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Transcript
Islam
Understanding Islam
Why should we study the religion of Islam?
There are over 1 billion Muslims in the world.
Understanding Islam
Why should we study the religion of Islam?
Many of our energy resources come from
countries that are predominantly Muslim.
Understanding Islam
Why should we study the religion of Islam?
There are many misconceptions about Muslims.
We should try to better understand them.
Understanding Islam
Why should we study the religion of Islam?
The Arab Spring:
revolutions in Muslim countries like Tunisia, Libya,
Egypt, Yemen…Syria?
The United States would like to make friends with
many of these newly formed governments, and make
sure that they are:
1. Democratic
2. Friendly towards the West
Understanding Islam
Understanding Islam
Islam Identifications
 Muslim: person who follows Islam
 Ka’aba: Islam’s holiest shrine – located in Mecca –
Arabic for cube
 Qu’ran: secret text, holy book of Islam
 Mecca: birth place of Islam, holiest city, Saudi
Arabia
 Mosque: Muslim house of worship
8
Islam Identifications
 Allah: Arabic for God same as J and C
 Medina: first Islamic community, 2nd Holy city,
Muhammad gains political and religious power
 Hejira: 622 – Muhammad’s journey from Mecca to
Medina; marks first expansion of Islam
 Jerusalem: 3rd Holiest city to Islam – Dome of the
Rock
Islam Identifications
2. What does Islam mean?
Islam means to “submission.” In this case, to God
3. Identify and explain the Five Pillars of Islam.
1. Declaration of Faith
2. Prayer: 5 times per day: must face Mecca
3. Charity: must help the poor and the old
4. Fasting: during the month of Ramadan: sun-up to sun-
down:
5. Pilgrimage (Hajj): must visit Mecca once in their life
10
The Rise and
Spread of Islam
Arabia
From earliest times, the Arabian people ALL
belonged to certain tribes.
Some lived as farmers.
Some were townspeople.
Many were Bedouin.
The Bedouin are nomadic people who wander
from place to place, and make their livelihood
through trade or herding livestock
Arab Bedouin
13
Arabia
These Arab people were pagans, meaning they
worshipped many gods.
The center of Arabic pagan worship was in a town
called Mecca.
Pilgrims would travel to Mecca to worship the Kaaba
The Kaaba: sacred shine that housed images of all
the Arab gods. Also contained a black stoneprobably a meteorite, which the Arabs thought was
sent from heaven
The ancient Ka’aba in Mecca
Muhammad: Founder of
Islam
Muhammad was born in Mecca about 570.
His parents died when he was very young, but he was
sent to live with his uncle, who was a Bedouin tribesman,
even before they died.
Muhammad became a merchant.
When he was 25, he met a wealthy widow named
Khadija, and married her.
4
Muhammad: Founder of
Islam
Muhammad was always a very religious person.
When he was around 40 years old, the Angel Gabriel
spoke to him, saying that God had chosen him as his
Prophet.
Muhammad’s duty was to proclaim that God, or Allah, was
the one and only God.
The Quran
Muhammad memorized, word for word, everything the
Angel Gabriel spoke to him. It was eventually written
down by scribes.
These writings are known as the Quran.
Quran means “recitation.”
 it is the holy book for Muslims, containing guidance in
all matters
The Quran (Koran)
 The Quran provides guidance on every aspect
of human life: from history and economics to
morality, criminal and civil law, gender issues,
social values, Judaism and Christianity, past
prophets, and even science*
 Any translation of the Quran from Arabic into a
different language means that it is not entirely
accurate
The Hejira
Muhammad began to speak
about this new religion to the
Arab tribespeople around Mecca.
Some began to follow him.
Others did not like his message,
and plotted to kill both him and
his followers.
In 622, Muhammad and his
followers fled from Mecca to
Yathrib, a town to the north. This
journey was known as the hejira.
Yathrib was later renamed
Medina, which means “City of the
Prophet.”
The New Religion
In 630, Muhammad returned to Mecca with a large army,
and defeated his enemies.
Muhammad smashed all of the pagan statues around the
Kaaba.
Islam became the new religion, and Mecca was its
birthplace.
Islam literally means “submission,” in this case, to God.
The New Religion
Muhammad = founder of Islam
Muslim = one who is a follower of
Islam
Five Pillars of Islam
Duty of all
Muslims:
 Declaration of Faith (Shahada)
“There is no God but Allah,
and Muhammad is His Prophet.”
 Prayers (Salah) 5 X/day: face Mecca
 Charity (Sawm): give to the old & poor
 Fasting (Zakat): during Ramadan
 Pilgrimage (Hajj): must complete a
pilgrimage to Mecca
3
RAMADAN
Ramadan is the ninth month of the Muslim calendar.
During the last ten days of this month is when Muhammad
first received the word of God from the Angel Gabriel.
The night in which Muhammad first received this word is
known as The Night of Power.
The Night of Power is the holiest night in Islam. It is
believed that angels come down to earth on this night and
perform miracles.
14
RAMADAN
Muslims observe the month of Ramadan, which is either 29
or 30 days, by fasting from sun-up to sundown.
This means no food OR water until dark!
Muslims mark the end of Ramadan with a holiday called Eid
ul-Fitr, during which they end their fast.
14
Eid ul-Fitr
26
Islam, Judaism, &
Christianity
Muhammad recognized
Jews and Christians as
“People of the Book.”
 Hebrew Bible and
Christian New Testament
were sacred
 Believed that they had
been “corrupted” over
time, however
6
Similarities with Christianity
and Judaism
Universality of Humankind
 Along with Judaism and Christianity, Islam emphasizes
the dignity and equality of humankind:
“No Arab has any superiority over a non-Arab…Nor does
a white man have any superiority over a black man, or the
black man any superiority over the white man. You are all
the children of Adam, and Adam was created from clay.”
Similarities with Christianity
and Judaism
Belief in an Afterlife
 Along with Jews and Christians, Muslims believe that
we will be held accountable for our actions in the next
life:
“We shall set up scales of justice for the day of Judgment,
so that not a soul will be dealt with unjustly in the least.”
Sacredness of Jerusalem
 “Night Journey” from the nearest
mosque to the farthest (“alAqsa”) mosque - 619 AD in
Jerusalem
 Is believed to be when
Muhammad “flew” to Jerusalem
and met with the old Prophets:
Abraham and Moses
The Night Journey
1
Islamic Law
All of the teachings and
sayings of Muhammad
which did not come
directly from God are
recorded in the Hadith
Together with the Quran,
these two texts form the
basis of Islamic law,
known as Shariah
7
Two Key Beliefs of Islam
1. There is only one God,
Allah
2. Muhammad is His final
Prophet
8
Three Rites of Passage
Muslims believe in three major rites of passage which
mark a person’s life:
1. Birth
2. Marriage
3. Death
9
The Spread of Islam
 Within 120 years of the Prophet Muhammad’s death,
the religion of Islam had spread from the Arabian
Peninsula to include the following areas:
 http://www.explorethemed.com/RiseIslam.asp
Reasons for Islam’s Rapid
Spread
1. The Arab armies were united by their beliefs
2. Weakness of the Byzantine and Sassanid Empires,
which were exhausted from fighting each other
3. Many of the people who inhabited the areas
conquered by the Arabs welcomed them
4. Christians and Jews who did not submit were forced
to pay a jizya, or tax, to the local authorities
5. Idea of Jihad
10
Concept of Jihad
 The term jihad appears in the Quran 41 times
 Its main meaning refers to an inner struggle by the individual
Muslim to fulfill his/her religious duties, and live their lives
according to God’s plan
 Another meaning of jihad is an outward, physical, violent
struggle against the enemies of Islam
 This second meaning is misunderstood by both Muslims and
Christians
10
Concept of Jihad
 According the the Quran:
”You may fight “in the cause of God” against those who
attack you, but do not aggress. God does not love the
aggressors.” 2:190
 This directive has often been misinterpreted as
sanctioning “Holy War.”
Halal
Halal
Any meat which is slaughtered for
consumption must be done so in the
correct way, invoking the name of God.
The eating of pork is strictly forbidden by
Muslims.
The Quran also outlaws alcohol.
Early Islam
Islam
Sunni
Shiite
Two Main Branches of Islam
When Muhammad died, he left no clear successor as
caliph.
Caliph: religious and secular leader who was the
successor to the Prophet Muhammad
The fourth caliph (successor) was Muhammad’s cousin
and son-in-law, Ali.
Ali was murdered by those who believed he should not
become caliph. Ali’s son Hussein tried to become the
next caliph and was defeated at the Battle of Karbala.
11
Two Main Branches of Islam
Those who believed that only a direct descendant of the
Prophet Muhammad could become caliph were known as
Shi’ites.
The majority of Muslims believed that anyone who was
devout and who knew the way (Sunnah) of the Prophet
could become caliph. These people were known as
Sunnis.
The Sunni Muslims defeated the Shi’ites and established
the Umayyad Dynasty. (661 A.D.)
11
Sunni and Shi’ite Populations
Today
12
Early Caliphates
Umayyad
Dynasty
(661-750
A.D.)
Capital:
Damascus
,
Syria
Sunni
Muslim
Emphasis
on Arab
Culture &
Language
Early Caliphates
Abbassid Dynasty (750-1250 AD)
Capital: Baghdad
Golden Age of
Muslim Civilization
Included People
from other cultures
Persians
•
•
•
Advances in
architecture
Control of trade routes
Advances in science,
Indians
Turks
Abbassid Caliphate
Islam’s First Golden Age
The Abbassid Caliphate was established in 750 A.D.
The capital of this new Islamic Empire was established in
Baghdad, not Damascus.
Founded by al-Mansur, the second caliph of the Abbassid
Dynasty.
This new caliphate was more inclusive of different people,
including Persians, Turks, and Indians, which gave it more
appeal.
Baghdad
Modern Baghdad
Islam’s First Golden Age
Commerce and Economics
This new empire controlled the trade routes between the
East (India and China) and the Mediterranean, Africa, and
Europe.
This led to thriving, wealthy cities, such as Baghdad.
To help trade prosper, the Abbassids developed many
useful business practices.
Islam’s First Golden Age
Abbassid Trade Routes
Islam’s First Golden Age
Business Practices of the Abbassids:
 Letters of credit
 Receipts for payment
 Bills of lading
All of these practices made conducting business over long
distances safer and more practical.
18
Islam’s First Golden Age
Advances in Learning:
 Muslim scholars translated ancient Greek works on
philosophy, science, and mathematics.
 Muslims also made advances in the fields of medicine,
mathematics, and architecture
 They gave us beautiful poetry, such as The Rubaiyat,
and A Thousand and One Nights
18
Islam’s First Golden Age
Muhammad al Razi
Muslim doctor who stressed eating a balanced diet.
Encouraged high professional standards for doctors,
including education and qualifying exams.
Wrote 50 books on medicine
15
Islam’s First Golden Age
Muslims used the magnetic needle to produce the
mariner’s compass, as well as the astrolabe.
These inventions would become VERY important during
the Age of Discovery hundreds of years later.
15
Islam’s First Golden Age
Islamic architecture produced some of the most stunning
buildings in history.
Islam’s First Golden Age
Medieval Renaissance Man
Ibn Sina – known
also as Avicenna
Wrote more than
100 books on
astronomy, music,
philosophy,
medicine, and poetry
Comparison of Statistics and Basics
Islam
Judaism
Christianity
adherents called
Muslims
Jews
Christians
current adherents
1.3 billion
14 million
2 billion
current size rank
2nd largest
12th largest
largest
major
concentration
Middle East,
Southeast Asia
Israel, Europe,
USA
Europe, North and
South America, rapid
growth in Africa
sacred text
Qur'an (Koran)
Bible
Bible (Jewish Bible +
New Testament)
other written
authority
Hadith
Talmud, Midrash,
Responsa
church fathers, church
councils, papal decrees
(Catholic only)
religious law
Sharia
Halakhah
Canon Law
clergy
imams
rabbis
priests, ministers,
pastors, bishops
mosque
synagogue
church, chapel,
cathedral
Friday
Saturday
Sunday
house of worship
main day of
worship
57
Comparison of Origins and History
Islam
Judaism
Christianity
date founded
622 CE
unknown
c. 33 CE
place founded
Saudi Arabia
Palestine (def)
Palestine
founder
Muhammad
Moses or
Abraham
Jesus
Arabic
Hebrew
Aramaic, Greek
little expansion;
mostly confined
to Palestine
within 60 years,
churches in major cities
in Palestine, Turkey,
Greece and Rome
(map); entire Roman
Empire by end of 4th
cent.
original
language(s)
early expansion
major splits
within 12 years,
entire Arabian
peninsula; within 100
years, Muslim world
stretched from the
Atlantic to China
Shia/Sunni, c. 650
CE
Catholic/Orthodox, 1054
Reform/Orthodox,
CE; Catholic/Protestant,
1800s CE
1500s CE
58
Comparison of Religious Beliefs
Islam
Judaism
Christianity
type of theism
strict monotheism
strict monotheism
Trinitarian monotheism
ultimate reality
one God
one God
one God
names of God
Allah (Arabic for God)
Yahweh, Elohim
Yahweh, the Holy Trinity
other spiritual beings
angels, demons, jinn
angels and demons
angels and demons
revered humans
prophets, imams
(especially in Shia)
prophets
saints, church fathers
identity of Jesus
true prophet of God, whose
message has been
corrupted
not prophet
Son of God, God incarnate,
savior of the world
Not part of beliefs
Not part of beliefs
affirmed
through Muhammad,
recorded in Qur'an
through Prophets,
recorded in Bible
through Prophets and Jesus
(as God Himself), recorded in
Bible
correct belief, good deeds,
Five Pillars
belief in God, good
deeds
correct belief, faith, good
deeds, sacraments (some
Protestants emphasize faith
alone)
eternal paradise: heaven
views vary: heaven
eternal heaven
Jews and Christians are
respected as "People of the
Book," but they have wrong
beliefs and only partial
revelation.
Islam and Christianity
are false
interpretations and
extensions of Judaism.
Judaism is a true religion, but
with incomplete revelation.
59
resurrection of Jesus
divine revelation
means of salvation
good afterlife
view of fellow
Abrahamic religions