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Complete the Guided Reading as you view the Power
Point.
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Objective 6.01: Examine the factors that led to the
United States taking an increasingly active role in world
affairs.
Essential Questions:
• How did the government’s role in economic and political
affairs change as America became more imperialistic?
• To what extent did industrialization affect the
relationships between government, business, and the worker?
• How did technological advancement lead to the United
States’ increased involvement in world affairs?
• To what extent was the government’s changing role
necessary and beneficial as America became more
imperialistic?
The United
States Looks
Outward
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Imperialism: when a country expands beyond its
own borders and takes control of other territories
Spheres of Influence: territories over which a
nations takes control
Around the end of the 1800’s (19th Century) many
people believed in imperialism in the United States
Why is it important?
◦ Most people believed this for economic reasons
◦ Most business leaders and politicians believed expansion
would open more opportunities for economic markets and
the potential for economic growth (thought we could make
money)
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Mercantilism: the belief that a country could
keep a favorable balance of trade by acquiring
foreign territories
Favorable Balance of Trade: when a country
has more exports than imports
Many people supported the theory of
mercantilism
They believed the more land and natural
resources the United States owned the less it
would have to rely on imports, and could
produce our own products
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Many people also believed the United States
needed to expand its territory to maintain our
security
Alfred T. Mahan wrote the book “The
Influence of Sea Power Upon History”
The book convinced many people that in order
to be secure the United States should build a
powerful navy
Within 10 years the United States had one of
the world’s most powerful navies
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Many people believed that the United States was
great due to the “pioneer spirit” of the early
settlers who were brave enough to explore and
settle new territory in the West
Many thought to continue to be great the United
States should continue to expand its borders with
new territory
Frederick Jackson Turner gave a famous speech in
1893 proclaiming that the frontier had played a
vital role in forming the American character and
expansion was essential to maintain the U.S. spirit
and keep American strong
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Some people used the belief in Manifest Destiny
to support their ideas of U.S. expansion
They saw it as the responsibility and destiny of the
United States to civilize and take democracy to
the rest of the world
Just as many business leaders used Social
Darwinism to justify laissez-faire capitalism, many
people used it to justify U.S. imperialism
Social Darwinism: survival of the fittest
Many in the U.S. thought it was the role of white
Americans to control “inferior” races and nations
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Anglo Saxon Superiority: the idea that English speaking
white people are biologically superior to other races
Josiah Strong believed in Anglo-Saxon superiority and
believed that expansion was noble and the nation’s destiny
British writer Rudyard Kipling wrote the poem “The
White Man’s Burden” in response to the United States’
conquest of the Philippines in the Spanish-American War
Why is it important?
Some thought the poem was a warning for the U.S. about
the cost of imperialism
Others thought the poem supported the belief that white
westerners have a moral obligation to “civilize” and “help
lesser people”
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Objective 6.02: Identify the areas of the
United States military, economic, and political
involvement and influence.
Essential Questions:
• How did America and the world change as the US
increased its role in world affairs?
• To what extent have the effects of US actions
and policies been beneficial or detrimental to other
countries?
• Why did the United States take an active role in
world affairs in the late 19th and early 20th
century?
Areas of
U.S.
Involvement
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1867 Secretary of State William Seward
negotiated the purchase of Alaska from Russia
Many thought the territory was useless
They called the purchase “Seward’s Folly”
Seward didn’t care because he knew Alaska was
rich in natural resources and full of economic
potential for the United States
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In the 1850’s U.S. business leaders began to invest in
sugar plantations in Hawaii
Over time the business leaders gained economic control
over the Hawaiian islands and fought for power with
the Hawaiian monarchy
1893 wealthy white plantation owners rebelled against
Queen Liliuokalani because she opposed their control
Why is it important?
The United States sent in troops to support the
business leaders and helped overthrow the Hawaiian
Queen
1898 the United States annexed Hawaii and made it a
U.S. territory
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In the late 1800’s the island of Cuba was still
under Spanish control
1895 the Cuban people rebelled and Spain sent
150,000 troops to Cuba to restore order
The Spanish relocated thousands of Cuban
citizens into concentration camps
These camps had terrible conditions and many
Cubans died
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Two U.S. newspaper publishers named William
Randolph Hurst and Joseph Pulitzer began
printing stories about the Spanish abuses on the
Cuban people
Unfortunately they were more interested in selling
newspapers that reporting the truth
Their brand of journalism became known as yellow
journalism- meant to spark emotions, not focused
on the truth
Why is it important?
◦ People called for tougher position against Spain and a more
aggressive foreign policy
◦ Jingoism: the belief that the U.S. should take a more
aggressive foreign policy stance
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Theodore Roosevelt, Assistant Secretary of
the Navy, called for war with Spain and a
tougher foreign policy
When the U.S. went to war with Spain
Roosevelt became a Lieutenant Colonel and
commanded a group of volunteers called the
Rough Riders
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February 15, 1898- A U.S. battleship, the USS
Maine, exploded while anchored in a Cuban
harbor
Newspapers blamed Spain and U.S. citizens
called for war with Spain
Later it was determined that the explosion was
an accident
Congress declared war on Spain in April 1898
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Immediately U.S. Commodore George Dewey set sail
for the Spanish colony of the Philippines
Dewey destroyed the Spanish fleet of ships in the
Philippines
Dewey took control of the Philippine Islands
In Cuba, Roosevelt led the Rough Riders in bold
charges up Kettle Hill and San Juan Hill
Why is it important?
They became the most famous battles of the war
The victories in those battles helped the U.S. defeat
the Spain
The U.S. defeated Spain in Cuba and the Philippines in
less than 3 months
It was referred to as “a splendid little war”
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Spanish-American War ended with the signing
of the Treaty of Paris 1898
The Treaty of Paris contained the Teller
Amendment that stated the U.S. would allow
for Cuban independence by not annexing Cuba
President William McKinley sent our military to
Cuba to help restore stability and protect our
business interests
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1900 Cuba began to write their own
constitution
Why is it important?
◦ the U.S. insisted it include the Platt Amendment to
limit what the Cuban government could do
 Gave the U.S. two naval bases in Cuba
 Allowed the U.S. to get involved in the region whenever
we felt it was necessary
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As a result of the Spanish-American war the
U.S. gained the territories of the Philippines,
Puerto Rico, and Guam
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The Philippines caused a lot of controversy during
the Spanish-American War
People understood our involvement in Cuba because
it is so close to America
People did not understand our involvement in the
Philippines because they felt is was so far away and
didn’t have anything to do with the Caribbean
People opposed to taking over the Philippines felt it
went against democracy and might get us involved
in future wars in the Pacific Ocean region
Anti-Imperialist League- opposed U.S. expansionfinanced by Andrew Carnegie
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Roosevelt and others saw the Philippines as important
to protect U.S. economic interest in Southeast Asia
Emilio Aguinaldo led Filipinos in a movement against
U.S. occupation
Why is it important?
Filipinos used guerilla warfare- when a weaker army
strikes quickly causing damage before the stronger
army can fight back
Fought for more than two years and resulted in both
sides committing massacres, violent killing and tortures
that were unnecessary against civilians
The U.S. won in 1901- and made the Philippines an
unorganized territory of the U.S. in 1902
1946- Philippines became an independent nation
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1901- President William McKinley was assassinated and
Theodore Roosevelt became president
Roosevelt wanted to build a canal across Panama to allow
U.S. ships to move more quickly between the Atlantic and
Pacific Oceans
Ships would no longer have to go around South America to
travel
The Columbian government refused to sell the land
necessary to build the project
Why is it important?
1903 Panama revolted against Columbia
Roosevelt sent support and helped Panama win
In return- Panama allowed the U.S. to lease the land to build
the Panama Canal
The Panama Canal was completed in 1914
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Mexico was fighting a civil war
1914 the U.S. helped Venustiano Carranza take over
the Mexican government
1916 Venustiano Carranza’s enemy, Poncho Villa,
crossed the Rio Grande and killed 19 people in
New Mexico
President Wilson sent General John Pershing and
15,000 soldiers to take Poncho Villa dead or alive
U.S. troops went 300 miles into Mexico and almost
caused a war
Eventually World War I began and our troops were
recalled
The Poncho Villa raids were never avenged
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Objective 6.03: Describe how the policies and
actions of the United States government
impacted the affairs of other countries.
Essential Questions:
• To what extent have the actions and policies of
the US affected other countries in the world?
• How has the media shaped US foreign policy?
• As the US becomes increasingly involved in world
affairs, should its self-perception be impacted by
world opinion.
• How intrusive should a nation be in the affairs of
another?
U.S. Impact on
Other Countries
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By 1900’s the U.S. was becoming a major player
in world affairs
President Roosevelt issued the Roosevelt
Corollary- expanded on the Monroe Doctrine
that said the U.S. would not allow European
nations to colonize newly independent nations in
the western hemisphere, nor would the U.S.
interfere in those same nations
Roosevelt Corollary said the U.S. had a right
to intervene in the western hemisphere if a
nation had trouble paying its debts
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Why is it important?
◦ The policy led to increased U.S. involvement in the
Caribbean and Latin America
◦ The increased involvement was known as Roosevelt’s
big stick diplomacy
 From an African proverb that said “speak softly and
carry a big stick; you will go far”
 It meant the U.S. wouldn’t cause any problems in the
region but we wouldn’t be bullied either
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After Roosevelt, William Taft became president
Taft promoted a policy known as Dollar Diplomacy“substitute money for bullets”- the U.S. could
maintain order in other nations by increasing U.S.
foreign investments
Taft encouraged U.S. bankers to invest in Latin
America and the Caribbean and gave money to
China to help them build railroads
Bad News: Taft’s policy sometimes meant the U.S.
lost money, and it angered some Latin American
people who opposed U.S. involvement in their
countries and they resented the U.S. for trying to
“buy influence”
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1913 Woodrow Wilson became president and
ended Dollar Diplomacy
Wilson began Missionary (moral) Diplomacy:
belief that it was the role of the U.S. to
promote democracy and moral progress in the
world
Wilson opposed imperialism and stated the
U.S. would not “…seek one additional foot of
territory by conquest.”
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Wilson's beliefs were put to the test by
revolutions and assassinations in Haiti
Wilson sent troops to protect U.S. property
and banking interests
Haiti responded to U.S. troops violently
because they were afraid we were going to try
to make them a U.S. territory
It ended when Haiti signed a treaty that made
Haiti a protectorate of the U.S., not a
territory
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After the Spanish-American War, the U.S. owned
territory all over the area of the Pacific Ocean
Trade with China became a concern in the 20th
Century because we were afraid European Imperial
powers would try to gain control over Chinese
exports and markets
To prevent this from having an impact on the U.S.
our government insisted on an Open Door Policy
with China
Open Door Policy: would leave China open to the
U.S. and some other nations for trade and
commerce
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Why is it important?
◦ Some Chinese nationalists (aka- Boxers) wanted to
end foreign influence in China
◦ Boxer Rebellion: Chinese nationalists massacred 300
foreigners and Chinese Christians in 1900
◦ The U.S. and other imperial powers sent troops to
stop the rebellion
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The U.S. kept its Open Door Policy to prevent
other imperialist nations from taking Chinese
territory
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Looking to Foreign Lands
Rebellion and Revolt 1898-1900