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Family Asteraceae (Asim Farooq)
More than 23,000 species across 1620 genera and 10 subfamilies and round
about 17 tribes.
 Originated in period of Crataceous before separation of America and Antarctica .
 Numerous distribution in tropical, and subtropical regions.
 Form a monophyletic group and are easily recognizable.
 Mostly herbaceous but some shrubs , trees and climbers do exist.
 Branched taproot system, herbaceous or woody branched stems, leaves are simple,
alternate or opposite, exstipulate, petiolate, hairy, reticulate venation, racemose
inflorescence, unisexual, actinomorphic, heterochlamydeous, epigynous flower, sepals
sometimes absent or scaly persistent, polypetalous, 5 stamens and 2 carpels, basal
placentation, nut shaped fruit known as cypsela, in mature seeds the endosperm is
scarce or non-existent .
 Adapted several methods of reproduction.
 Store energy in the form of inulin, synthesize other compounds like alkaloids,
acetylenes and terpenoids etc.
Family of much economic importance as:
Food plants like Lactuca sativa, Helianthus tuberosus.
Oil seeds like Helianthus annuus, Carthamus tinctorius, Osteospermum sp.
Medicine like Chamaemelum nobile, Inula helenium, Santolina chamaecyparissus.
Ornamentals like Dahlia imperialis and Chrysanthemum sp., Tanacetum vulgare.
Economic loses due to Ambrosia artemisiifolia.
Ayesha Khan Nazir
Acacia or mimosa family comprises of 56 genera and 2800
Habitat: tropical and sub tropical shrubs, herbs and climbers.
Vegetative characters: plants have tap roots with side branches
and nodules.Stem is erect and woody.Leaves are compound,
bipinnate and stipules are modified into spines.
Floral characters: Racemose inflorescence, bisexual, actinomorphic,
perigynous, pentamerous, 5 sepals gamosepalous, 5 petals
polypetalous, numerous stamens, basifixed anthers, monocarpillary,
placentation marginal.
(+ ,Q , K(5) , C(5) , Aα , G1)
Economic importance:
Timber yeild: e.g. albizzia, acacia and xyliaet species.
Ornamental use: e.g. Mimosa pudica.
Fooder: e.g. Acacia, Dicrostachys.
Soap: e.g. Acacia concinna pods have sponium.
Medicinal use: e.g. Katha, Acacia senegal and Entada.
Gums and Dyes: e.g. Keekar.
• World wide range:
usually in northern temperate regions, well-represented in China… may
be deciduous or ever green…
• Classification ( sub-families & genera):
3350 species and 122 genera.
Perennial herbs ( rarely annuals ), shrubs and trees.
• Habit:
• Characteristics:
Flowers: Actinomorphic, flat, hypanthium present, insertion
perigynous, sepels and petals free, stamens
whorled, carpel simple, free, superior.
Fruits: Follicles, achenes, drupes, nuts, pomes.
Seeds: usually without endosperm.
Leaves: Alternate, usually with stapules, simple or compound
(pinnate or palmate).
• Floral formula:
• Economical importance
Fragaria species (Malus domesticus )-source of food,
Prunus serotina - wood, essential oils,
Rosa damascena - perfumes,
Eriobotrya japonica – medicinal purposes,
Prunus species - ornamental plants…
Taxa :Division: Magnoliophyta–Flowering plants , Class: Magnoliopsida– Dicotyledons ,
Order : Ranunculales
No. of members :Family comprises 62 genera and 2242 species
Distribution :Occur worldwide but most abundantly in the temperate regions of Northern Hemisphere
mainly at high altitudes. E. Asia ,Europe and E. North America are regions of most common occurrence.
Adapted to moist- to wet habitats and occur in forests , grasslands and some can grow in water too.
Vegetative characters :Almost all are annual or perennial herbs. Primary root is Taproot that becomes
tuberous. Climbing under shrubs are also found. Alternately arranged leaves that are estipulate, lobed or
palmately divided and sometimes radial or opposite. Flowers are usually numerous, spirally arranged,
non-fused, bright, bisexual, actinomorphic, sometimes perianth is simply petaloid , Inflorescence is
mostly of cymose type and mostly the flowers are insect pollinated. Fruit is a group of achenes, follicles,
capsular or berry-Seeds are small without aril and have small embryo and oily endosperm.
 Economic Importance :Mostly used as ornaments (e.g. Dalphinium ajacis , Nigella sativa) and as
drug plants e.g. Aconitum napillus (alkaloid aconite extracted from roots, used for blood pressure)
Anemone Pulsatilla (Yields famous homeopathic medicine Pulsatilla) , Ranunculus ficaria (Used for pile)
Family Lamiaceae
(Hassan Ali)
Mint Family; Class: Magnoliopsida – Dicotyledons, Order Lamiales
Genera 236; Species > 7000
Habit : Tree, shrubs and herbs.
Habitat: Rocky, woodland or grassland, forest margins and in fynbos.
Distribution around Globe: Members found in Canary islands, Himalayas,
subcontinent and middle Africa.
• Stem square in cross section and leaves are opposite without stipules, multicellular
hair mostly present, Flower hermaphrodite, thyrsoid inflorescence. Calyx 5 united,
corolla 5 sympatulous, Androecium 4 didynamous(anterior pair longer), style
gynobasic, ovary superior 4 lobed, fruit consists of mericarps (nutlets).
• Economic Importance: Mentha spicata, Origanum vulgare,
Ocimum basilicum are source of essential oils for flavoring
and perfume industry. Salvia pratensis, Ajuga reptans are
used as ornamental plants. Salvia divinorum is used as
Hallucinogen in surgery.
Genera 90 ,species 2,000
Worldwide distribution.rare in tropical
lowlands,high altitudes,best represented in southern
Variety of habitats,do not grow in the sea itself.
Floral formula:3
of 3 carpels,inferior overy.
Flowers: perfect,actinomorphic or zygomorphic,
Inflorescence:cymes,umbels,panicles, or flowers
solitary on scape
Fruits:loculicidal capsules.
Leaves:alternate or basal,simple,entire,folded in
half lengthwise,equitant,sheathing at base.
Examples: Ixia Dubia,Crocus,Dietes
Bicolour,Neomarica Northiana.
Economic importance: food,ornamnal
purposesuse as dye,leaves uses against skin
diseases,fungal and viral diseases, Saffron obtain
from stigma used in folk medicines.
Jamim Shehzadi)
• Introduction:Family of about 400 genera 9000 species.
• Familiar plants:sweet pea ,Peanut,Chick pea,Shisham.
• Vegetative character:Trees,shrubs,herbs.Stem;woody or
herbaceous.Leaves;compound rarely simple,alternate stipulate.
• Floral formula: +,Q,K(5),C 1+2+(2),A(9)+1,G1,Fruit;legume,pod
• Economic importance: source of high protein food and used as food
and forage (Gram ,Pea,Alfalfa), furniture and building purpose
(Butea,Dulbergia),Medicines (Glycrhiza glabra,clitoria
ternatea),Ornamental Plants (Lathyrus,Lupinus,Butea),Abrus
precatorius ,used as weights called ‘’ratti’’and oil (Arachis hypogae).
1. 90 Genera, 2000 species.(Pak; 14 Genera & 52 Species)
Habit-Herbs or shrubs rarely trees. Habitat-Tropical
Stem-hairy and mostly herbaceous
Leaves- Simple, alternate, exstipulate, venation reticulate.
Roots-Tap Root, branched
Floral Characters-Cymose inflorescence, Flower: Bisexual,
actinomorphic, hypogynous, pentamerous. Calyx: United 5 Sepals.
Corolla: United 5 Petals(epipetalous). Gynoecium: Pistil of 2 united
Carpels. Placentation axile
8. Edible-Potato(Solanum tuberosum), tomato, redchilli, tobacco.
9. Medicinal-Datura stromanium, Atropa belladona.
10. Ornamental-Petunia nicotiana, Cestum nocturnum(night queen)
Plant family-Arecaceae
• It is also known as palmae family and comprises of
roughly 202 genera and 2600 species.
• Inhabit nearly every type of habitat. Most found
throughout the tropics and subtropics.
• More than two-thirds of palm species live in tropical
• Palms have large evergreen leaves that are either fanleaved or feather-leaved.
• The flowers are usually small and white and can be
either uni- or bi- sexual.
• Sepals and petals generally number three each . The
fruit is usually single seeded.
• Commercially important palms include coconut, date
and oil palm.
Scrophulariaceae (Mohsin)
Figwort or Snapdragon family
Many grow in the American Northwest
The plants were used to treat hemorrhoids and scrofula
Large family distributed throughout the world; Dicotyledons groups
Worldwide: 170 genera and 3,634 species
Introduced or native: 21 genera and 130 species
Plant : Mostly autotrophic, Annual herbs mostly, few vines, shrubs or tress,
some parasitic
Leaves: Alternate, opposite, or whorled; simple or pinnate; no stipules
Flowers: bisexual, superior, perfect, regular or irregular
Fruit: 2-chambered capsule or berry with two to many seeds, sometime oily.
Inflorescence in solitary, thyrses, cymes, often in dense verticels
Calyx: Fused or distinct, 5 lobed
Corolla: Fused, 5 lobed, often 2 lipped
Stamens: 5, 4 fertile and 1 staminode (infertile)
• Complex family of about 250 genera and 4,000 to 6,000 species.
• It belong to class monocotyledons(liliopsida), it’s division is
spermatophyta( seed plants and flowering plants), order is liliales.
• 3 sepals ,3 petals , 6 stamens, 3 united carpels
• Raceme, actinomorphic, bisexual, superior ovary, axile placentation,
fruit is either capsule or berry.
• Leaves alternate, simple, perennial, herbaceous, cosmopolitan
• Onion and garlic are used as food,asparagus are edible, true lily,
tulip, daffodil are used as ornamental plants. Colchicum is used for
the extraction of colchicine.smilax is used as a drug.
• Allium, asparagus, colchicum , tulipa( tulip), narcissus, true
lily(lilium), smilax and ruscus.
•The verbenaceae are herbs shrubs and trees
comprising about 100 genera and 2600 species.
•It is temperate or subtropical.
•It is characterized by common occurrence of
quadrangular twigs and aromatic herbage.
•Leaves are opposite or whorled, simple.
•Flowers are bisexual and zygomorphic,hypogynous.
•Inflorescence usually racemose, units – solitary.
•Calyx are tubular and campanulate ,toothed,.
•Corolla tubular, 4-5 lobed more or less zygomorphic.
•Stamens epipetalous 4 ,rarely 5 ,anthers 2 locular.
•Ovary superior, usually glabrous 2 locular-4 lobed.
•The fruit is usually drupe or nutlets, indehicent.
•Economic uses etc timber (Tectona grandis); some
notable ornaments (callicarpa,vitex, verbena)
Poaceae (Rubia)
Scientific classification: Kingdom; Plantae Class ; Liliopsida ,Order; Cyperales
,Family; Poaceae, Genus; Poa
Distrbution:present troughout the wold include;
600 genera
10,ooo specie
Vegetative chracter:
•Habit: annual or perennial herbs
•Stem: stem is jointed usually hollow,at internode ,closed at node.
•Leaves: leaves are alternate, distichous, and parallel-veined.
•Flower: usually hermaphroditic, arranged in spikelet having florets .A spikelet consists of two bracts
at the base, called glumes. A floret consists of the flower surrounded by two bracts called
the lemma and the palea.
•Fruit: grains or cryopsis.
•Pollination: it is is always anemophilous that is, by wind.
Economic importance:
Food production
Ornamental significance
Building material
Familiar plants :Zea mayz(corn) ,oryza sativa(rice),triticum vulgare(wheat).Bambusa (bamboo).
1.Dogbane family 2.trees herbs shrubs and lianas
Genre in the family
1.tropical rain forest 2.xeric environment 3.temprate zones
1.leaves are opposite, simple and whorled
2.Flowers are bisexual
a. Stamen five petals unite to form 4 or 5 epipetalous stamen
b. Style below stigma
c. Ovary is superior
3.Fruit is usually in three forms:
a. drupe
b. berry
c. follicle
d. capsule
 Uses
1. venom
2. ornaments
3. drugs
4. food source
CLASSIFICATION: Class- Magnoliopsida
GENRA IN THE FAMILY: 130-150 genra
SPECIES PRESENT: All species are woody with essential oils. It includes 5650 species
HABITAT: Inhabits tropical and warm temprate regions
LEAF ANATOMY: Evergreen or deciduous, small to large, opposite,
alternate or whorled, herbaceous or leathery, reticulate venation or parallel venation
STEM STRUCTURE: Cork cambium present, vascular tissues, phloem,
secondary thickenings develop from cork cambium.
FLOWERS: Actinomorphic, 4-5 parted calyx and corolla, inconspicuous, gynoceium has 2-5
carpels, a single style and stigma, epigenous ovary with 2-5 locules
POLLINATION: Specialized or unspecialized
SEEDLINGS: Germination cryptocotylar
OF ESSENTIAL OILS: All members of the family yield oils example
 Eucalyptus risdoni, Eucalyptus grandis yield oils which differ in composition.
SOURCE OF SPICES: Clove comes from this family. It is obtained from
 Szyguim aromaticum. Cloves are used for flavoring.
 this family have glossy appearance
are used as horticultural plants example
Family Maliaceae(Mahogany)
• Eudicots, Rosids, Sapnidales,50 Genera, 550 Species, 1217 sub
• Important Genra: Agalia, Menia, Cedrela, Owenia
• Habit: Trees and Shrubs, rarely Herbaceous( Mangroves)
• Stem: 7-12 meters, Leaves: Alternate, Petioled, Compund, Fruit:
Drupe, Berry like
• Floral Formula :
, , Ca(4-5), Co(4-5), A(8-10),G(2-5)
• Favors Tropical and Humid Environment
• Distributed in Tropical and Tropical Forests
• (Excellent timber: Sweitenia mahogany; most valuable wood,
Cedrala odorata; Cigar boxes, Azadirachta indica, Carapa granum)
( Medicinal value: Azadirachta indica; estringent, source of
margosa oil to treat skin diseases, its bark treats Malarial fever,
Carapa granum treats Dysentry and stomach troubles)
(Minor uses : Aglaia odorata: ornamental plants, Chukrasia flowers;
source of red dye, Lansium domesticum; edible, Cedrela odorata;
Cedar oil used in microscopy, Azadirachta indica; insecticide)
Approximately 230 species and 12 genera
Present across temperate and tropical Asia , North America, South America, India, Japan
2 genera with 3 species are cultivated in Pakistan
Includes trees or shrubs that may be evergreen or deciduous (falling off at maturity)
Vegetative and Floral Characteristics:
Belongs to phylum Magnoliids and order Magnoliales
Distribution and Habitat:
Family Magnoliaceae
Leaves alternate, simple or 2-10-lobed
Sepals from 6 to many
Stamens numerous with short filaments
Carpals numerous and distinct
Flowers bisexual, fragrant, terminal or axillary
Ovary superior and unilocular
Fruit a group of follicles
Economic Importance:
Main use is of wood from certain timber species and the use of bark
Flowers from several species possess medicinal qualities like buds of Magnolia liliiflora have been
used to treat chronic respiratory infection
The Chinese use the bark of Magnolia officinalis as a remedy for cramps, abdominal pain, nausea,
diarrhea and indigestion
Compounds found in magnolia bark might have antibacterial and antifungal properties
Examples include Magnolia sinica,
Magnolia grandis, Magnolia sargentiana, Magnolia stellata etc.
GENTIANACEAE is a family of flowering plants of 87 genera
and over 1500 species.
• This family belongs to the class Angiosperm and order Gentianales.
•Flowers solitary or aggregated in cymes
• Floral formula: K(5) C(5) A(5) G(2)
• Flowers are hermaphrodite (with both stamens and pistil in each flower)
•Chemical present(seco-iridoids and xanthones) and alkaloids are absent.
• Used as ornamental plant and also medicinely and flavouring
• Carassi Macrocarpa (natal pulm) and C.Carandas used as edible fruits
•Hancornia Speciosia (mangabeira) used as a source of rubber
EXAMPLES: BritishChloraperfoliata (yellow-wort) Menyanthes trifoliata (bog-bean),