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Transcript
Study Guide-Topics 7-10
Topics 7-8
Athens
 Leader created a Constitution which gave Athenians rights, such as
freedom of speech.
 This became a direct democracy.
 Still you could not say certain thing against the gods.
 Most free males over 18 could be citizens after swearing an oath to Zeus.
 Citizens could elect generals or veto decisions when they met in the
Assembly, where all citizens could evaluate decisions. This happened many
times a year.
 At 20, they could be randomly chosen in the Council of 500.
 This group would make daily decisions. This was so that no good speaker
could take over since each Athenian should be educated enough to help
run the country.
 One-general rule during times of war.
 Strong people could be voted out of Athens, or ostracized.
Sparta
 Aristocrats were true Spartan citizens; helots and perioeci would do
non-military work.
 There were many more helots and perioeci than Aristocrats.
 Helots were the slaves and pereoci were the merchants/artisans.
 Two kings would have little power, other than running the army and
religion
 Sparta was an oligarchy, meaning government “by a few.”
 Five ephors would act as city managers and run the Spartan
education
 Council of Elders, men over 60 chosen for life, would suggest laws
and serve as a high court
 Once over 20 years old, Spartan citizens could join the Assembly,
which didn’t do a lot other than decide minor laws/war plans.
 Soldiers would vote by making noise with their weapons/shields
 Though no voting power, women had more respect in Sparta, as they
were seen as vital to making strong Spartan children
Topics 9-10
*Many countries are a mix of systems
Direct Democracy -
Dem (people)
 Run directly by the people; everyone gets to vote (remember everyone
kept voting for themselves in class)
 Found in Ancient Athens (class activity represented Athens), Town Budgets,
Ballot questions
 Advantages- everyone gets a say in decision
Many opinions
School preparation for leading
 Disadvantages- People might not make a good decision
Are people capable, willing to be there?
Oligarchy- Olig (few, little, several)
 A few select people run the government
 Found in Ancient Sparta (remember Mr. C picked the five oldest to make
the decision, while the rest of the class worked), Saudi Arabia, Russia
 Advantages- quicker decisions
Several opinions
 Disadvantages- selections may not be fair
What is the characteristic of the leader?
How much of a say do citizens have?
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Republic- Rep(thing, affair…. Republic means affair of the people)
Also known as Representative Democracy
Most well used
Rep/res publica “Affair of the people”
Elected representatives run the government
Names of leaders: President, Prime Minister
Found in United States, Germany, Italy, U.K., Japan
Advantages- saves time
People have time for other things (while certain people vote,
others carry out schedule of their everyday lives)
Still have a say in republic
Many opinions
Disadvantages- Once elected; no vote until reelection
Dictatorship- Dic(to say, to assert)
 One person controls everything; usually takes power by force; few
rights/elections
 Locations: Libya (former), Zimbabwe, North Korea
Advantage- quick decision (only advantage)
Disadvantages- not fair to individual people
Few ideas
Leader/friends benefit
People do not own rights
Monarchy- Mono(one)
 One person rules, usually by birth right
 King, queen, emperor
 Found in United Kingdoms, Jordan, Qatar
 U.K.- “constitutional monarchy”
Advantages-quick decision
Knowledge of country-training
Disadvantage-one person decision
Is family line always a good characteristic?
Theocracy- Theo (god/belief)
 Government run according to beliefs of religion
 Found in Ancient Egypt, Ancient Mesopotamia, Iran, parts of Afghanistan
 Vatican city
Disadvantage- not everyone has same religious belief
Communism- Com (together, with)
 Communism government owns all property, what is best for the country
opposed to individuals
 Found in China, Cuba, Vietnam
 Former Soviet Union
Advantages- everyone gets a share
Disadvantages- no strive to work harder everyone gets a share
Government owns all property