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29-1: Prelude to World War II
Japan invaded Manchuria in 1931 and created a new colony
Japan started the Second Sino-Japanese War when it
attacked China in 1937
Mussolini sent Italian forces to conquer Ethiopia in 1935-6
Rome-Berlin-Tokyo Axis supported aggressive expansion
Hitler defiantly re-armed Germany and created the
Nazi forces occupied the Rhineland in 1936 and violated the
Versailles Treaty
General Franco led his Fascists to victory in the Spanish Civil
War with German and Italian help in 1939
29-1: Steps to War in Europe
Hitler forced the Anschluss, or union of Austria with Nazi
Germany, which was another explicit violation of the
Versailles Treaty
At the Munich Conference, Britain and France appeased
Hitler’s demand concerning the Sudetenland which was in
Hitler broke his promise made in the Munich Conference and
invaded the rest of Czechoslovakia; Britain and France
officially ended their policy of appeasement
The German Wehrmacht used blitzkrieg, or lightning war, to
invade Poland leading Britain and France to declare war
29-2: The Axis Advances
September 1939 – Germany invaded Poland
April 1940 – Blitzkrieg campaigns against Denmark and Norway
May 1940 – British rescued troops at Dunkirk
June 1940 – France surrendered to Germany
September 1940 – Mussolini ordered forces into Egypt
October 1940 – Italian forces invaded Greece
September 1940 to June 1941 – Battle of Britain
June 1941 – German Wehrmacht invaded the Soviet Union
September 1941– Siege of Leningrad began
December 1941 – Japan attacked Pearl Harbor
29-2: Axis Control
Slavs and other
groups were seen
as inferior
Jews were sent to
“Final Solution”
was the planned
genocide of Jews
Brutal and
treatment of
conquered peoples
Chinese, Filipinos,
and Malaysians
used for slave labor
Local resistance
came in the formof
guerilla warfare
29-3: The Allies Turn the Tide
Allies increased production
of arms and vehicles
May: First naval victory
against Japan at the Battle
of the Coral Sea
June: Japan is defeated at
Midway and is forced to
fight a defensive war
November: Allies ended
the German advance in
Africa at the Battle of ElAlamein
Big Three agreed to focus
on European war and Hitler
January: Germans
Allied bombing raids
surrendered to the Red Army destroyed German war
at the Battle of Stalingrad
production and morale
May: Germans are forced to
surrender in North Africa to
Gen. Eisenhower
June: Allied invasion of
Normandy (Operation
Overlord) on D-Day
July: Allies invaded Sicily in
order to launch attack
against Italy
August: Allied forces
liberated Paris from Nazi
September: Italy surrenders
and then joins the Allies but
is occupied by German forces
still fighting
December: Allies defeated
the final German offensive
during the Battle of the
29-4: Victory in Europe and over Japan
October 1944 – U.S. began the campaign to re-take the Philippines
February to March 1945 – Battle of Iwo Jima
March 1945 – Allies crossed Rhine into western Germany
April to July 1945 – Battle of Okinawa
April 1945 – The Red Army fought its way into Berlin
May 1945 – Germany surrendered after Hitler’s suicide
July 1945 – U.S. successfully tested an atomic bomb
August 1945 – U.S. dropped atomic bombs on Hiroshima and Nagasaki
September 1945 – Japan formally surrendered and signed peace treaty
29-5: The World After the War
I. The War’s Aftermath
A. Devastation
1. As many as 50 million people died as a direct or indirect result
2. Horrors of the Holocaust were discovered
B. War Crimes Trials
1. Axis leaders were put on trial for their crimes against humanity
2. Many of those accused were never captured or put on trial
3. Political /military leaders were held accountable for their actions
C. Occupying Allies
1. Totalitarian ideologies were discredited and their parties outlawed
2. United States wanted to strengthen democracy to ensure peace
II. Establishing the United Nations
A. The General Assembly
1. Each member nation had one representative and one vote
B. Security Council
1. There were five permanent members on the council (Allies)
2. Power to apply sanctions or send peacekeeping forces
29-5: The World After the War
II. Establishing the United Nations (cont.)
C. Other UN activities
1. Created the World Health Organization
2. Food and agricultural programs for developing countries
III. The Alliance Broke Apart
A. Differences grew between the Allies
1. Divided over reparations and governments in Eastern Europe
2. Conflicting ideologies and mistrust led to the Cold War
B. The Cold War begins
1. Stalin wanted to spread communism and a western buffer zone
2. Roosevelt & Churchill favored popular sovereignty
3. By 1948, pro-Soviet governments are established in Eastern Europe
IV. New Conflicts Developed
A. The Truman Doctrine
1. Result of Soviet incursions into southeastern Europe
2. Founded on the policy of containment of Soviet Union/communism
3. Guided the United States foreign policy for decades
29-5: The World After the War
IV. New Conflicts Developed (cont.)
B. The Marshall Plan
1. United States gave food and economic assistance to Europe
2. Helped war-shattered Europe to recover very quickly
3. Stalin declined aid and forbade Eastern Europe from accepting it
C. Germany Divided
1. Soviet Union gained reparations by dismantling German industry
2. Britain, France, and U.S. also took reparations
3. Western allies united occupation zones to form West Germany
4. Soviets established East Germany under Stalin’s control
D. Berlin Airlift
1. Stalin sealed off roads and railways to western part of Berlin
2. West responded with an airlift for more than a year
3. Soviets ended the blockade but the rift widened and deepened
D. Opposing Alliances
1. United States formed North Atlantic Treaty Organization in 1949
2. Soviets responded with the Warsaw Pact in 1955
29-5: The World After the War
IV. New Conflicts Developed (cont.)
F. Propaganda War
1. United States defended democracy and capitalism from Soviets
2. Soviets claimed the moral high ground against Western imperialism