Download Exploration and Expansion Section 2

yes no Was this document useful for you?
   Thank you for your participation!

* Your assessment is very important for improving the work of artificial intelligence, which forms the content of this project

Document related concepts

English overseas possessions in the Wars of the Three Kingdoms wikipedia, lookup

Province of New York wikipedia, lookup

French colonization of Texas wikipedia, lookup

Thirteen Colonies wikipedia, lookup

Colonial American military history wikipedia, lookup

Queen Anne's War wikipedia, lookup

Exploration and Expansion
Section 2
Conquest and Colonies
Main Idea
The countries of Europe established colonies in the lands they
had discovered but, only after conquering the natives who lived
Essential Questions
• How did Spain build an empire in the Americas?
• What kind of colony did the Portuguese establish in Brazil?
• What was life like in the French, Dutch, and English colonies in
the Americas?
Section 2
Exploration and Expansion
Spain Builds an Empire
- Spain first to successfully settle in the Americas
- Eventually conquered native empires, the Aztecs and Incas
Spain in Caribbean
• First areas
settled by
Spanish, Cuba
& Caribbean
• Spanish introduced
encomienda =
Colonists given
land and Natives to
work the land
• Columbus
hoped to find
gold, did not
• Required to teach
native workers
about Christianity
Millions Died
• Disastrous system
for Native
• Mistreatment,
overwork took toll
on population
• Europeans spread
new diseases
Exploration and Expansion
Section 2
The Conquest of Mexico & Peru
• Hernán Cortés led expedition to Mexico, ended with conquest of Aztecs
• Conquistador = military leader who fought against Native Americans
• Aztecs powerful, ruled much of Mexico
Cortes’ advantages
• Cortés joined by thousands of those who wanted to defeat Aztecs
• Cortés had metal weapons, heavy armor, guns, horses—animals never seen
before in Americas– disease also killed thousands of Aztecs
Conquest o f Peru
- Francisco Pizarro led expedition to Peru who had heard of fabulous wealth
of Inca Empire; hoped to win wealth for himself
- Pizarro took over all ready weakened (by smallpox) Inca empire
Exploration and Expansion
Section 2
Life in the Spanish Empire
• With Mexico, Peru, Spain gained control of huge empire in Americas
• Spanish king chose officials, viceroys, to govern American holdings
• Spanish colonial economy based on gold, silver mining, farming
• Spanish drafted Native Americans for labor in mines, on farms
Beginnings of Slavery
• Disease, mistreatment took toll on native population
• One reformer, Bartolomé de Las Casas recommended replacing
Native Americans as laborers with imported African slaves
• Slave labor soon became common practice in Americas
Exploration and Expansion
Section 2
How did the Spanish create an empire in the
Answer(s): conquered Aztec and Inca empires;
appointed viceroys to govern
Section 2
Exploration and Expansion
The Portuguese in Brazil
Portuguese built an empire in the Americas, their empire was not as
large as the Spanish
• 1494, Treaty of Tordesillas
drew imaginary line through
Atlantic Ocean
– Everything west, including
most of then-undiscovered
Americas, would belong to
– Everything to east would be
– Only Brazil remained as
Portuguese colony
• Heavy Brazilian jungles made
mining, farming difficult
• Portuguese in no hurry to
• Colonists slowly moved in,
along Atlantic coast
– Established huge farming
– First used Native American,
then African slave labor to
work on farms
Exploration and Expansion
Section 2
Why did few colonists originally move to
Answer(s): Heavy jungles made farming and
mining difficult.
Exploration and Expansion
Section 2
French, Dutch, and English Colonies in the Americas
-Silver and gold from American colonies began to circulate in Europe
-Leaders in France, England, and the Netherlands decided that they
needed to establish colonies in the Americas.
New France
• French explorers established
colonies in New France or Canada
• Hoped this would be a rich source
for gold, silver
• Did not find riches, but found other
potentially valuable trade goods
Trade and Colonization
• Waters of North Atlantic swarming
with fish (staple of European diet)
and forests yielded valuable furs
• French only sent small groups of
• Did not enslave Native
Native American hunters were the French traders’ main source of furs.
Exploration and Expansion
Section 2
South down the Mississippi
- French explorers headed south to seek more lands
• 1608, Samuel de Champlain founded city of Quebec
• French explored Mississippi R.
• René-Robert La Salle canoed down entire Mississippi River to
Gulf of Mexico
• Claimed enormous Mississippi region, tributaries for France
• Named huge, fertile area Louisiana, after King Louis XIV
Section 2
Exploration and Expansion
The Dutch of New Netherland
Trade Interests
New Amsterdam
• Dutch who came to North
America interested in trade
• 1626, governor bought island of
Manhattan from Natives
• Only large colony, New
Netherland, in Hudson River
• Founded city of New
Amsterdam, later New York City
Slow Growth in Americas
• New Netherlands did not grow
• Dutch focused on developing colonies in other parts of
world, that produced goods Europe & Americas could
Section 2
Exploration and Expansion
The English Colonies
• 1607, first permanent English colony established at Jamestown
• 80 percent of settlers died during first winter in America, but colony
still endured
• 1620, Pilgrims sailed from
• Pilgrims had been persecuted
in England for religious beliefs
• Established colony at Plymouth,
• Colony self-sufficient within 5
Native Americans
• English settlers did not share
same relationship with Native
Americans as French, Dutch
• Colonists viewed Native
Americans with distrust, anger
Exploration and Expansion
Section 2
British-French Conflict
• English ran into conflict with French settlers in Americas
• English colonists attempted to settle in French territory; tension in region
grew; war broke out, 1754
French and Indian War
- British v/s French and Indians
• War began badly for British, but British turned tide, took city of Quebec
Costly War
• Eventually French surrendered, yielded Canada, all French territory east of
• War costly for British; king tried to place costs of war on colonists
• Led to resentment, which eventually brought about American Revolution
Exploration and Expansion
Section 2
Exploration and Expansion
Section 2
Exploration and Expansion
Section 2
What series of events led to the French and
Indian War?
Answer(s): English attempted to settle in French
territory; tension grew between English and