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Napoleon Chapter 18 Sections 3 Napoleon Napoleon Bonapartegrew up in Corsica. At an early age of 9, he went to the military. Napoleon Taking Charge The fact he was not of nobility he was told he would have no future in the military. Through many genius moves, Napoleon would rise in rank quickly. To reward Napoleon for his victories he was given the lead of the French Armies to fight Austria. Becomes a 26-year-old officer Upon returning to France, the people lost faith in the Directory (Robespierre and his council) and asked Napoleon to lead France. Napoleon led a “Coup” that took over. In 1804, Napoleon was named Emperor by the people of France. http://www.history.com/topics/napoleon/videos/the-rise-ofnapoleon?m=528e394da93ae&s=undefined&f=1&free=false Restoring Order in France He was democratically chosen, however, he held all power. Napoleon used his vast powers to restore order in France. Restored the economy & balanced the French budget. In 1804, Napoleon instituted the Napoleonic Code (France’s first legal system). Napoleonic Code Napoleonic Code- Guaranteed religious tolerations & granted equal rights before the law to people of all classes. Napoleon tried to extend his powers into nearby countries. Because of this; Britain, Austria, Prussia and Sweden formed a coalition to stop him. Napoleon Building an Empire Napoleon quickly defeated this Coalition. He even came close to defeating the British however the Naval superiority held the island. Who was going to stop him?? By 1810, Napoleon ruled an empire that stretched from the Atlantic Ocean to the border of Russia. As they marched across Europe they would spread French Ideas. http://www.history.com/topics/napoleon/videos/napoleons-strategicgenius?m=528e394da93ae&s=undefined&f=1&free=false Napoleon’s Empire Napoleon’s Downfall Napoleon did not recognize the limits of his powers. Because of the failure to see his limit, Napoleon made 3 disastrous judgments that led to his downfall. 1. Cut trade from Britain and the rest of Europe (Since England controlled the seas they actually cut trade off to Europe). Ex: This upset many allies in Europe 2. Misjudging the power of Nationalism. Ex: Just as it helped France in the late 1700’s. It will help Germany and Spain protect themselves against Napoleon. Guerrilla warriors will attack the French often (300,000 men will be lost). 3. Invading Russia Czar Alexander I will refuse to stop selling grain to France. Due to this, Napoleon will direct his attention to them. Napoleon expected an easy victory over the small Russian armies Alexander will use the “scorched earth” policy as they lure Napoleon inside Russia. By the time he arrived in Moscow, everything was gone. France retreated, suffering many loses. Napoleon Weakened Sensing that Napoleon had been weakened, Britain formed an alliance with other European powers. Members of this alliance sought to gain their lands back. Within a year, the allies had defeated Napoleon and exiled him to the island of Elba. (France, at the request of the British, went back to a Bourbon King) Napoleon will escape and return to France. A wave of enthusiasm will sweep through France. Thousands of citizens will create a new Army under Napoleon. Waterloo In 1815, British and Prussian armies will rush towards France. They will meet at a small Belgium village named Waterloo. There, the opposing armies waged desperate battles, with the outcome unclear until the very end. Both sides fought hard Until finally a victory was won by the strongest side…the weaker of the two opponents lost And the winner was… In the end, Napoleon’s troops were exhausted and retreated. Napoleon was captured again and sent to the island of St. Helena. This time he lived for 6 years and died. http://www.history.com/topics/napoleon/videos/the-death-ofnapoleon?m=528e394da93ae&s=undefined&f=1&free=false Connecting Past and Present As you have seen, the storming of the Bastille launched the French Revolution and helped to remove Louis XVI from power. The French Revolution, however, changed far more than that. It became a vast political and social upheaval that influenced events around the world. While the French Revolution provided many reasons for celebrating, it also gave important warnings about the abuse of power. While claiming to defend liberty, Robespierre used the Reign of Terror to eliminate his rivals. Napoleon used his democratic processes to destroy democracy and seize power. The ideals of liberty, equality, and fraternity have inspired many oppressed people to revolt against tyranny. As you will see, Hitler and other modern dictators will use those same strategies to gain power.