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HARMFUL AND BENEFICIAL MICROORGANISMS HELPFUL AND HARMFUL MICROORGANISMS A microorganism is a living thing that is too small to see without a microscope. These include: Amoebas Algae Bacteria Viruses Protists Fungi Other tiny organisms BACTERIA ARE ONE-CELLED ORGANISMS. BACTERIA Bacteria are onecelled organisms. They can only be seen using a microscope. There are more bacteria than any other living thing. Bacteria are the oldest form of life on Earth. Bacteria have no nucleus. The cytoplasm of bacteria carries the material that would be in the nucleus of other cells. There are both helpful and harmful types of bacteria. HOW DOES BACTERIA GROW? Imagine a colony of 10 bacteria that doubles every 20 minutes. Let’s do the Math! Calculate how many bacteria will be in the colony after two hours. Create a graph with your results. Based on this information, guess how long it would take for the colony to surpass one million organisms. Turn and talk about your guesses! HOW ARE MICROORGANISMS BENEFICIAL TO HUMANS? Digestion- FoodFood like cheese, pickles, olives, sausages, chocolate, bread, wine, beer and soy sauce are all made with the help of different types of bacteria and yeast. In most of these food products, bacteria play a major role because they produce lactic acid. Certain types of bacteria live in the intestines of human beings. They help in digestion and in destroying the harmful organisms. Intestinal bacteria also produce some vitamins required by the human body. Certain bacteria helps break down lactose in the digestive tract. Healthy stomach bacteria are releases many useful vitamins such as vitamin B and vitamin K, etc. Microorganisms Decompositionbacteria, fungi, moulds, protozoa and other organisms feed upon decaying organic materials. In the later stages of decomposition, mites, millipedes, centipedes, springtails, beetles and earthworms further break down and enrich these composting materials. MedicineOne of the most important groups of medicines, antibiotics, is produced by fungi and bacteria. Most antibiotics used today were found originally in fungi. Fungi get their nourishment from dead animals or plant matter. ALGAE BENEFICIAL MICROORGANISM, KNOWN AS A PRIMARY PRODUCER, IMPORTANT TO FOOD CHAIN. Yeast Beneficial one celled organism, helps bread to rise. Yeast is rich in protein, mineral, carbohydrates and vitamin B. HELPFUL MICROORGANISMS You might be surprised to find that we could not live without microorganisms. Without algae and other tiny plants floating in the ocean, we would not have enough oxygen to stay alive! Plankton is another tiny organism that floats on the surface of the ocean, providing food for the ocean food chain. HELPFUL OCEANIC MICROORGANISMS Algae Plankton BACTERIA SMALL ORGANISMS THAT CAN BE FOUND IN ALL NATURAL ENVIRONMENTS. THEY ARE HELPFUL AND HARMFUL. BACTERIA IS USED IN FUEL PRODUCTION, FOOD (YOGURT, CHEESE, SOUR CREAM) AND MEDICINES. Plankton Very important to life on earth and in bodies of water. Major source of food. HELPFUL LAND MICROORGANISMS Certain fungi help plants take up nutrients from the soil. Microorganisms help provide us with other kinds of foods. Bacteria turn milk into yogurt. Bacteria also helps produce certain kinds of cheese. Yeast makes bread, rolls, and cake rise. Without microorganisms, we would have trouble eating any food. Certain bacteria in our bodies help digest our food. Without microorganisms, we would also have fewer medicines. Penicillin is made from a mold. Streptomycin is made from bacteria. Both help treat or cure many diseases. Some microorganisms help remove harmful wastes from sewage at water treatment plants. Others help clean up oil spills. Microorganisms make dead things decay. Without them, Earth would be covered in a very thick layer of dead plants and animals! HARMFUL MICROORGANISMS Some harmful bacteria can make you very sick. They are found on raw meat, raw eggs, and other foods. Salmonella E. Coli The strep bacteria can cause strep throat. It can lead to serious illness in the young, old, or those already sick. Staph Staph bacteria is on our skin all the time. It can cause pimples or infections. Strep A virus is another microorganism that causes disease. It is even smaller than bacteria. .Flu Virus Cold Virus A virus must use living cells to grow and reproduce. Viruses often change as they reproduce. A medicine that killed the first virus often cannot kill the changed virus. DID YOU WASH YOUR HANDS TODAY WITH SOAP AND WATER? WHY ARE SOME MICROORGANISMS HARMFUL? Food poisoning: Food contains bacteria. If food is not stored at the proper temperature then the bacteria multiplies very rapidly. If this food is eaten it can cause nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, or in serious cases, death. Food poisoning can also be caused by eating food that is not cooked properly, like chicken or eggs. When food is cooked, harmful bacteria is killed (bacteria is not the only cause of food poisoning). E. Coli, Salmonella are more well known bacteria in food. Prevention: Cook food thoroughly, especially meats. Refrigerate foods.. Bacterial Infections: includes strep throat, ear infections, pneumonia, and bronchitis. These are different from viruses. If treated properly, they are not life threatening, but if not treated can spread to other organs in the body. Solution: Antibiotics Acne: caused in part by infection of bacteria in pores. Prevention: do not touch face and spread bacteria to face; wash face Cavities: caused by bacteria that eat sugar and convert it into acid plaque eats at tooth enamel. Solution: brushing teeth and flossing Body Odor: when we sweat, bacteria begins to multiply rapidly n the warm, moist skin. The bacteria quickly multiply, then dies, releasing an odor as they decompose or rot. Prevention: washing daily and wearing deodorant. SALMONELLA CAN ENTER THE HUMAN SYSTEM THROUGH CONTAMINATED WATER, MEET OR EGGS WITH CRACKED SHELLS. IT IS DIFFICULT TO DETECT BECAUSE IT GIVES NO OBVIOUS WARNINGS. E. Coli Normally inhabit the intestine of humans and animals. E. Coli is both helpful and harmful. It can compromise the immune system but also gives us a source of vitamins B12 and K. STREPTOCOCCAL INFECTION OF THE MUCUS MEMBRANE LINING IN THE PHARYNX. MOST COMMON IN SCHOOL AGED CHILDREN, PASSED FROM PERSON TO PERSON. FUNGUS (PLURAL: FUNGI) Like plants, fungi cannot move around. Like animals, fungi cannot make their own food. Mold is a type of fungi. Each bit of mold is very small, but when it grows in large groups, you can see it. Yeast is a onecelled fungi. Harmful mold and other fungi can spread through crops and kill them. Fungi get their energy by eating other living or dead organisms. Mold Mushrooms are multicelled fungi. Fungi can cause skin diseases such as athlete’s foot and ringworm (which is not really a worm). Harmful mold and fungi can also rot wood and food. Rotten Wood Ringworm Athlete’s Foot OUR SURVIVAL ACTUALLY DEPENDS ON THE HELPFUL MICROORGANISMS IN AND AROUND US! TURN AND TALK, THEN WRITE DOWN YOUR ANSWERS IN YOUR SCIENCE JOURNAL. Discussion Question: Why do many people think that all microorganisms are harmful? Discussion Question: Do you think that the world is better of with or with out bacteria? Why? LET’S TAKE A POLL! We will conduct a poll to determine if people consider bacteria helpful or harmful. You will tally the results and make graphs for the subgroups polled such as: first grade students, second grade, third and fourth grade students. We will then share our results. If most students consider bacteria is harmful you will create a poster sharing the beneficial effects of bacteria. If most students believe bacteria is beneficial you will create a poster showing the harmful effects of bacteria. WHAT IS THE ROLE OF ANTI-BACTERIAL AGENTS THAT PROMOTE HEALTH AND WELL BEING? Why should I use hand sanitizer isn’t it the same as soap? Let’s experiment! Compare the images on the next slide. Turn and talk to your partner! Which would you use regular soap or sanitizer? SANITIZER TOP DAY- 1 BOTTOM DAY- 5 SOAP TOP- DAY 1 BOTTOM- DAY 5 WHAT IS THE ROLE OF ANTI-BACTERIAL AGENTS THAT PROMOTE HEALTH AND WELL BEING? Though soap and warm water may be more effective, in the world of kid play, where, when asked to clean their hands, most kids do it quickly, in cold water. Antibacterial hand lotion is a great, and more effective alternative to soap and water. Antibacterial hand lotion promotes good hygiene and protects your body against SOME bad bacteria, Not All Bacteria. FOR MORE INFORMATION www.amnh.org/explore/infection/index.html “Infection Detection Protection” is a Web site hosted by the American Museum of Natural History that contains a great deal of information about microbes and their effect on our lives. Several interactive games that teach about bacteria are also included. www.microbe.org/microbes/bacterium1.asp The American Society for Microbiology hosts “Stalking the Mysterious Microbe,” a site for elementary students interested in learning more about microorganisms including bacteria.