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Art The Visual World
Do Now: take out note packet
Objective: You will learn about the Italian
Renaissance while taking notes and
working on your rose window design
Art The Visual World
Do Now: Get a hand out
Objective: Renaissance Art
9.1 – Early Renaissance (early 1400s)
-Florence – birthplace of the Italian
9.2 – High Renaissance
-Rome and Venice
-Popes commissioned artists
-Artists – considered a genius
9.3 – Mannerism
-Transitional period
-End of High Renaissance
9.1 Renaissance Vocabulary
• Cupola- a round convex roof on a circular base, a dome of
small size
• Tondo- a round-shaped painting
• Foreshortening- a method of applying perspective to an
object or figure so that it seems to recede in space by
shortening the depth dimension, making the form appear
three- dimensional.
• Cartoon- Drawing on paper
• Fresco – a painting done on wet plaster means fresh in
• Genre – Scene from everyday life
• Cupola – dome
Ch. 9 – The Italian Renaissance
Renaissance means rebirth
Florence was the birth place of the Renaissance
Medici family were great patrons of the arts so they dominated at
this time.
Fueled by:
-A renewed interest in ancient Roman & Greek Art and Architecture.
-Science & math - 2 disciplines that became tools for Renaissance
-created a city of extraordinary beauty.
-Artists were considered Geniuses
Filippo Brunelleschi
-He was a master:
goldsmith, sculptor, mathematician, clock builder & architect
-Discovered scientific perspective - a way of accurately showing
three-dimensional building or objects on a flat sheet of paper.
-went to Rome to study the remains of ancient buildings
Came back to Florence with new ideas of how to combine the old
roman styles with new
-Brunelleschi, like the Greeks and Romans, used basic geometrical
shapes and simple proportions
-Discipline of thought, clarity of design, the proportion of one part to
another, and visual rhythm were essential to fine architecture
“Dome, Cathedral of Florence”
Lorenzo Ghiberti
“Gates of Paradise”
-his panels tell stories from the New
-he used one point perspective to
show depth
Lorenzo Ghiberti,
Sacrifice of Isaac
Gilt bronze relief
“David” 1430-1432
-made of bronze
-after the death of Goliath
-the first life size free standing nude statue
since the ancient times
-body position suggests action & motion by
placing all weight on one leg
-Classic Renaissance attitudes are captured in
this sculpture
- images of pride, dignity and self-reliance.
Masaccio – was the initiator of Renaissance painting.
He was influenced by the paintings done by Fabriano and Giotto.
Painting shows 3 things happening at once.
1. Christ and his disciples are confronted by a Roman tax collector
and asked to pay tribute to Caesar.
2. Christ sends Peter to the Sea of Galilee where he finds the tribute
money in the mouth of a fish (at the left)
3. Peter is seen paying the tax collector (at the right)
Tribute Money
“Birth of Venus” after 1482
-artists continued to explore the
renaissance scientific appreciation of
nature and the human body
-often used poetic and unreal subject
matter of allegories and mythology
-center - Venus – the goddess of love, rises from the sea and emerges
from a shell
-left – west wind- pushes her towards land
-right – spring ready to dress her
Andrea Mantegna 1431-1506
He excelled in working
with perspective,
-used extreme
9.2 High Renaissance
• Rome becomes the art center of Europe
• The notion of artist as genius is born
• Venetian artist make dramatic innovations in painting
-Chiaroscuro - a technique for modeling forms in painting by
which the lighted parts seem to emerge from surrounding dark
areas. Strong contrast of dark and light values in painting.
-Sfumato – slight blurring of the edges of figures and objects in a
painting, creating a hazy feeling and aerial perspective
-Painterly – a technique of painting in which forms are depicted
by patches of color rather that by hard and precise edges. Brush
strokes are left visible as part of the surface of the painting.
Leonardo da Vinci (The Renaissance Man)
-considered an expert in many fields, engineering, military science,
botany, anatomy, geology, aerodynamics and optics.
-he left 10 thousand pages of drawing, ideas, sketches and note.
-he considered painting to be the supreme form of art
Chiaroscuro – extreme contrast of lights and darks
-“The Last Supper” – impressive in form and emotion
“The Last Supper” 1495-1498
Painted on the wall of the dining hall at Santa Maria Della Grazie, Milan
Leonardo da Vinci
-“Mona Lisa” – worlds most
famous portrait
-the distant hills and mountains in
the background are partially
obscured by a light haze which
creates a feeling of depth – this is
called SFUMATO
Portrait of Cecilia with an Ermine
DaVinci “Virgin of the Rocks”
-Triangular composition
-Emphasis is on the Virgin’s face
-Light forms from the background
to create dramatic contrast of
-This extreme contrast of lights
and darks is called - chiaroscuro
Michelangelo Buonarroti
“Pieta” 1499-1500
-Depicts Mary holding the lifeless body of her
-emotionless expression shows acceptance of
death as a necessity.
-skewed proportions of Christ to his mother
-triangular or pyramidal composition
-Michelangelo was more concerned with the
visual effect of the pyramidal composition
rather that with exact proportions.
Note the detail in the folds of Mary’s robe
Michelangelo Buonarroti
“David” 1501-1504
-embodies perfection
-god like figure of David
-made of marble
-totally different than Donatello's “David”
-before the death of Goliath (David holds the
rock in his left hand)
-Pope Julius II
Michelangelo to design
his tomb
Michelangelo Buonarroti
Sistine Chapel Ceiling
Took Michelangelo 4 years and 5 months to complete
Contains 9 old testament scenes
Over 400 figures
Last judgment – he climbed 6 or 7 levels of scaffolding everyday
Painting that shows the horror of hell and the reward of eternal
life in heaven.
Restoration of the Sistine Ceiling
Due to the grime that had accumulated on the ceiling at every papal
mass, oil lamps, incense and hundreds of candles were burned and
their combined soot had collected on the ceiling.
The roof also leaked and salts washed through.
Attempts to undo the damage only made it worse.
Early restorers – used a coating of animal glue, at first the glue, acting
like a varnish enhanced the frescos color. But eventually it darkened.
Then they would add another coat of the glue.
More torches, candles, salt stains, glue, torches, candles, glue.
Eventually the dark skin on the fresco was thicker that the paint
beneath it.
In 1979, 400 years after its completion restorers began to clean the
paintings correctly. It took 10 years to clean what took Michelangelo 4
years to paint.
Using Sponges soaked in a special mixture of chemicals and pure water.
Carefully removed layers of grime to reveal the original bright colors
Raphael Sanzio
“School of Athens” 1510-1511
-Spirit of high renaissance - balance and harmony
-uses one point perspective
-vanishing point is between the two main figures – Plato and
Aristotle who seem to be deep in conversation.
-Raphael has placed a portrait of himself in the bottom right
hand corner
1: Zeno of Citium 2: Epicurus 3: unknown[14] 4: Boethius or Anaximander or Empedocles? 5:
Averroes 6: Pythagoras 7: Alcibiades or Alexander the Great? 8: Antisthenes or Xenophon or
Timon? 9: Uncertain,[14][15] Fornarina as a personification of Love[16] or Francesco Maria della
Rovere? 10: Aeschines or Xenophon? 11: Parmenides? 12: Socrates 13: Heraclitus
(Michelangelo) 14: Plato (Leonardo da Vinci) 15: Aristotle 16: Diogenes 17: Plotinus
(Donatello?) 18: Euclid or Archimedes with students (Bramante?) 19: Zoroaster (Baldassare
Castiglione) 20: Ptolemy? R: Apelles (Raphael) 21: Protogenes (Il Sodoma, Perugino, or
Timoteo Viti)[17]
-he painted his figures in
bright colors over a red
painted background
which added warmth to
the entire painting
-then finished with
-his idea of the perfect
Venus with a Mirror
Oil on canvas
-Period between the end of the High Renaissance
and the beginning of the Baroque period in
-Includes a number of individual styles rather that
one united approach to art
-mannerism’s features including distorted forms
and perspectives, crisp and static shapes,
attenuated anatomy, expressive color and unique
approaches to subject matter.
El Greco
-his elongated composition draws the viewer’s
attention to the body of Christ
“The Burial of Count Orgaz”1586
work is divided into two parts –
lower part depicts earth and
upper half heaven
The angle carrying Orgaz unites
the upper and lower parts of the
Earthly figures are ridged and
geometric where the figures
shown in the upper half were
very fluid and swirling.