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Transcript
WAHS—Chemistry Unit 4: Atomic Structure 1 Unit
Assignment #1
Complete the Important Chemistry Scientists assignment that will be assigned. Be sure to know
all of the scientists and their important contribution to chemistry for the test.
Assignment #2
1. State the five parts of Dalton’s Atomic Theory.
2. State the law of conservation of mass.
3. Compound Z is made by chemically combining elements X and Y. If only 4 grams of element Y
were used to make 12 grams of compound Z, how many grams of element X were required?
4. According to the law of conservation of mass, if element A has a mass of 2 mass units, and element
B has a mass of 3 mass units, what mass would be expected for compound AB?
5. State the law of definite proportions [composition].
6. A yellow material was decomposed and found to contain 22.0 g of sodium and 26.9 g of sulfur.
Another yellow material was decomposed and foun to contain 11.4 g of sodium and 26.5 g of
sulfur. Using the law of definite proportions, determine if these two compounds are the same
substance.
7. State the law of multiple proportions [composition].
8. Who first proposed the law of multiple proportions ?
Assignment #3
1.
2.
3.
4.
What does the word atomos mean?
What is an atom?
What is the difference between an atom and a molecule?
Describe the composition of the nucleus of the atom.(ie: what subatomic particles are in the
nucleus?)
5. What is the meaning of the term 'atomic number of an element'?
6. What does the mass number of an isotope indicate?
7. Compare/contrast the three types of subatomic particles in terms of:
location in the atom
relative mass
relative charge
protons
neutrons
electrons
8. How did the discovery of subatomic particles and isotopes affect Dalton's theories?
9. Concerning isotopes:
a. How are the isotopes of a particular element a like?
b. How are the isotopes of a particular element different?
10. Carbon–12 and carbon–13 both occur naturally in the earth. How do they differ chemically?
11. How many protons are in the nuclei of the following atoms?
a. Sulfur
b. Hydrogen
c. Phosphorus
d. Cadmium
e. Calcium
12. How do the three isotopes of hydrogen (H–1, H–2, H–3) compare in terms of the numbers of
subatomic particles in each?
13. Write the nuclear symbol for deuterium (H-2):
a. Identify the atomic number
b. Identify the mass number
14. Determine the number of protons, neutrons, and electrons in Co–59.
15. How many protons, neutrons, and electrons are in an atom of Ac–221?
16. How many electrons, neutrons, and protons are in atoms of chlorine with mass number 35?
17. Two isotopes of oxygen are oxygen–16 and oxygen–18. Write the nuclear symbol for each.
18. A particular atom of potassium contains 19 protons, 19 electrons, and 20 neutrons.
a. What is the atomic number of this atom?
b. What is its mass number?
c. Write the nuclear symbol for this potassium nucleus.
19. Yttrium was discovered in 1794. It is one of the elements used in superconductors. How many
electrons, protons, and neutrons are in an atom of yttrium–88?
20. How many neutrons and protons are in each of the following nuclides?
a. carbon–14
b. phosphorus–32
c. nickel–63
d. iridium–192
e. iron–54
f. neptunium–235
21. What is the difference between atomic number and atomic mass?
22. In the development of the relative scale for atomic masses, what atom is used as the standard and
what is its relative mass assignment?
23. What is the basic atomic difference between isotopes of the same element?
Assignment #4
1. Explain why the average atomic masses for most elements are rarely whole numbers.
2. What is the atomic mass of each of the following?
a. Oxygen
b. Aluminum
c. Copper
d. Gold
3. What would the atomic mass of an atom be if its mass is approximately:
a. one–third that of C–12
b. one–half that of C–12
4.
5.
6.
7.
c. 12 times that of C–12
d. 4.5 times as much as C–12
Choose the integer (whole–number) quantities from the following list:
a. atomic number
b. atomic mass
c. mass number
If your chemistry grade is broken down so that 55% of it is based on tests, 25% on labs, 10%
quizzes, and 10% homework, what would your weighted average score be if your averages for each
type of assignment were as follows?
tests=83, labs=94, quizzes= 96, homework= 95
Bromine–79 comprises 50.54% of naturally occurring bromine, and Bromine–81 comprises
49.46%. The mass of Br–79 is 78.9183 amu. The mass of Br–81 is 80.9163. What is the atomic
mass of bromine?
Element X has two naturally occurring isotopes. One isotope has a mass of 35.0 amu and
comprises 75.4% by mass of the element. The other isotope has a mass of 37.0 amu.
a. What is the atomic mass of element X?
b. What is the name of element X?
Assignment #5-Nuclear Chemistry
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
What is nuclear radiation and list the three types. Which has the strongest penetrating power?
What is radioactive decay? How is it different from nuclear radiation?
Define Half Life.
A patient is administered 20 mg of iodone-131. How much of this isotope remains after in the body
after 40 days if the half life of I-131 is 8 days?
What was the original mass of a substance if after 7.5 days 12 grams remains? [the half life of this
substance is 2.5 days.]
Manganese-56 is a beta emitter with a half life of 2.6 hours. What mass of Mn-56 in a 1 mg gram
sample remains after 10.4 hours?
The mass of Cobalt-60 in a sample is found to decrease from 0.8 grams to 0.1 grams in a period of
15.75 years. What is the half life of Co-60 ?
The half life of Pa-234 is 6.75 hrs. How much of a 100 gram sample remains after 27.0 hrs.?
The half life of Rn-222 is 3.823 days. What was the original mass of Rn-222 if 0.0500 grams remains
after 7.646 days?
Assignment #6- Nuclear Chemistry
1. Define fission
2. Define fusion
3. Differentiate between fission and fusion in terms of: where they occur, the energy given off, and the
nuclear waste generated.
4. Define chain reaction.
5. What is Einstein’s equation and what does it each variable stand for?
6. What is the purpose of a nuclear reactor?
7. What are some control methods in place to control the neutrons available for a chain reaction?
Important Chemistry Scientists
Directions: Research the scientists listed below using your book, the Internet and any other resources you
may have. Include for each scientist the information requested. The scientists in bold face are NOT in
your book.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
Democritus:
a. Dates of when he lived
b. Where he was from
c. His ideas/theory
Alchemists:
a. Define alchemy and alchemists
b. How were they important to chemistry
Lavoisier:
a. Dates of when he lived
b. Where he was from
c. Laws—define/explain
d. How was he important to chemistry
John Dalton:
a. Dates of when he lived
b. Where he was from
c. Laws
d. Theory—all 5 parts, which parts were incorrect and why
J. J. Thomson
a. Dates of when he lived
b. Where he was from
c. Explain his cathode ray tube experiment
d. Draw a diagram of the cathode ray tube experiment
e. What did he discover
f. Explain his Plum Pudding Model of an atom and draw it
Millikan:
a. Dates of when he lived
b. Where he was from
c. What did he discover
d. Describe his Oil Drop Experiment and draw a diagram of it
Rutherford:
a. Dates of when he lived
b. Where he was from
c. What did he discover
d. Explain his Gold Foil Experiment and draw a diagram of it
e. Explain his Solar System Model of an atom and draw a diagram of it (this may not be in
your book)
ISOTOPES are variations of elements that have the same number of ____________ and ______________, but
differ in their number of ______________, which effects the atomic _________________number. FILL IN CHART:
Isotope
Atomic Number
Mass Number
Protons
Neutrons
Electrons
Si-28
Si-29
Si-30
Ca-41
Calcium-43
Lead-211
Plutonium-242
Chromium-50
34
S
16
65
Cu
29
108
Ag
85
Kr
52
234
6
144
13
6
18
11
8
8
12
38