by breaking off
clumps and
travelling in water.
Threatens
waterways and
reduces
biodiversity.
Biological control
(salvinia weevil)
has been effective
in warmer areas.
Spreads
vegetatively, can
double in area in 5
days. Spreads
downstream.
Grown for
aquariums since
1952.
South America
A clumping grass
up to 60 cm high.
Seeds carried by
water animals and
in feed. Stock will
not eat.
No grazing value,
may dominate
pastures, fire
hazard.
Biological control
(rust, smut and
fungus), grazing
management and
replanting with
desirable grasses,
herbicides.
Seeds spread by
the wind also
spread by humans
and animals,
moving soil or farm
machinery.
Unknown
Cryptostegia grandiflora
http://weeds.org.au/cgibin/weedident.cgi?tpl=plant.t
pl&state=&s=&ibra=all&card
=V07
Salvinia
Salvinia molesta
http://weeds.org.au/cgibin/weedident.cgi?tpl=plant.t
pl&state=nsw&s=&region=sb
&card=W02
Serrated tussock
Nassella trichotoma
http://weeds.org.au/cgibin/weedident.cgi?tpl=plant.t
pl&state=nsw&s=&region=sb
&card=G14
Willows
Salix spp. except S.
babylonica, S. X
calodendron and S. X
reichardtiji
http://weeds.org.au/cgibin/weedident.cgi?tpl=plant.t
pl&state=vic&s=&region=ncp
&card=T25
Eurasia (China)
Medium-sized tree,
loses its leaves in
winter.
Causes flooding
and erosion by
changing the
direction of water
movement, slows
the flow of water.
Chemical (stem
injections of
herbicide) and
mechanical
removal.
Broken pieces float
in streams and can
then form new
plants. Seeds
carried by wind or
water.
Planted as an
ornamental tree
along riverbanks.