Jean-Antoine Claude, comte Chaptal de Chanteloup (4 June 1756 – 30 July 1832) was a French chemist and statesman. He established chemical works for the manufacture of the mineral acids, soda and other substances. In Éléments de Chimie (published 1790) he coined a new word for the gas then known as ""azote"" or ""mephitic air."" Chaptal's word was nitrogène, which he named for nitre, the chemical which was needed for the production of nitric acid which had been found to contain the gas, and thus possibly (according to theory) to be the oxidized derivative of it. Chaptal's new term for the gas then quickly passed into English as nitrogen.As Minister of Internal Affairs, he created the Paris Hospital, health councils, and other bodies.Chaptal was especially strong in applied science, attempting to apply to industry and agriculture the discoveries of chemistry. In this way, he contributed largely to the development of modern industry. The process of adding sugar to unfermented wine in order to increase the final alcohol level is known as chaptalization after him. The Rue Chaptal, at the foot of Montmartre hill in the 9th arrondissement of Paris, also bears his name.