* Your assessment is very important for improving the work of artificial intelligence, which forms the content of this project
World Studies Middle Ages (Feudalism and Transitions) 7th grade World Studies Middle Ages (Feudalism and Transitions) Laura Orlowski Table of Contents I. II. III. IV. V. VI. VII. VIII. Introduction to the Unit History People in Societies Geography Economics Government Citizenship Rights and Responsibilities Social Studies Skills and Standards Introduction The unit I chose to design was a 7th grade World Studies Middle Ages (Feudalism and Transitions) unit. I selected this unit because I felt it comprehensively covered the essential information needed for the eighth grade Ohio Achievement Test, and I found the information in this unit interesting (personally). The readings assigned to the students are all found in the textbook Medieval Times to Today. This is the textbook used to teach the 7th grade students at the school where I am currently student teaching. To prepare for teaching this unit I have designed this power point presentation to help guide my lesson planning. History: Benchmarks and Activities Benchmark A. Interpret relationships between events shown on multiple-tier time lines. Indicator 1. Chronology Group events by broadly defined historical eras and enter onto multiple-tier time lines. Benchmark C. Describe the characteristics of feudal societies and the transition to the Renaissance and Reformation in Europe. Indicator 4. Feudalism and Transitions Explain the Lasting effects of military conquests during the Middle Ages including: a. Muslim conquests; b. The Crusades; c. The Mongol invasions Activity #1: As part of a pre-assessment activity, pass out a timeline on a piece of paper to each pair of students. Have the pair fill in the events missing from the timeline (word bank will be made available to the students). Activity #2: Have students skim through the text and illustrations in Section 1 (Chapter Five) of their textbook, Medieval Time to Today. Have them find answers to the following questions; What was life like in the northern-Italian city-states? How did art change during the Renaissance? Who were some important artists of the Renaissance? What was the Reformation? Students who want, may read more information about the Reformation on the website: http://www.historylearningsite.co.uk/reformation.htm History Activities cont. Activity #3: Have students create web diagrams based on the information in Section 1 of their textbook, Medieval Times to Today. The hub of each diagram should include one of the three main headings of the section: the World that Made Leonardo, The Renaissance Artist, or The Reformation. The extension from each hub should provide supporting details for each main heading. This activity should take about thirty minutes. Activity #4: Students will read the article, “Manuscripts, Books, and Maps: The Printing Press and a Changing World: The Development of Print Technology”, that teaches students about the significance of printing with moveable type. To understand the significance of the ability to print with moveable type, students will complete the graphic organizer, “An Invention-Causes and Effects” found in Danilel J. Barnekow’s book, Graphic Organizers for Social Studies History Activities cont. Activity #5: Have students research one of the great artists from the Renaissance time period on the world wide web. Students may pick from; Leonardo Da Vinci, Michaelangelo Buonarroti, Raphael Sanzio, Caravaggio, Sandro Boticelli, Hieronymus Bosch, Pieter Breughel, Antonio Corregio, Giovanni Bellini, Albrecht Durer, Titian, and Giorgione. Each student will fill in the information about the artist that they researched on the graphic organizer, “A Biographical Profile” from Danile J. Barnekow’s book, Graphic Organizers for Social Studies. History: Related Websites Five Related Websites: To be used with Activity #1: http://people.timelineindex.com/content/view/540 This website provides a comprehensive and thorough timeline that students may consult to check their guesstimates of events on the Middle Ages Timeline. Students may add interesting factoids to their timeline, based on the website’s timeline. To be used with Activity #2: http://www.historylearningsite.co.uk/reformation.htm This website gives students access to important historical facts regarding the Reformation. There are several clickable links available to encourage discovery and exploration of key terms and phrases. History: Related Websites cont. To be used with Activity #3: http://www.graphicorganizers.com/downloads.htm This website allows students to download and print off their own web map or concept map to use with the class activity. This site provides students and teachers alike with access to free graphic orgnaizers. To be used with Activity #4: http://communication.ucsd.edu/bjones/Books/printech.html This website contains the article that students will read in order to better understand the significance of Johannes Gutenberg’s printing press. Students will read the article located on this website and will use it as a reference while they complete their graphic organizers. To be used with Activity #5: http://www.artcyclopedia.com/history/high-renaissance.html This website provides students with a place to jumpstart their research on their chosen Renaissance artist. Several of the links on this page are clickable to aid in student research. People in Societies: Benchmarks and Activities Benchmark A. Compare the cultural practices, products and perspectives of past civilizations in order to understand commonality and diversity of cultures. Indicator 2. Cultures Explain how the Silk Road trade and the Crusades affected the cultures of the people involved. Benchmark C. Explain how contact between different cultures impacts the diffusion of belief systems, art, science, technology, language, and forms of government. Indicator 3. Diffusion Give examples of contacts among different cultures that led to the change in belief systems, art, science, technology, language or systems of governent. Indicator 4. Diffusion Describe the cultural and scientific legacies of European (and Japanese) civilizations. Activity #1: Give students two minutes to list on a piece of paper what they know about the Middle Ages in Europe. Write these words on the board to help guide student thinking: feudalism, knights, chivalry, lord and lady of the manor, serfs. Ask students to add information to each of these words or phrases. Activity #2: Have students read “Reach Into Your Background” in the Before You Read box on page 105 of their textbooks (Medieval Times to Today). Discuss what makes Americans feel like one nation. List on the chalkboard what we have in common as students suggest ideas. People in Societies: Activities cont. Activity #3: After students read Section 1 in their textbooks (Chapter Five), have them contribute to a semantic map that addresses the following questions: How did feudalism develop? Why did it develop? What were the primary roles and responsibilities of lords of the manor? Vassals? What role did peasants and serfs play in the manor organization? Activity #4: Let students debate the positive and negative aspects of feudalism. Make a chart on the board labeled positive and negative, ask students to contribute statements to both sides. Ask students if they think feudalism was basically a useful system for protecting people and society. Allow students to debate this question. This activity should take about twenty minutes. People in Societies: Activities cont. and Related Websites Activity #5: After students read Section Four, have them discuss why kings and popes were in conflict. How did kings gain power? How did the Crusades make the nobles weaker? What part did the Magna Carta play in helping to unite England as a nation? Five Related Websites: To be used for Activity #3: http://www.mc.maricopa.edu/dept/d10/asb/anthro2003/glues/feudalism. html This website provides students with vital facts and history concerning feudalism. It will prove helpful for students who seek a more detailed explanation than what the textbook offers. To be used for Activity #4: www.fandm.edu/departments/economics/ ahearn/152/152assignments/152MTans.doc This website provides useful information regarding the pros and cons of feudalism. Students can use this website as a resource to help them find arguments to support their stance on feudalism for the class debate. People in Societies: Related Websites To be used for Activity #5: http://www.fordham.edu/halsall/source/magnacarta.html This website not only provides students with background information regarding the Magna Carta, it actually contains the text of the Magna Carta so that students can look at and read the actual historical document. http://www.thetreemaker.com/last-name-meaning/crusades.html This website gives a thorough review of the Crusades. Students can use this site to add to their knowledge and information about the Crusades. http://www.bible.ca/history/eubanks/history-eubanks-20.htm This website provides an excellent overview of why the kings and popes could not get along or work together during the Middle Ages. Insight into the papal and monarchic conflicts is thoroughly investigated here. Geography: Benchmarks and Activities Benchmark A. Identify on a map, the location of major physical and human features of each continent. Indicator 1. Location For each of the societies studied, identify the location of significant physical and human characteristics on a map of the relevant region. Indicator 2. Location On a map, identify places related to the historical events being studied and explain their significance. Benchmark B. Define and identify regions using human and physical characteristics. Indicator 3. Places and Regions Describe the changes in the physical and human characteristics of regions that occur over time and identify the consequences of such changes. Benchmark C. Use physical and historical maps to analyze the reasons that human features are located in particular places. Activity #1: Show students pictures of some of the great cathedrals built in the Middle Ages in Europe, such as Chartres, Reims, and Notre Dame in France, and Canterbury, Salisbury, and St. Paul’s in England. For students interested in how Cathedrals were built, use David Macaulay’s book. Activity #2: Invite students to preview this section by reading the first three paragraphs and then skimming the headings and looking at the maps and illustrations. Discuss the location of the holy land on the map and where the crusaders came from. Ask students to write down two questions they have or want answered as they read this section. Geography Activities cont. Activity #3: Have students read “Reach Into Your Background” in the Before You Read box on page 117 of the textbook (Medieval Times to Today). Give students time to think about their position on this subject. Then have the whole class debate whether wars are ever justified. Activity #4: After students read Section Three, have them discuss the reasons for the Crusades and their results. How did the Crusades change European life? Ask students to debate whether or not the Crusades were justified and to evaluate how they were conducted. Which actions should have been avoided? Activity #5: Assign student partners the task of filling in the graphic organizer located on the website: http://www.graphicorganizers.com/downloads.htm in regards to the Crusades. This activity should take about twenty minutes. Geography: Five Related Websites To be used for Activity #1: http://images.google.com/imgres?imgurl=http://www.dartmouth.edu/~m atc/math5.geometry/unit9/0940.jpeg&imgrefurl=http://www.dartmout h.edu/~matc/math5.geometry/unit8/unit8.html&h=384&w=580&sz=5 7&hl=en&start=1&um=1&tbnid=FKBHqmxadxUZM:&tbnh=89&tbnw=134&prev=/images%3Fq%3Dcathedrals %2Bfrom%2Bthe%2Bmiddle%2Bages%26svnum%3D10%26um%3 D1%26hl%3Den%26client%3Dsafari%26rls%3Den%26sa%3DN This website provides background information regarding symbolism in the churches built in the Middle Ages. This particular site also provides a sampling of images from the Chartres Cathedral. http://images.google.com/imgres?imgurl=http://deeptiskrishnan.tripod.c om/sitebuildercontent/sitebuilderpictures/notredame6.jpg&imgrefurl =http://deeptiskrishnan.tripod.com/deepti/id10.html&h=576&w=720 &sz=54&hl=en&start=2&um=1&tbnid=EMIdG6PVjKkjpM:&tbnh=112 &tbnw=140&prev=/images%3Fq%3Dcathedrals%2Bfrom%2Bthe% 2Bmiddle%2Bages%26svnum%3D10%26um%3D1%26hl%3Den% 26client%3Dsafari%26rls%3Den%26sa%3DN This website provides background on churches during the Middle Ages and contains some beautiful images of the Notre Dame Cathedral. Geography: Five Related Websites cont. To be used for Activity #3: http://www.associatedcontent.com/article/25348/war_is_it_ever_justifie d.html This website is helpful to students wanting to research background information concerning the debate over whether or not war is ever justifiable. This site provides credible sources for the kids to read. To be used for Activity #4: http://history-world.org/crusades.htm This website provides interesting historical information about the Crusades. Students can use this website to research background information to complete Activity #5 (graphic organizer). To be used for Activity #5: http://historymedren.about.com/od/crusades/Crusades.htm This site provides several links to sites concerning the origins and history of the Crusades. It is a great resource for the students to use in their research and study of the Crusades. Economics: Benchmarks and Activities Benchmark A. Indicator--Scarcity and Resource Allocation 1: Compare the endowment of productive resources in world regions and explain how this endowment contributed to specialization, trade, and interdependence in ancient times. Benchmark B. Indicator--Markets 2: Describe the growth of cities and the establishment of trade routes in Asia, Africa, and Europe; the products and inventions that traveled along these routes (such as spices, textiles, paper, precious metals and new crops); and the role of merchants. Activity #1: Have students and their partners make two charts to summarize important information in Chapter Five of the students’ textbook, Medieval Times to Today. Model the chart for the class up on the board. Activity #2: Have students read Chapter Four, “Civilizations of Asia”, in their Medieval Times to Today textbook. Write the following list on the board: government, trade, technology, important ideas. Have students discuss how the merit system gave China good government, why China was sought after in world trade, what its chief technological inventions were, and how they changed the world, and why the ideas of Confucius were valuable. Economics: Activities Activity #3:Tell students that they will be making a map of Europe and Asia, identifying medieval trade routes on these continents. Each map should trace at least three different routes and must identify the cities at the ends of each route and the goods traded between these cities. Talk about ways to identify these goods (writing the names of the goods on the map or using symbols and a key). Have students draw their maps on a large piece of white construction paper. Suggest that each trade route be traced in a different color for easy identification. Allow students to identify additional cities and commodities along the routes. In addition to geography and history texts, students may use the following Web sites to research their maps:http://history.smsu.edu/jchuchiak/HST%20101-Lecture%2024-- Maps_of_medieval_trade_routes.htm･ http://www1.enloe.wake.k12.nc.us/enloe/CandC/showme/ trading.html#trade･ http://www.brown.edu/Departments/Italian_Studies/dweb /society/structure/ routes.jpg･ http://sumy.net.ua/History/map/6!.php･ http://www.ucalgary.ca/HIST/tutor/imagemid/hanseaticSm all.gif･ http://www.blackstudies.ucsb.edu/antillians/trade2.html Economics: Activities cont. Activity #4: Assign each pair of students a city along the Silk Road Trade route to research. Explain that each pair should use the available resources to create a collage of products available in its assigned city. Provide students with access to textbooks, trade books, reference books and Internet resources. To create collages, provide students with drawing paper, glue, scissors, drawing materials and/or magazines to cut pictures from. https://ims.ode.state.oh.us/ODE/IMS/Lessons/Web_Content/CSS_LP_ S02_BA_L07_I02_01.pdf Activity #5: Discuss dissemination of products and ideas and how they affected cultures. For example: Whey was purple clothing associated with royalty? Because purple dye came to Europe via the Silk Road and was expensive, only royalty could afford to use it. Economics: Five Related Websites To be used for Activity #1-5: http://iis-db.stanford.edu/pubs/21300/SilkRoadTOC.pdf This website provides students with comprehensive historical facts about the Silk Road and its products. Students could use this site as part of their research for Activity #4. http://encarta.msn.com/encyclopedia_761579956/Silk_Road.html This website provides students with useful information concerning the development of the Silk Road and the route that the Silk Road followed. Students may find this website helpful regarding their research. http://archaeology.about.com/cs/asia/a/silkroad.htm This website contains important information regarding the history of the Silk Road. Students should use this site as a reference when they are researching their city for their partner project. Economics: Five Related Websites To be used for Activities #1-5: http://www.silk-road.com/toc/index.html The Silk Road Foundation Homepage. A major site for information on the silk road and its historical legacy. Highlights include an interactive time line that contains hot links to topics concerning the Silk Road, including Marco Polo's travels, the spread of Buddhism, and historical events from 5000 BC to the present. Also featured is a slide show of paintings found in the Mogau Caves in China. The presentation offers 24 images found in the caves, many on Buddhist themes. http://www.chinapage.com/silkroad.html The Silk Road and Dunhuang China. A service of "China the Beautiful" web-site, this page offers links to a map of the Silk Road and an exhibition of art at the Mogau Caves. Government/Citizenship Rights and Responsibilities: Activities Activity #1: Have students read Chapter Five in their textbook, Medieval Times to Today. Discuss how government and economic leaders are trained in contemporary universities. Point out that these universities can be supported by state, private, and church or other religious group funds. Activity #2: After students read Section 2, ask them to discuss how the Roman Catholic Church influenced life in the Middle Ages. Have them list the jobs done by the church that are now done by governments. Then ask the students how international trade again became active in the later Middle Ages. How did this change society of that time? Activity #3: Discuss how the government knows what the people need. List the services people receive from government and what they give the government back (taxes, serve on juries, and as soldier in wartime, work for the government). Government/Citizenship Rights and Responsibilities: Activities cont. Activity #4: Assign student partners the task of writing a letter to a king in the late Middle Ages, telling him how to unite the nobles in his kingdom under his leadership. Tell them to use the information in the text and the graphics for suggestions. This activity should take about twenty minutes. Activity #5: Have students re-enact an authentic feudalistic society. Students must research what societal role they will fulfill. Students must attempt to dress the part and act out their appropriate societal class/role. Government/Citizenship Rights and Responsibilities: Five Related Websites To be used with Activity #1-5: http://www.historyguide.org/ancient/lecture23b.html This website gives significant amounts of background history concerning feudalistic societies in the Middle Ages. http://library.thinkquest.org/J003226F/jewel.htm This website is a good resource for students as they search for sites to research their societal role in feudalistic society. http://www.learninghaven.com/middle_ages.htm This website provides students with information regarding the nature of daily life during the Middle Ages. http://www.ucalgary.ca/applied_history/tutor/endmiddle/feudal.html This website provides a comprehensive list of terms for students to familiarize themselves with as they study social order during the Middle Ages. http://www.kyrene.k12.az.us/schools/brisas/sunda/ma/mahome.htm This website provides links to various different social classes/ranks. Useful for students researching their feudal role. Study Skills and Methods: Activities Activity #1: Invite students to imagine that they are advisors to a king. The king wants to unite the many lords in his kingdom under his leadership. What should he offer to these lords to get them to pledge loyalty to him as their king? Tell students that money is not the issue. List ideas students think of on the chalkboard. Activity #2: The students will read a summary of the ideas of John Wycliffe (1328-1384). Wycliff’s influence was later felt in Bohemia, where John Huss led a large following and was ultimately excommunicated and condemned by the Council of Constance for refusing to yield to his conscience based on his views of Scripture and his insistence that the cup be administered to the laity at the Lordﾕs Supper. Huss was condemned and burned at the stake in 1415. A resulting war against Hussite followers in Bohemia lasted twenty years and proved indecisive. Half of the class will argue from the perspective/point of view of John Wycliffe or John Huss, the other half of the class will argue from the point of the church. Study Skills and Methods: Activities cont. Activity #3: Half of the class must argue from the perspective of the church during the Reformation, while the other half of the students argue from the vantage point of the monarchy. Students will debate who should have more power. Activity #4: Students will place themselves in the shoes of a serf from the past. In their journals, they will respond to their rights and the various inequalities that they must contend with on a daily basis. Activity #5: Students will read about the daily life for vassals, serfs, and nobles and will contrast social order in the Middle Ages with the social order that we have in place now. Study Skills and Methods: Five Related Websites To be used with Activity #1-5: http://www.themiddleages.net/ This website is a great resource for the students for all the information that they are studying during this unit. This website provides links to numerous different topics and subheadings related to the Middle Ages. http://www.medieval-life.net/life_main.htm This website provides insight into the information and history available to students regarding daily life in the Middle Ages. http://www.mnsu.edu/emuseum/history/middleages/ This website provides a virtual tour of a Museum site with facets of Medieval life relating to Knights, Merchants, the Church and Peasants. Study Skills and Methods: Five Related Websites http://www.bbc.co.uk/history/british/middle_ages/ BBC History - Middle Ages index page. ... from Magna Carta to the horrors of the Black Death. http://historymedren.about.com/ Comprehensive directory of medieval art, literature, music, philosophy, history, religion, science and militia, and the individuals who made it all happen. Additional Sources Barnekow, Daniel J. Graphic Organizers for Social Studies. J. Weston Walch. 1998. Portland, Maine Hodges, Margaret, and Margery Evernden. Of Swords and Sorcerers: The Adventures of King Arthur and His Knights. 1993. Margaret Hodges and Mary Evernden. Kozlowski, Gregory C. The Concise History of Islam and the Origin of Its Empires. The Coley Publishing Group. 1991. Lacroix, Paul. Manners. Custom and Dress During the Middle Ages and During the Renaissance Period. Harvard. 2004. Harvard, Mass. Medieval Times to Today. Teacher’s Edition. Prentice Hall. World Explorer.2001. Needham, Mass. Medieval Times to Today. Teaching Resources. Prentice Hall. World Explorer 2001. Needham, Mass. Miyazaki, Ishisada. China’s Examination Hell. Yale University Press. 1981. Sato, Hiroake. Legends of the Samurai. Hiroake Sato. 1995. The Overlook Press. Woodstock, NY.