Download SHMS 111 Funtional Antaomy P2 Test 2 MEMO 2015

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Test 2– May 2015
FACULTY OF SCIENCE AND AGRICULTURE
DEPARTMENT OF BIOKINETICS AND SPORTS SCIENCE
SHMS111 Paper 2 – Functional Anatomy
DURATION: 90 MINUTES
MARKS: 90
SUBMINIMUM: 40%
Internal Examiner
Miss K Frames
Moderator
Mrs C Gouws
INSTRUCTION TO CANDIDATES
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
Please ascertain that this paper has three (3) pages, including the cover page.
Answer all questions in the answer book provided.
Number the questions correctly.
Please answer questions in the correct order.
Please do not write in the margins of the answer book.
Write neatly and do not use tipex.
Question 1
[16]
1.1 What two segments are included under the appendicular skeleton?
2 pairs of limbs & 2 girdles
Pectoral (shoulder) girdle attaches upper limbs
Pelvic (hip) girdle secures lower limbs
(2)
1.2 Discuss how the shoulder joint is structured to allow a maximum amount of
movement, while providing a great amount of stability to the pectoral girdle.
Attach the bones of the upper limbs to the axial skeleton
The joints are freely movable in many directions
Scapulae: triangular, paired, but don’t connect in back (adds thoracic flexibility)
The glenoid cavity is a depression inferior to the acromion.
It articulates with the humerus head to form the shoulder joint.
(6)
1.3 Name the three bones of the pelvic girdle.
Ilium
Ischium
Pubis
(3)
1.4 Differentiate the differences of a male and female pelvis.
Male/female differences:
Large & heavy vs light & delicate
Heart shaped pelvic inlet vs oval
Narrow deep true pelvis vs wide & shallow
Narrow outlet vs wide
Less than 90 degree pubic arch vs more than 90 degree
(5)
Question 2
[30]
2.1 Give a definition for the term ‘articulation’ in the human body.
Body movement occurs at joints (articulations) where 2 bones connect
Point at which two bones join together
(2)
2.2 Describe the three different functional classifications of articulations and explain
how much movement each articulation permits.
Synarthrosis:
– no movement
Amphiarthrosis:
– little movement
Diarthrosis:
– more movement
2.3 Name six types of synovial joints and provide an example of each.
(6)
(12)
Pivot joint
Gliding joint
Hinge joint
Condyloid joint
Ball-and-Socket joint
Saddle joint
2.4 Differentiate between the three different synarthrodial classes of articulations.
Sutures
Thin layer of dense fibrous connective tissue
Unites bones of skull
Syndesmosis
Joints where bones connected by ligaments
i.e. fibula/tibia and radius/ulna
Gomphosis
Conical process fits into socket and is held in place by ligaments
i.e. tooth in alveolus (socket), held in place by peridontal ligament
(6)
2.5 List the rotator cuff muscles of the shoulder.
supraspinatus
infraspinatus
subscapularis
teres minor
(4)
Question 3
[40]
3.1 Describe the characteristics of the three different basic muscle types in the body.
Cardiac muscle tissue
• Makes up myocardium of heart
• Unconsciously (involuntarily) controlled
• Microscopically appears striated
• Cells are short, branching & have a single nucleus
• Cells connect to each other at intercalated discs
(9)
Smooth (visceral) muscle tissue
• Makes up walls of organs & blood vessels
• Tissue is non-striated & involuntary
• Cells are short, spindle-shaped & have a single nucleus
• Tissue is extremely extensible, while still retaining ability to
contract
Skeletal muscle tissue
•
•
•
•
Associated with & attached to the skeleton
Under our conscious (voluntary) control
Microscopically the tissue appears striated
Cells are long, cylindrical & multinucleate
3.2 List the types of parallel muscle fibre arrangement and give an example of each.
Flat (rectus abdominus)
Fusiform (biceps)
Strap (sartorius)
Radiate (trapezius)
Sphincter
(10)
3.3 Differentiate between the characteristics of slow and fast twitch muscle fibres.
(8)
Type 1: Slow Twitch
• Red in colour – have good blood supply.
• Dense network of blood vessels.
• Suited to endurance work.
• Slow to fatigue.
• Contain many mitochondria
to make them more efficient
at producing energy using
oxygen.
Type 2: Fast Twitch
• Contract twice as fast and
are thicker in size.
• Poor blood supply.
• Whiter in appearance:
– due to lack of oxygen.
• Fatigue fairly quickly.
• Suitable for: producing fast,
powerful actions such as
sprinting & lifting heavy weights.
3.4 Explain one example of the relationship between an agonist and antagonist muscles
found in the human body.
E.g:
(3)
3.5 Differentiate between the characteristics of neutralizer and stabilizer muscles.
(4)
Neutralizer:
They are the muscles that neutralize or cancel the undesired action of prime movers.
This is more apparent in two- joint muscles which cross more than one joint and are capable of
performing more than one action which are not needed
therefore, the neutralizers must contract to counteract the undesired movement.
Neutralizers for undesired motion on another joint in case of two joint muscles:
• For example: Contraction of the finger flexors to grasp an object also tend to flex the
wrist. The unwanted wrist flexion is neutralized by wrist extensors.
Stabilizers:
Muscles that surround the proximal joint. They contract and
become firm to allow distal joint to move smoothly.
Their contraction is generally isometric (e.g. the rotator cuff muscles all
contribute their opposing tension to support the humeral head against the
glenoid fossa when the arm is moved away from the body and the hand
reaches for an object).
3.6 Explain the types of muscle contractions with reference to the change in muscle
length during each contraction.
(6)
Concentric contraction
– Length of muscle shortens
– Muscle force is greater than the resistance
Static or Isometric contraction
– No change in muscle length
– Muscle force is equal to the resistance
Eccentric contraction
– Muscle lengthens
– Muscle force is less than the resistance
Question 4
4.1 Complete the table below:
[4]
Name of Muscle
Triceps Brachii
Deltoid
Rectus Femoris
Soleus
Origin
Long head:
Infraglenoid tubercle
of scapula
Short head: Posterior
humerus
Medial head:
Posterior humerus
Insertion
Olecranon process of
ulna
Lateral 1/3 of clavicle
Spine of scapula
Acromion process of
scapula
Anterior inferior
iliac spine
Proximal tibia
Proximal fibula
Deltoid tuberosity
of the humerus
Abducts arm
Flexes arm at shoulder
Rotates arm medially
Patella and tibial
tuberosity
Calcaneus
Extends leg at knee
Flexes thigh at hip
Plantar flexes foot
at ankle
END
TOTAL: 90 Marks
Action
Extends forearm at
elbow