Download Superior Vena Cava Syndrome

Survey
yes no Was this document useful for you?
   Thank you for your participation!

* Your assessment is very important for improving the work of artificial intelligence, which forms the content of this project

Document related concepts
no text concepts found
Transcript
This material is protected by U.S. copyright law. Unauthorized reproduction is prohibited. To purchase quantity reprints,
please e-mail [email protected] or to request permission to reproduce multiple copies, please e-mail [email protected]
Downloaded on 04 29 2017. Single-user license only. Copyright 2017 by the Oncology Nursing Society. For permission to post online, reprint, adapt, or reuse, please email [email protected]
ONLINE EXCLUSIVE • CONTINUING EDUCATION
Superior Vena Cava Syndrome
Jo Ann Flounders, MSN, CRNP, APRN, BC, OCN®, CHPN
Goal for CE Enrollees:
To further enhance nurses’ knowledge regarding superior
vena cava syndrome (SVCS).
Objectives for CE Enrollees:
On completion of this CE, the participant will be able to
1. Describe the etiology of SVCS.
2. Discuss the clinical manifestations and medical management of patients with SVCS.
3. Discuss the nursing implications in the care of patients
with SVCS.
uperior vena cava syndrome (SVCS) describes a clinical scenario that occurs when a mechanical obstruction
occludes the superior vena cava. Obstruction may be the
result of extraluminal compression by a tumor or enlarged
lymph nodes or intraluminal obstruction by thrombosis or tumor (Smeltzer & Bare, 1996; Uaje, Kahsen, & Parish, 1996).
The result of the compression or obstruction of the superior
vena cava is blocked venous drainage that, in turn, causes
pleural effusions and edema of the face, arm, and trachea.
With severe superior vena cava obstruction, altered consciousness and focal neurologic signs caused by cerebral edema and
impaired cardiac filling can occur (DeMichele & Glick,
2001).
S
Etiology
The most common cause of SVCS is malignant disease
(Aurora, Milite, & Vander Els, 2000; DeMichele & Glick,
2001; Dietz & Flaherty, 1993; Schafer, 1997; Yahalom,
1993). The risk of developing SVCS for patients with cancer
corresponds to the etiologic factors that cause SVCS. SVCS
occurs most frequently in men aged 50–70 years who have
primary or metastatic tumors of the mediastinum (Haapoja &
Blendowski, 1999). Advanced lung cancer, specifically small
cell carcinoma of the lung and, less frequently, non-small cell
lung cancer (e.g., squamous cell carcinoma, adeno carcinoma), causes more than 75% of malignant superior vena
cava obstructions. Higher risk of SVCS occurs with rightsided lung carcinomas because of anatomic proximity to the
superior vena cava. Non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma involving the
mediastinum, usually with right-sided perihilar lymphadenopathy, also is a cause of SVCS (Haapoja & Blendowski).
However, Hodgkin’s lymphoma rarely causes SVCS, although it does involve the mediastinum (Yahalom). Mediastinal metastases, which are more common in breast carcinoma, as well as Kaposi’s sarcoma, thymoma, fibrous
mesothelioma, and germ cell neoplasms commonly are associated with SVCS (Chen, Bongard, & Klein, 1990; Haapoja &
Blendowski; Yahalom) (see Figure 1).
Nonmalignant causes of SVCS include granulomatous infections secondary to tuberculosis, goiter, aortic aneurysms,
and histoplasmosis-related mediastinal fibrosis (Aurora et al.,
2000; Haapoja & Blendowski, 1999; Yahalom, 1993). Iatrogenic causes of SVCS include venous thrombosis as a consequence of central venous catheters or pacemaker catheters and
fibrosis caused by radiation therapy of the mediastinum (Yahalom).
Physiology
The superior vena cava is located in the mid-third of the right
anterior superior mediastinum behind the sternum (Haapoja &
Blendowski, 1999; Smeltzer & Bare, 1996). The venous drainage from the head, neck, upper extremities, and upper thorax
collects in the superior vena cava en route to the right atrium
(Haapoja & Blendowski). A number of veins drain into the
superior vena cava (Martini, 1998) (see Figure 2).
1. The cephalic vein joins the axillary vein, exits the arm, and
forms the subclavian vein at the level of the lateral surface
of the first rib.
2. The subclavian vein, which is located superior to the first
rib and along the superior margin of the clavicle, meets the
internal and external jugular veins of the same side of the
body.
3. This fusion creates the brachiocephalic or innominate vein,
which receives blood from the vertebral vein of the skull
and spinal cord and from the internal thoracic vein.
4. The brachiocephalic veins from each side of the body join
at the level of the first and second ribs to create the superior vena cava, which terminates in the right atrium.
Jo Ann Flounders, MSN, CRNP, APRN, BC, OCN ®, CHPN, is a
nurse practitioner at Consultants in Medical Oncology and Hematology in Drexel Hill, PA.
Digital Object Identifier: 10.1188/03.ONF.E84-E90
ONCOLOGY NURSING FORUM – VOL 30, NO 4, 2003
E84
1. Patients with small cell lung cancer or, less frequently, non-small cell lung
carcinoma (e.g., squamous cell carcinoma) and those with right lung involvement
2. Patients with non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma
3. Male patients aged 50–70 years who have primary or metastatic tumors of
the mediastinum
4. Patients with breast carcinoma and mediastinal metastasis, Kaposi’s sarcoma with mediastinal involvement, thymoma, fibrous mesothelioma, and
germ cell neoplasms
5. Patients with central venous catheters and pacemaker catheters
6. Patients who have received previous radiation therapy to the mediastinum
7. Patients with cancer who have comorbid conditions such as tuberculosis,
histoplasmosis, or aortic aneurysm
Figure 1. Patients With Cancer at Increased Risk for
Superior Vena Cava Syndrome
SVCS is a result of impaired venous drainage when the superior vena cava is compressed extra- or intraluminally, causing venous hypertension and congestion of the veins draining
into the superior vena cava from the head, neck, upper extremities, and upper thorax (Dietz & Flaherty, 1993; Haapoja &
Blendowski, 1999; Schafer, 1997). Several factors cause the
vulnerability of the superior vena cava to compression. The
superior vena cava is located inside the rigid walls of the thoracic cavity along with the heart, lungs, esophagus, trachea,
aorta, pulmonary artery, and lymph nodes. The superior vena
cava is surrounded by inflexible structures, such as the sternum,
ribs, vertebral bodies, and aorta, with its high intravascular
pressure. The right main bronchus is located very close to the
superior vena cava. Because the superior vena cava is a thinwalled blood vessel with low intravascular pressure enclosed
in a tight compartment, it can be compressed easily because the
chest has no room for expansion (Dietz & Flaherty).
Extraluminal compression of the superior vena cava by tumors or enlarged lymph nodes can occur acutely or gradually.
Obstruction can be complete or partial, and collateral venous
drainage may develop. Intraluminal obstruction of the superior vena cava can be caused by infiltration by tumor, although
thrombosis is the more common cause. Acute and complete
obstruction of the superior vena cava is caused more often by
thrombosis than by compression or infiltration by tumor
(Baker & Barnes, 1992; Haapoja & Blendowski, 1999). Risk
factors for the formation of thrombus in the superior vena cava
include a hypercoagulable state in patients with malignancy,
External jugular
Internal jugular
Right
innominate
Superior
vena cava
Left
innominate
Subclavian
Cephalic
Axillary
Basilic
Figure 2. Venous Circulation Including the Superior Vena
Cava
damage to the intima of the superior vena cava from central
venous catheters, and venous stasis from extraluminal compression (Haapoja & Blendowski).
The development of SVCS is dependent on several factors,
including the growth rate of the tumor, extent and location of
the blockage, patency of the azygos vein, and ability to develop collateral circulation (Schafer, 1997). Collateral circulation bypasses the site of obstruction and redirects blood flow
from the upper thoracic venous system and the obstructed
superior vena cava to the inferior vena cava en route to the
right atrium. Blood flow is redirected to the azygos vein, internal mammary veins, thoracic venous system, and vertebral
veins (Haapoja & Blendowski, 1999). Subcutaneous veins
also are important alternative pathways that improve circulation when the superior vena cava is fully or partially obstructed (Yahalom, 1993).
The most important alternative pathway is the azygos
venous system (Yahalom, 1993). The azygos vein is a major
tributary of the superior vena cava and joins it at the level of
the second thoracic vertebra (Martini, 1998). Impaired venous
drainage above the level of the azygos vein causes less venous
pressure and less pronounced SVCS because the venous return from the upper body can be redirected from the subclavian vein to the azygos vein, proximal vena cava, and right
atrium (Haapoja & Blendowski, 1999; Schafer, 1997). Impaired venous drainage below the azygos vein is a more complex problem and causes more symptoms because the shunted
blood must return to the right atrium by way of the upper abdominal veins and the inferior vena cava, which requires
higher venous pressure. When venous circulation through the
superior vena cava is impaired, venous hypertension, venous
stasis, and decreased cardiac output result. If untreated, these
will progress to thrombosis, laryngeal and cerebral edema,
stupor, coma, pulmonary complications, and death (Schafer).
Clinical Manifestations
Symptoms
The development of clinical manifestations of SVCS depends on the amount of venous hypertension, the delay in circulation time, the development of collateral pathways of circulation, and the clinical signs and symptoms of the underlying
causative pathophysiologic process (Baker & Barnes, 1992;
Uaje et al., 1996). Also important is the degree and rapidity of
obstruction of the superior vena cava (Haapoja & Blendowski,
1999; Schafer, 1997; Yahalom, 1993). If onset of SVCS is
gradual, symptoms may be subtle (e.g., facial, neck, or arm
swelling upon arising in the morning because of venous engorgement). Patients may have difficulty removing rings from
fingers. Patients often notice increased symptoms in the morning after sleeping in a supine position or with position changes
such as bending forward or stooping. Rapid onset of SVCS,
in the absence of collateral circulation, will cause a more dramatic and life-threatening presentation, often with neurologic
and respiratory sequelae resulting from cerebral and laryngeal
edema.
In addition to swelling of the face, arms, fingers, or neck,
patients may notice the following early symptoms of SVCS
(Haapoja & Blendowski, 1999; Hunter, 1998; Yahalom, 1993).
• Dyspnea, which is the most common symptom, and nonproductive cough
ONCOLOGY NURSING FORUM – VOL 30, NO 4, 2003
E85
• Feeling of fullness of the head
• Difficulty buttoning shirt collars (Stoke’s sign); women
also may experience breast swelling
• Dysphagia and hoarseness
• Chest pain
Late symptoms of SVCS include
• Life-threatening symptoms of respiratory distress, such as
orthopnea
• Headache, visual disturbances, dizziness, and syncope
• Lethargy, irritability, and mental status changes.
Physical Examination
After consideration of risk factors and a review of symptoms indicative of SVCS, a physical examination must be
completed. Early physical signs of SVCS include (Haapoja &
Blendowski, 1999; Hunter, 1998; Yahalom, 1993)
• Edema of the face, neck, upper thorax, breasts, and upper
extremities
• Prominent venous pattern (i.e., dilated veins of face, neck,
and thorax)
• Jugular vein distention
• Periorbital edema and redness and edema of conjunctivae
• Facial plethora (ruddy complexion of face or cheeks)
• Compensatory tachycardia.
Late signs of SVCS include
• Cyanosis of the face or upper torso
• Engorged conjunctivae
• Mental status changes
• Tachypnea, orthopnea, stridor, and respiratory distress
• Stupor, coma, seizures, and death.
Diagnostic Studies
Accurate, definitive histologic diagnosis is necessary to provide appropriate treatment of SVCS because the modality of
treatment usually is based on the histologic diagnosis of the
underlying malignancy (Yahalom, 1993). However, the
choice of diagnostic procedures with suspected SVCS depends on patients’ status. On rare occasions, patients will
present with life-threatening clinical manifestations of SVCS
that warrant immediate treatment (Baker & Barnes, 1992;
DeMichele & Glick, 2001; Dietz & Flaherty, 1993). Emergency treatment without histologic diagnosis is reserved for
patients who demonstrate brain edema with mental status
changes, decreased cardiac output with hemodynamic compromise, or laryngeal edema with respiratory compromise and
impending loss of airway (DeMichele & Glick). Therefore, if
the development of SVCS is rapid with acute respiratory and
neurologic symptoms, treatment (e.g., radiation therapy) may
be started immediately before a definitive tissue diagnosis is
obtained. Tissue diagnosis and a complete workup for metastasis then can proceed during treatment (Schafer, 1997).
However, if the development of SVCS is gradual, as occurs
more commonly, the diagnostic workup should be completed
first to confirm a definitive diagnosis before treatment is initiated. Appropriate workup for epidural extension of malignant disease (magnetic resonance imaging [MRI] of the spine)
or pericardial involvement (echocardiogram) should be completed as necessary.
The preferred diagnostic tools to confirm the diagnosis of
SVCS are chest computed tomography (CT) scan with IV
contrast and chest MRI scan (Chen et al., 1990; DeMichele &
Glick, 2001; Haapoja & Blendowski, 1999). CT and MRI
scans are noninvasive, accurate in distinguishing between tumor mass or thrombosis as causes of SVCS, and able to document the extent and the location of involvement. Chest x-ray
films also may be obtained. Chest x-ray results that are associated with SVCS include a lung or mediastinal mass, pleural
effusion, and superior mediastinal widening (Hunter, 1998;
Yahalom, 1993). In SVCS, lung masses frequently are seen on
the right on chest x-ray films because the superior vena cava
enters from the right (Schafer, 1997).
The least invasive technique should be used to obtain a biopsy or cytology specimen if necessary to confirm histologic
diagnosis of the underlying malignancy. Collection of sputum
for cytology is useful when bronchogenic carcinoma is suspected. Biopsy of a palpable lymph node is a useful, low-risk
diagnostic test (Schafer, 1997). Bronchoscopy with brushings,
mediastinoscopy, or biopsy of a supraclavicular node can provide specimens for accurate tissue diagnosis (DeMichele &
Glick, 2001; Haapoja & Blendowski, 1999; Yahalom, 1993).
However, a risk of bleeding exists with these invasive procedures because of the increased venous pressure in the head
and neck. A thoracentesis should be performed if increased
pleural fluid is present (Aurora et al., 2000). Bone marrow
biopsy may be useful when small cell carcinoma of the lung
or non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma is suspected because these malignancies often involve the bone marrow. A bone marrow
biopsy may reduce the need for a pulmonary procedure at a
time when bleeding is a possible risk factor (Yahalom).
Medical Management
The four main treatment modalities for SVCS are radiation
therapy, chemotherapy, pharmacologic therapy, and surgery.
In patients with cancer, treatment depends on the causative
factors of SVCS, severity of the symptoms, underlying malignancy, patient’s prognosis, and presence of thrombosis (Haapoja & Blendowski, 1999). Treatment is based on the histologic diagnosis of the primary tumor (Hunter, 1998), the rate
of onset, and the type of obstruction, either intra- or extraluminal (Schafer, 1997). Goals of treatment include relief of
the obstruction and symptoms. The goal of treatment is cure
when the primary disease is small cell lung cancer, nonHodgkin’s lymphoma, or a germ cell tumor.
Radiation therapy is the primary treatment modality for
patients with SVCS caused by non-small cell lung cancer and
has been advocated for most patients with SVCS caused by
any malignancy (Haapoja & Blendowski, 1999; Hunter, 1998;
Knopp, 1997; Schafer, 1997; Yahalom, 1993). Emergency radiotherapy treatment is started immediately without histologic
diagnosis only when patients present with acute, life-threatening symptoms (Schafer). In most situations, however, a tissue
or cytologic diagnosis should be made before radiation treatment is started (Knopp). The treatment field should include
the tumor with appropriate margins and the mediastinal and
hilar lymph nodes (DeMichele & Glick, 2001; Knopp; Yahalom). Patients with non-small cell lung cancer with mediastinal adenopathy and without distant metastases usually have
the supraclavicular nodes included in the radiation treatment
field.
Daily radiotherapy doses for patients with SVCS are usually 300–400 cGy for the first two to four days in hopes of
obtaining expedient symptom relief, followed by daily dose
fractions of 180–200 cGy (Knopp, 1997; Schafer, 1997;
ONCOLOGY NURSING FORUM – VOL 30, NO 4, 2003
E86
Yahalom, 1993). The total dose of radiation is determined by
the histologic diagnosis and the extent of disease (Knopp).
Many patients demonstrate clinical improvement before objective signs of tumor reduction are noted on chest x-rays
(DeMichele & Glick, 2001). Symptom relief occurs within
three weeks in 85%–90% of patients (Knopp), and many notice improvement in symptoms within three to four days of
initiating radiotherapy (Haapoja & Blendowski, 1999). Symptomatic improvement is a result of the improved flow of blood
through the superior vena cava, as well as the development of
collateral pathways of venous blood flow after the increased
pressure in the mediastinum is relieved (Ahmann, 1984; Yahalom).
The side effects of radiation therapy are related to the tissues included in the radiation field, the length and dose of
radiotherapy, and the status of the patient (Sitton, 1998). Potential side effects include skin changes, fatigue, dyspnea,
cough, pneumonitis, anorexia, pharyngitis, esophagitis, leukopenia, and anemia (Haapoja & Blendowski, 1999; Knopp,
1997; Sitton).
Chemotherapy provides local and systemic treatment of
neoplastic disease and is used to treat highly chemosensitive
malignancies such as small cell lung cancer and lymphoma
(Haapoja & Blendowski, 1999; Schafer, 1997; Yahalom,
1993). Chemotherapy is the treatment of choice for patients
who previously have received the maximum dose of mediastinal radiation therapy (Dietz & Flaherty, 1993; Hunter, 1998).
Treatment for small cell lung cancer includes platinumbased chemotherapy regimens such as cisplatin or carboplatin
with etoposide. Cyclophosphamide-based regimens, such as
cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, and vincristine, also may be
used (Haapoja & Blendowski, 1999; Thomas, Williams, Cobos, & Turrisi, 2001). Chemotherapeutic treatment for nonHodgkin’s lymphoma is based on the stage and histologic type
of lymphoma. Possible chemotherapies include single-agent
drugs, such as cyclophosphamide or fludarabine, as well as
combinations of drugs such as cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, and prednisone (Cheson, 2001). Relief of
symptoms of SVCS often occurs within 7–14 days in most patients with malignancy-induced SVCS treated with chemotherapy (Haapoja & Blendowski; Yahalom, 1993). Multimodality therapy with chemotherapy in combination with
radiation therapy may be used.
Pharmacologic treatment of SVCS includes steroids, diuretics, and thrombolytic therapy (Hunter, 1998). Medical
management of SVCS with corticosteroids and diuretics alone
may be used when patients demonstrate minimal symptoms
and have adequate collateral venous blood flow (Aurora et al.,
2000; Haapoja & Blendowski, 1999). The goal of treatment
with diuretics and corticosteroids is reduction in edema and
inflammation; however, the benefit of the use of corticosteroids and diuretics is controversial (Escalante, 1993; Haapoja
& Blendowski; Yahalom, 1993). A potential side effect of
diuretic therapy is hypovolemic shock caused by decreased
vascular volume with diuresis and the resultant low venous
return to the heart (Schafer, 1997).
Thrombolytic therapy may be used when SVCS is caused
by catheter-induced intraluminal thrombosis. Thrombolytic
therapy or tissue plasminogen activators are used to treat catheter-induced thrombosis and can effectively lyse clots
(Greenberg, Kosinski, & Daniels, 1991; Haapoja & Blendowski, 1999; Ingle, 1997). Treatment with thrombolytics
should be initiated within five to seven days of the onset of
symptoms for maximum effectiveness (Aurora et al., 2000;
Stewart, 1996). Catheter removal may be necessary.
Anticoagulants may be used to help relieve venous obstruction by preventing thrombus formation when SVCS is caused
by a tumor. However, pharmacologic management of SVCS
with anticoagulant therapy is controversial (DeMichele &
Glick, 2001; Nomori, Nara, Morinaga, & Soejima, 1998). The
risk of hemorrhage with anticoagulant therapy must be
weighed against the possible benefits. One potential preventive measure for catheter-induced thrombosis is prophylactic
administration of 1 mg per day of warfarin (Bern et al., 1990;
Haapoja & Blendowski, 1999).
Surgical intervention for SVCS includes stent placement or
superior vena cava bypass and is used occasionally when
SVCS is chronic or recurrent (Ingle, 1997; Schafer, 1997).
Surgical intervention in patients with malignancy-induced
SVCS should be reserved for patients who have failed other
therapeutic treatments such as radiation therapy and chemotherapy. Surgery to relieve the obstruction may be beneficial
in patients with retrosternal goiter or aortic aneurysm (Yahalom, 1993).
Nursing Care
Recognition of early signs of SVCS can allow treatment before life-threatening symptoms of respiratory and neurologic
distress occur. Early detection of SVCS will allow time for accurate histologic diagnosis in patients with an undiagnosed
malignancy or an unknown etiology of SVCS. Accurate diagnosis is necessary so that prompt and successful treatment of
the underlying causative malignancy may be initiated. Nurses
frequently are able to perceive subtle changes in the status of
patients and should complete accurate and thorough ongoing
assessment of cardiopulmonary status to identify early abnormal changes. For example, the inability to button shirts or
complete activities of daily living because of dyspnea can be
important early changes in patient status. In fact, nurses
should assume a proactive role and ask patients who are at risk
for SVCS if they are experiencing any of these symptoms.
Nursing assessment includes strict monitoring of vital signs,
level of consciousness, edema, tissue perfusion, respiratory
status, functional status, and level of endurance of physical
activity. Fluid and electrolyte balance should be monitored
because overhydration may exacerbate the symptoms of
SVCS (Haapoja & Blendowski, 1999; Uaje et al., 1996). In
addition, diuretics may be used to decrease edema, necessitating attention to fluid and electrolyte balance.
Nursing interventions in patients with SVCS include measures to relieve dyspnea, such as elevating the head of the bed
and providing oxygen (Haapoja & Blendowski, 1999; Hunter,
1998). Maintenance of IV access is challenging because
venipunctures and IV fluid administration should be avoided
in the upper extremities. Therefore, central venous access devices are necessary and require expert nursing management.
Nurses should ensure that blood pressure measurement is
avoided in the upper extremities. Assessment of patients for
side effects of SVCS treatment is a primary nursing responsibility so that prompt intervention can be initiated. Potential
side effects of radiation therapy include skin changes (e.g.,
erythema, dry or moist desquamation), fatigue, dyspnea,
pneumonitis, dysphagia, pharyngitis, esophagitis, leukopenia,
ONCOLOGY NURSING FORUM – VOL 30, NO 4, 2003
E87
and anemia. Potential side effects of chemotherapy include
stomatitis, nausea, vomiting, fatigue, leukopenia, anemia, and
thrombocytopenia. Therefore, nursing care of patients with
SVCS undergoing radiation therapy and chemotherapy includes monitoring blood counts to detect bone marrow suppression (Haapoja & Blendowski). Nurses should provide instructions to the patient and family regarding self-care
measures to prevent complications, such as notifying a physician when the patient’s temperature is greater than 100.5°F
or providing saline mouth rinses several times a day. If patients are treated with anticoagulant therapy, bleeding precautions should be emphasized with patients and caregivers.
Nurses should assess for side effects of corticosteroids, such
as weakness of involuntary muscles, mood swings, dyspepsia,
insomnia, or hyperglycemia (Hunter). Postoperative assess-
ment and interventions to prevent complications are necessary
for patients who have been treated with surgical intervention.
Nurses should assess patients and caregivers for ineffective
coping, depression, and anxiety and provide interventions to
improve coping abilities. Assessment of pain and interventions to relieve pain should be ongoing. Discharge planning
should include consideration of referral for homecare or hospice services as needed.
The author would like to thank John Sprandio, MD, of Consultants in Medical Oncology and Hematology in Drexel Hill, PA, for reviewing this manuscript.
Author Contact: Jo Ann Flounders, MSN, CRNP, APRN, BC,
OCN®, CHPN, can be reached at [email protected], with
copy to editor at [email protected]
References
Ahmann, F. (1984). A reassessment of the clinical applications of the superior vena cava syndrome. Journal of Clinical Oncology, 2, 961–969.
Aurora, R., Milite, F., & Vander Els, N. (2000). Respiratory emergencies.
Seminars in Oncology, 27, 256–269.
Baker, G. & Barnes, H. (1992). Superior vena cava syndrome: Etiology, diagnosis, and treatment. American Journal of Critical Care, 1, 54–64.
Bern, M., Lokich, J., Wallach, S., Bothe, A., Benotti, P., Arkin, C., et al.
(1990). Very low dose of warfarin can prevent thrombosis in central
venous catheters. Annals of Internal Medicine, 112, 423–428.
Chen, J., Bongard, F., & Klein, S. (1990). A contemporary perspective on
superior vena cava syndrome. American Journal of Surgery, 160, 207–211.
Cheson, B. (2001). Hodgkin’s disease and the non-Hodgkin’s lymphomas. In
R. Lenhard, R. Osteen, & T. Gansler (Eds.), Clinical oncology (pp. 497–
516). Atlanta, GA: American Cancer Society.
DeMichele, A., & Glick, J. (2001). Cancer-related emergencies. In R. Lenhard, R. Osteen, & T. Gansler (Eds.), Clinical oncology (pp. 733–764).
Atlanta, GA: American Cancer Society.
Dietz, K., & Flaherty, A. (1993). Oncologic emergencies. In S. Groenwald,
M. Frogge, M. Goodman, & C. Yarbro (Eds.), Cancer nursing principles
and practice (3rd ed., pp. 800–839). Boston: Jones and Bartlett.
Escalante, C. (1993). Causes and management of superior vena cava syndrome. Oncology, 7(6), 61–68.
Greenberg, S., Kosinski, R., & Daniels, J. (1991). Treatment of superior vena
cava thrombosis with recombinant tissue type plasminogen activator.
Chest, 99, 1298–1301.
Haapoja, I., & Blendowski, C. (1999). Superior vena cava syndrome. Seminars in Oncology Nursing, 15, 183–189.
Hunter, J. (1998). Structural emergencies. In J. Itano & K. Taoka (Eds.), Core
curriculum for oncology nursing (3rd ed., pp. 340–354). Philadelphia:
Saunders.
Ingle, R. (1997). Lung cancers. In S. Groenwald, M. Frogge, M. Goodman,
& C. Yarbro (Eds.), Cancer nursing principles and practice (4th ed., pp.
1260–1290). Boston: Jones and Bartlett.
Knopp, J. (1997). Lung cancer. In K. Dow, J. Bucholtz, R. Iwamoto, V.
Fieler, & L. Hilderley (Eds.), Nursing care in radiation oncology (2nd ed.,
pp. 293–315). Philadelphia: Saunders.
Martini, F. (1998). Fundamentals of anatomy and physiology (4th ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall.
Nomori, H., Nara, S., Morinaga, S., & Soejima, K. (1998). Primary malignant
lymphoma of superior vena cava. Annals of Thoracic Surgery, 66, 1423–
1424.
Schafer, S. (1997). Oncologic complications. In S. Otto (Ed.), Oncology nursing (3rd ed., pp. 406–474). St. Louis, MO: Mosby Yearbook.
Sitton, E. (1998). Nursing implications of radiation therapy. In J. Itano & K.
Taoka (Eds.), Core curriculum for oncology nursing (3rd ed., pp. 616–
629). Philadelphia: Saunders.
Smeltzer, S., & Bare, B. (1996). Oncology: Nursing the patient with cancer. In
S. Smeltzer & B. Bare (Eds.), Brunner and Suddarth’s textbook of medicalsurgical nursing (8th ed., pp. 309–316). Philadelphia: Lippincott-Raven.
Stewart, I. (1996). Superior vena cava syndrome: An oncologic complication.
Seminars in Oncology Nursing, 12, 312–317.
Thomas, C., Williams, T., Cobos, E., & Turrisi, A. (2001). Lung cancer. In
R. Lenhard, R. Osteen, & T. Gansler (Eds.), Clinical oncology (pp. 269–
295). Atlanta, GA: American Cancer Society.
Uaje, C., Kahsen, K., & Parish, L. (1996). Oncology emergencies. Critical
Care Nursing Quarterly, 18(4), 26–34.
Yahalom, J. (1993). Oncologic emergencies. In V. DeVita, S. Hellman, & S.
Rosenberg (Eds.), Cancer: Principles and practice of oncology (4th ed.,
pp. 2370–2385). Philadelphia: Lippincott-Raven.
For more information . . .
➤ eMedicine: Superior Vena Cava Syndrome
www.emedicine.com/EMERG/topic561.htm
➤ National Cancer Institute: Superior Vena Cava Syndrome
www.nci.nih.gov/cancerinfo/pdq/supportivecare/superiorvena-cava/healthprofessional
Links can be found using ONS Online at www.ons.org.
ONCOLOGY NURSING FORUM – VOL 30, NO 4, 2003
E88
ONF Continuing Education Examination
Superior Vena Cava Syndrome
Credit Hours: 1.4
Passing Score: 80%
CE Test ID #03-30/4-10
Test Processing Fee: $15
The Oncology Nursing Society is accredited as a provider
of continuing education (CE) in nursing by the
• American Nurses Credentialing Center’s Commission on
Accreditation.
• California Board of Nursing, Provider #2850.
07.
CE Test Questions
01. Which system should the nurse plan to address first for a
patient with superior vena cava syndrome?
a. Respiratory
b. Neurologic
c. Gastrointestinal
d. Musculoskeletal
02. A patient comes to the clinic and describes being unable
to button his shirt collars. In his history, which diagnosis
would be most significant?
a. Non-small cell carcinoma of the left lung
b. Small cell carcinoma of the right lung
c. Hodgkin’s lymphoma with a central line
d. Liver carcinoma with metastatic disease
03. A patient is seen in the emergency department with a diagnosis of superior vena cava syndrome. The nurse could
expect the patient to describe
a. Decreased symptoms in the evening after lying down.
b. Increased swelling of neck upon arising in the morning.
c. Difficulty buttoning his shirt because of numbness in
his fingers.
d. Increased symptoms when his position is changed
from sitting to standing.
04. Which are likely to be the first presenting signs or symptoms of early superior vena cava syndrome?
a. Dysphagia and hoarseness
b. Headaches and orthopnea
c. Visual disturbances and syncope
d. Dyspnea and nonproductive cough
05. A patient is diagnosed with acute superior vena cava syndrome. The medical intervention that would be used first
is
a. Chemotherapy to treat the primary cancer.
b. Radiation therapy to reduce the tumor size.
c. Diuretics to decrease the accumulating fluid.
d. Tissue biopsy to diagnose the cause of occlusion.
06. The diagnostic procedures with the highest sensitivity of
detecting superior vena cava syndrome are the
08.
09.
10.
11.
12.
a. Computed tomography (CT) scan and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scan.
b. Positron emission tomography scan and CT scan.
c. Chest x-ray and MRI scan.
d. Bronchoscopy and chest x-ray.
A patient is to begin radiation therapy for superior vena
cava syndrome. The nurse should teach the patient that
the
a. Symptom relief will occur within three weeks after the
start of treatment.
b. Radiation therapy will target the area from the esophagus to the pelvis.
c. Radiotherapy doses will remain at 300–400 cGy for a
total of six weeks.
d. Side effects of radiation are local reactions unlike the
systemic reactions of chemotherapy.
What physical examination findings would be consistent
with a late sign of superior vena cava syndrome?
a. Jugular vein distention
b. Bradycardia and orthopenia
c. Periorbital edema and redness
d. Cyanosis of the face or upper torso
The first major goal of superior vena cava syndrome treatment is to
a. Increase the patient’s life expectancy.
b. Prevent the spread of the primary tumor.
c. Cure the primary disease with the treatment.
d. Provide relief of the obstruction and symptoms.
A patient with small cell lung cancer who has received
previous radiation develops superior vena cava syndrome. Which treatment option would be most appropriate?
a. Chemotherapy
b. Radiation therapy
c. Thrombolytic agents
d. Surgical stent placement
A patient develops an acute and complete obstruction
of the superior vena cava. What is the mostly likely
cause?
a. Intraluminal compression by a tumor
b. Extraluminal compression by a tumor
c. Intraluminal compression by a thrombosis
d. Extraluminal compression by an enlarged lymph
node
The most important pathway for collateral circulation is
the
a. Inferior vena cava.
b. Azygos vein.
c. Upper abdominal veins.
d. Thoracic venous system.
ONCOLOGY NURSING FORUM – VOL 30, NO 4, 2003
E89
13. Which information should the nurse communicate with
staff regarding the patient with superior vena cava syndrome?
a. Blood pressures should be taken only in the left arm.
b. Vital signs need to be taken only at the end of each shift.
c. Blood draws should be performed only through the
central venous access device.
d. Input and output should be calculated at the end of
each day.
14. A patient with superior vena cava syndrome is exhibiting
neurologic and respiratory sequela. What is most likely
the cause?
a. Pleural effusion of the left lung
b. Cerebral and laryngeal edema
c. Cardiac tamponade from the edema
d. Syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone
Oncology Nursing Forum Answer/Enrollment Form
Superior Vena Cava Syndrome (Test ID #03-30/4-10)
To receive continuing education (CE) credit for this issue, simply
1. Read the article.
2. Oncology Nursing Society members may take the test and
get results immediately on ONS Online. Simply log on to
www.ons.org and click on ONF (Oncology Nursing Forum)
under the Publications heading. Use your ONS membership
number to access the site, select the issue you wish to use,
scroll down to find the CE test, and follow the instructions.
After successfully completing the test, pay with a credit card.
3. To enroll via the mail, record your answers on the form below and complete the program evaluation (you may make
copies of the form.) Mail the completed answer/enrollment
Instructions: Mark
your answers clearly by
placing an “x” in the
box next to the correct
answer. This is a standard form; use only the
number of spaces required for the test you
are taking.
1. ❑
❑
❑
❑
11. ❑
❑
❑
❑
a
b
c
d
2. ❑
❑
❑
❑
a
b
c
d
3. ❑
❑
❑
❑
a
b
c
d
form along with a check or money order for $15 per test payable to the Oncology Nursing Society. Payment must be included for your examination to be processed.
4. The deadline for submitting the answer/enrollment form is
two years from the date of this issue.
5. Contact hours will be awarded to RNs who successfully complete the program. Successful completion is defined as an
80% correct score on the examination and a completed evaluation program. Verification of your CE credit will be sent to
you. Certificates will be mailed within six weeks following
receipt of your answer/enrollment form. For more information, call 866-257-4667, ext. 6296.
4. ❑
❑
❑
❑
a
b
c
d
5. ❑
❑
❑
❑
6. ❑
❑
❑
❑
a
b
c
d
7. ❑
❑
❑
❑
a
b
c
d
8. ❑
❑
❑
❑
a
b
c
d
9. ❑
❑
❑
❑
a 10. ❑ a
❑ b
b
❑ c
c
❑ d
d
a 12. ❑ a 13. ❑ a 14. ❑ a 15. ❑ a 16. ❑ a 17. ❑ a 18. ❑ a 19. ❑ a 20. ❑ a
❑ b
❑ b
b
❑ b
❑ b
❑ b
❑ b
❑ b
❑ b
❑ b
❑ c
❑ c
c
❑ c
❑ c
❑ c
❑ c
❑ c
❑ c
❑ c
❑ d
❑ d
❑ d
d
❑ d
❑ d
❑ d
❑ d
❑ d
❑ d
Name
Telephone #
Address
City
a
b
c
d
Social Security #
State
Zip
State(s) of licensure/license no(s).
Program Evaluation
1. How relevant were the objectives to the CE activity’s goal?
2. How well did you meet the CE activity’s objectives (see page E84)?
• Objective #1
• Objective #2
• Objective #3
3. To what degree were the teaching/learning resources helpful?
4. Based on your previous knowledge and experience, do you think
that the level of the information presented in the CE activity was
minutes
5. How long did it take you to complete the CE activity?
Not at all
Low
Medium
High
❑
❑
❑
❑
❑
❑
❑
❑
Too basic
❑
❑
❑
❑
❑
❑
❑
❑
❑
Appropriate Too complex
❑
❑
❑ My check or money order payable to the Oncology Nursing Society is enclosed. U.S. currency only. (Do not send cash.)
After completing this form, mail it to: Oncology Nursing Society, P.O. Box 3510, Pittsburgh, PA 15230-3510.
For more information or information on the status of CE certificates, call 866-257-4667, ext. 6296.
ONCOLOGY NURSING FORUM – VOL 30, NO 4, 2003
E90
❑
❑
❑
❑