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Transcript
Exploration and Expansion
Section 2
Conquest and Colonies
Main Idea
The countries of Europe established colonies in the lands they
had discovered but, only after conquering the natives who lived
there.
Essential Questions
• How did Spain build an empire in the Americas?
• What kind of colony did the Portuguese establish in Brazil?
• What was life like in the French, Dutch, and English colonies in
the Americas?
Section 2
Exploration and Expansion
Spain Builds an Empire
- Spain first to successfully settle in the Americas
- Eventually conquered native empires, the Aztecs and Incas
Spain in Caribbean
Encomienda
• First areas
settled by
Spanish, Cuba
& Caribbean
• Spanish introduced
encomienda =
Colonists given
land and Natives to
work the land
• Columbus
hoped to find
gold, did not
• Required to teach
native workers
about Christianity
Millions Died
• Disastrous system
for Native
Americans
• Mistreatment,
overwork took toll
on population
• Europeans spread
new diseases
Exploration and Expansion
Section 2
The Conquest of Mexico & Peru
Conquistador
• Hernán Cortés led expedition to Mexico, ended with conquest of Aztecs
• Conquistador = military leader who fought against Native Americans
• Aztecs powerful, ruled much of Mexico
Cortes’ advantages
• Cortés joined by thousands of those who wanted to defeat Aztecs
• Cortés had metal weapons, heavy armor, guns, horses—animals never seen
before in Americas– disease also killed thousands of Aztecs
Conquest o f Peru
- Francisco Pizarro led expedition to Peru who had heard of fabulous wealth
of Inca Empire; hoped to win wealth for himself
- Pizarro took over all ready weakened (by smallpox) Inca empire
Exploration and Expansion
Section 2
Life in the Spanish Empire
• With Mexico, Peru, Spain gained control of huge empire in Americas
• Spanish king chose officials, viceroys, to govern American holdings
• Spanish colonial economy based on gold, silver mining, farming
• Spanish drafted Native Americans for labor in mines, on farms
Beginnings of Slavery
• Disease, mistreatment took toll on native population
• One reformer, Bartolomé de Las Casas recommended replacing
Native Americans as laborers with imported African slaves
• Slave labor soon became common practice in Americas
Exploration and Expansion
Section 2
Summarize
How did the Spanish create an empire in the
Americas?
Answer(s): conquered Aztec and Inca empires;
appointed viceroys to govern
Section 2
Exploration and Expansion
The Portuguese in Brazil
Portuguese built an empire in the Americas, their empire was not as
large as the Spanish
Treaty
• 1494, Treaty of Tordesillas
drew imaginary line through
Atlantic Ocean
– Everything west, including
most of then-undiscovered
Americas, would belong to
Spain
– Everything to east would be
Portuguese
– Only Brazil remained as
Portuguese colony
Colonization
• Heavy Brazilian jungles made
mining, farming difficult
• Portuguese in no hurry to
settle
• Colonists slowly moved in,
along Atlantic coast
– Established huge farming
estates
– First used Native American,
then African slave labor to
work on farms
Exploration and Expansion
Section 2
Explain
Why did few colonists originally move to
Brazil?
Answer(s): Heavy jungles made farming and
mining difficult.
Exploration and Expansion
Section 2
French, Dutch, and English Colonies in the Americas
-Silver and gold from American colonies began to circulate in Europe
-Leaders in France, England, and the Netherlands decided that they
needed to establish colonies in the Americas.
New France
• French explorers established
colonies in New France or Canada
• Hoped this would be a rich source
for gold, silver
• Did not find riches, but found other
potentially valuable trade goods
Trade and Colonization
• Waters of North Atlantic swarming
with fish (staple of European diet)
and forests yielded valuable furs
• French only sent small groups of
traders
• Did not enslave Native
Americans
Native American hunters were the French traders’ main source of furs.
Exploration and Expansion
Section 2
South down the Mississippi
- French explorers headed south to seek more lands
• 1608, Samuel de Champlain founded city of Quebec
• French explored Mississippi R.
• René-Robert La Salle canoed down entire Mississippi River to
Gulf of Mexico
• Claimed enormous Mississippi region, tributaries for France
• Named huge, fertile area Louisiana, after King Louis XIV
Section 2
Exploration and Expansion
The Dutch of New Netherland
Trade Interests
New Amsterdam
• Dutch who came to North
America interested in trade
• 1626, governor bought island of
Manhattan from Natives
• Only large colony, New
Netherland, in Hudson River
valley
• Founded city of New
Amsterdam, later New York City
Slow Growth in Americas
• New Netherlands did not grow
• Dutch focused on developing colonies in other parts of
world, that produced goods Europe & Americas could
not
Section 2
Exploration and Expansion
The English Colonies
• 1607, first permanent English colony established at Jamestown
• 80 percent of settlers died during first winter in America, but colony
still endured
Pilgrims
• 1620, Pilgrims sailed from
England
• Pilgrims had been persecuted
in England for religious beliefs
• Established colony at Plymouth,
Massachusetts
• Colony self-sufficient within 5
years
Native Americans
• English settlers did not share
same relationship with Native
Americans as French, Dutch
• Colonists viewed Native
Americans with distrust, anger
Exploration and Expansion
Section 2
British-French Conflict
Problems
• English ran into conflict with French settlers in Americas
• English colonists attempted to settle in French territory; tension in region
grew; war broke out, 1754
French and Indian War
- British v/s French and Indians
• War began badly for British, but British turned tide, took city of Quebec
Costly War
• Eventually French surrendered, yielded Canada, all French territory east of
Mississippi
• War costly for British; king tried to place costs of war on colonists
• Led to resentment, which eventually brought about American Revolution
Exploration and Expansion
Section 2
Exploration and Expansion
Section 2
Exploration and Expansion
Section 2
Sequence
What series of events led to the French and
Indian War?
Answer(s): English attempted to settle in French
territory; tension grew between English and
French