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Art The Visual World Do Now: take out note packet Objective: You will learn about the Italian Renaissance while taking notes and working on your rose window design project. Art The Visual World Do Now: Get a hand out Objective: Renaissance Art 9.1 – Early Renaissance (early 1400s) -Florence – birthplace of the Italian renaissance 9.2 – High Renaissance -Rome and Venice -Popes commissioned artists -Artists – considered a genius 9.3 – Mannerism -Transitional period -End of High Renaissance 9.1 Renaissance Vocabulary • Cupola- a round convex roof on a circular base, a dome of small size • Tondo- a round-shaped painting • Foreshortening- a method of applying perspective to an object or figure so that it seems to recede in space by shortening the depth dimension, making the form appear three- dimensional. • Cartoon- Drawing on paper • Fresco – a painting done on wet plaster means fresh in Italian • Genre – Scene from everyday life • Cupola – dome Ch. 9 – The Italian Renaissance Renaissance means rebirth Florence was the birth place of the Renaissance Medici family were great patrons of the arts so they dominated at this time. Fueled by: -A renewed interest in ancient Roman & Greek Art and Architecture. -Science & math - 2 disciplines that became tools for Renaissance artists -created a city of extraordinary beauty. -Artists were considered Geniuses Filippo Brunelleschi -He was a master: goldsmith, sculptor, mathematician, clock builder & architect -Discovered scientific perspective - a way of accurately showing three-dimensional building or objects on a flat sheet of paper. -went to Rome to study the remains of ancient buildings Came back to Florence with new ideas of how to combine the old roman styles with new -Brunelleschi, like the Greeks and Romans, used basic geometrical shapes and simple proportions -Discipline of thought, clarity of design, the proportion of one part to another, and visual rhythm were essential to fine architecture “Dome, Cathedral of Florence” 1420-1436 Lorenzo Ghiberti “Gates of Paradise” -his panels tell stories from the New Testament -he used one point perspective to show depth Lorenzo Ghiberti, Sacrifice of Isaac 1401-1402 Gilt bronze relief Donatello “David” 1430-1432 -made of bronze -after the death of Goliath -the first life size free standing nude statue since the ancient times -body position suggests action & motion by placing all weight on one leg -Classic Renaissance attitudes are captured in this sculpture - images of pride, dignity and self-reliance. Donatello “Gattamelata” Donatello “David” Masaccio – was the initiator of Renaissance painting. He was influenced by the paintings done by Fabriano and Giotto. Painting shows 3 things happening at once. 1. Christ and his disciples are confronted by a Roman tax collector and asked to pay tribute to Caesar. 2. Christ sends Peter to the Sea of Galilee where he finds the tribute money in the mouth of a fish (at the left) 3. Peter is seen paying the tax collector (at the right) Tribute Money 1427 fresco Botticelli “Birth of Venus” after 1482 -artists continued to explore the renaissance scientific appreciation of nature and the human body -often used poetic and unreal subject matter of allegories and mythology -center - Venus – the goddess of love, rises from the sea and emerges from a shell -left – west wind- pushes her towards land -right – spring ready to dress her Andrea Mantegna 1431-1506 He excelled in working with perspective, especially foreshortening -used extreme foreshortening 9.2 High Renaissance • Rome becomes the art center of Europe • The notion of artist as genius is born • Venetian artist make dramatic innovations in painting Vocabulary -Chiaroscuro - a technique for modeling forms in painting by which the lighted parts seem to emerge from surrounding dark areas. Strong contrast of dark and light values in painting. -Sfumato – slight blurring of the edges of figures and objects in a painting, creating a hazy feeling and aerial perspective -Painterly – a technique of painting in which forms are depicted by patches of color rather that by hard and precise edges. Brush strokes are left visible as part of the surface of the painting. Leonardo da Vinci (The Renaissance Man) -considered an expert in many fields, engineering, military science, botany, anatomy, geology, aerodynamics and optics. -he left 10 thousand pages of drawing, ideas, sketches and note. -he considered painting to be the supreme form of art Chiaroscuro – extreme contrast of lights and darks -“The Last Supper” – impressive in form and emotion “The Last Supper” 1495-1498 Painted on the wall of the dining hall at Santa Maria Della Grazie, Milan Leonardo da Vinci -“Mona Lisa” – worlds most famous portrait -the distant hills and mountains in the background are partially obscured by a light haze which creates a feeling of depth – this is called SFUMATO Portrait of Cecilia with an Ermine DaVinci DaVinci “Virgin of the Rocks” -Triangular composition -Emphasis is on the Virgin’s face -Light forms from the background to create dramatic contrast of values -This extreme contrast of lights and darks is called - chiaroscuro Michelangelo Buonarroti “Pieta” 1499-1500 -Depicts Mary holding the lifeless body of her son -emotionless expression shows acceptance of death as a necessity. -skewed proportions of Christ to his mother -triangular or pyramidal composition -Michelangelo was more concerned with the visual effect of the pyramidal composition rather that with exact proportions. Note the detail in the folds of Mary’s robe Michelangelo Buonarroti “David” 1501-1504 -embodies perfection -god like figure of David -made of marble -totally different than Donatello's “David” -before the death of Goliath (David holds the rock in his left hand) Michelangelo Moses 1513-1515 Marble -Pope Julius II commissioned Michelangelo to design his tomb Michelangelo Buonarroti Sistine Chapel Ceiling Took Michelangelo 4 years and 5 months to complete Contains 9 old testament scenes Over 400 figures Last judgment – he climbed 6 or 7 levels of scaffolding everyday Painting that shows the horror of hell and the reward of eternal life in heaven. Restoration of the Sistine Ceiling Due to the grime that had accumulated on the ceiling at every papal mass, oil lamps, incense and hundreds of candles were burned and their combined soot had collected on the ceiling. The roof also leaked and salts washed through. Attempts to undo the damage only made it worse. Early restorers – used a coating of animal glue, at first the glue, acting like a varnish enhanced the frescos color. But eventually it darkened. Then they would add another coat of the glue. More torches, candles, salt stains, glue, torches, candles, glue. Eventually the dark skin on the fresco was thicker that the paint beneath it. In 1979, 400 years after its completion restorers began to clean the paintings correctly. It took 10 years to clean what took Michelangelo 4 years to paint. Using Sponges soaked in a special mixture of chemicals and pure water. Carefully removed layers of grime to reveal the original bright colors underneath. Raphael Sanzio “School of Athens” 1510-1511 -Spirit of high renaissance - balance and harmony -uses one point perspective -vanishing point is between the two main figures – Plato and Aristotle who seem to be deep in conversation. -Raphael has placed a portrait of himself in the bottom right hand corner 1: Zeno of Citium 2: Epicurus 3: unknown 4: Boethius or Anaximander or Empedocles? 5: Averroes 6: Pythagoras 7: Alcibiades or Alexander the Great? 8: Antisthenes or Xenophon or Timon? 9: Uncertain, Fornarina as a personification of Love or Francesco Maria della Rovere? 10: Aeschines or Xenophon? 11: Parmenides? 12: Socrates 13: Heraclitus (Michelangelo) 14: Plato (Leonardo da Vinci) 15: Aristotle 16: Diogenes 17: Plotinus (Donatello?) 18: Euclid or Archimedes with students (Bramante?) 19: Zoroaster (Baldassare Castiglione) 20: Ptolemy? R: Apelles (Raphael) 21: Protogenes (Il Sodoma, Perugino, or Timoteo Viti) Titian -he painted his figures in bright colors over a red painted background which added warmth to the entire painting -then finished with glazing -his idea of the perfect woman Venus with a Mirror 1555 Oil on canvas Mannerism -Period between the end of the High Renaissance and the beginning of the Baroque period in Europe. -Includes a number of individual styles rather that one united approach to art -mannerism’s features including distorted forms and perspectives, crisp and static shapes, attenuated anatomy, expressive color and unique approaches to subject matter. El Greco “Resurrection” -his elongated composition draws the viewer’s attention to the body of Christ “The Burial of Count Orgaz”1586 work is divided into two parts – lower part depicts earth and upper half heaven The angle carrying Orgaz unites the upper and lower parts of the painting. Earthly figures are ridged and geometric where the figures shown in the upper half were very fluid and swirling.