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Transcript
Greece – Classical Age
Chapter 6-1
Geography of Ancient Greece
Video: Minoans and Mycenaeans – 25m
TN SPI – 6.5.11
1
Directions
• For today’s lesson, you will
need a sheet of notebook
paper folded as a 4-square.
• Colored Pencils
Geography and Agriculture
Trading Cultures
Government
City-States
Geography of Ancient Greece
• Greece is a country made up of:
– Small scattered islands
– Rugged mountains
– Many peninsulas
– Few valleys and coastal plains for farming
– Isolated communities
4
5
Agriculture
• Because of geography, farming was often
difficult.
• Good farmland was located by the coast and
in the valleys.
• Farms were usually small and only produced
enough food to feed one family with a little
extra to sell at the market.
– Major crops: wheat, barley, olives, grapes
– Farm animals: pigs, poultry, sheep, goats
6
Geographic Borders
• Greece is bordered by:
–
–
–
–
–
Aegean Sea -East
Ionian Sea - West
Mediterranean Sea - South
Macedonia – North
Mt. Olympus – 9,570’
• Since travel inland across rugged mountains was so
difficult, the early Greeks became skilled
shipbuilders and sailors.
• The sea was for travel, trading, and a source of food.
7
MACEDONIA
TROY
IONIAN SEA
AEGEAN SEA
OLYMPIA
ATHENS
SPARTA
CRETE
MEDITERRANEAN SEA
8
9
10
Trading Cultures
• Two of the earliest cultures that settled in
Greece were:
– the Minoans – seafaring traders (non Greek)
– the Mycenaeans – considered the first Greeks
11
The Minoans
• The Minoans lived on the island of Crete located
south of Greece in the Mediterranean Sea.
• Although they lived in what is now Greece, they are
not considered to be Greek because they didn’t
speak the Greek language.
• They were among the best shipbuilders and traders
in the Mediterranean.
– They traded pottery and olive oil for copper, gold, silver,
and jewels.
– A volcano erupted in the c1600 BC ending the Minoan
civilization.
12
The Mycenaeans
• The Mycenaeans were the first to speak the Greek
language and are considered by historians to be the
first Greeks.
• They were builders of fortresses all over the Greek
mainland and often attacked other kingdoms.
• Historians believe the Mycenaeans attacked the city
of Troy, possibly starting the legendary Trojan War.
– The Mycenaean civilization was defeated by invaders from
Europe in c1200 BC.
– This period in Greek history is referred to as the Dark Age
of Greece.
13
MYCENAEANS
MINOANS
14
Greek City-States
• Geography prevented small communities from
coming together. For this reason small citystates (a city and the surrounding area)
formed which had their own:
– Traditions
– Governments
– Laws
– Leaders
• Hundreds of Greek city-states formed. Athens, Sparta,
Olympia, and Troy were most well known.
15
Life in City-States
• Life in the city often focused on the
marketplace, or agora.
• Many shops bordered the agora.
• Farmers brought their crops to the market to
trade for goods made by artisans.
• The agora was a large open space that also
served as a meeting place for political and
religious meetings.
16
Government - Who Ruled?
• Oligarchy – rule by a small group (Sparta)
– Early Greeks were governed by aristocrats, or a
small group of rich landowners.
– As trade increased, a middle class began to grow
who resented the aristocracy.
– The middle class demanded a role in government.
17
Government - Who Ruled?
• Direct Democracy – citizens govern
themselves (no elected representatives)
– Athens formed a democracy .
– Must be a male citizen 18 years of age.
– Both parents must be Athenian to be considered a
citizen.
– Women were not allowed to debate laws.
18
Democracy Then and Now
Direct Democracy
• All citizens met as a group
to debate and vote on every
issue.
• There was no separation of
powers. Citizens created
laws, enforced laws, and
acted as judges.
• Only free male citizens
could vote. Women and
slaves could not vote.
Republic - Indirect Democracy
• Citizens elect
representatives to debate
and vote on issues for them.
• There is a separation of
powers. Citizens elect
people to create laws,
others to enforce laws, and
others to be judges.
• Men and women who are
citizens have the right to
vote.
19