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Transcript
Common Communicable
Diseases
Health
Mr. Christman
Common Communicable
Diseases
Objectives:
1)
Explain the causes, transmission,
symptoms, and treatment for several
communicable diseases.
2)
Describe strategies to reduce the risk
of contracting some communicable
diseases.
Common Communicable
Diseases
In this lesson you will learn about some
common communicable diseases, their
symptoms, and how they are treated.
Common Communicable
Diseases: Respiratory Infections
The most common communicable
diseases are those of the respiratory
tract. These infections can occur
anywhere from the nose to the alveoli
of the lungs. Most are caused by
viruses or bacteria.
Common Communicable
Diseases: Respiratory Infections
You can reduce the risk of most
respiratory illnesses by avoiding close
contact with people who are infected,
washing your hands often, keeping your
hands away from your eyes and nose,
and keeping your immune system
healthy.
Common Communicable
Diseases: Respiratory Infections
Smoking can contribute to illness by
damaging cilia and irritating respiratory
passages. In addition, symptoms of
these diseases may be more severe in
smokers. Smoking also can suppress
the immune system.
Common Communicable
Diseases: Respiratory Infections
Common Respiratory Infections
1) Common Cold: a viral infection that
causes inflammation of the mucous
membranes that line the nose and
throat
Common Communicable
Diseases: Respiratory Infections
Symptoms include a runny nose,
sneezing, and sore throat.
Common Communicable
Diseases: Respiratory Infections
Some common ways of getting a cold
include rubbing your eyes or nose after
picking up the virus directly through
hand to hand contact or indirectly by
handling a contaminated object.
Colds can also be spread through the air
when an infected person sneezes or
coughs
Common Communicable
Diseases: Respiratory Infections
There is no cure for the common cold and
treatment is mainly for relief of the
symptoms.
Often treatment includes the use of
aspirin and ibuprofen.
Common Communicable
Diseases: Respiratory Infections
2) Influenza: a viral infection of the
respiratory tract which is most often
spread through airborne transmission
but also may be spread through direct
or indirect contact.
Common Communicable
Diseases: Respiratory Infections
Symptoms of the flu include high fever,
fatigue, headache, muscle aches, and
cough
Common Communicable
Diseases: Respiratory Infections
Treatment for the flu include antiviral
drugs, proper nutrition, plenty of rest,
and lots of fluids.
Also, flu shots are available for anyone
who wants to avoid the illness.
Common Communicable
Diseases: Respiratory Infections
3) Pneumonia: can be viral or bacterial
Pneumonia is one of the top 10 causes of
death in the United States.
Common Communicable
Diseases: Respiratory Infections
Viral pneumonia is relatively short-lived
and produces symptoms similar to
those of influenza.
In most cases, antiviral drugs are used to
treat it.
Common Communicable
Diseases: Respiratory Infections
Bacterial pneumonia can be treated with
antibiotics.
The bacteria that cause pneumonia are
always present in healthy throats.
When the body defenses are weakened
in some way, the bacteria can move
into the lungs and multiply.
Common Communicable
Diseases: Respiratory Infections
4) Strep Throat: a bacterial infection
spread by direct contact
Common Communicable
Diseases: Respiratory Infections
Symptoms include a sore throat, fever,
and enlarged lymph nodes in the neck.
If untreated, strep throat can lead to
serious complications such as
inflammation of the kidneys and
rheumatic fever, which can cause heart
damage.
Common Communicable
Diseases: Respiratory Infections
Strep throat can be treated with
antibiotics.
Strep throat is diagnosed by taking a
throat culture and testing it for the
bacteria.
Common Communicable
Diseases: Respiratory Infections
5) Tuberculosis: a bacterial disease that
attacks that lungs.
TB is spread through the air when a
person with the disease coughs or
sneezes.
Common Communicable
Diseases: Respiratory Infections
Symptoms of TB include extreme fatigue,
coughing (sometimes coughing up
blood), fever, night sweats, and weight
loss.
Common Communicable
Diseases: Respiratory Infections
TB can be treated by antibiotics, but
many strains have developed resistance
to antibiotics.
Common Communicable
Diseases: Hepatitis
Hepatitis: an inflammation of the liver
caused by chemicals including drugs
and alcohol, and by many different
pathogens.
Common Communicable
Diseases: Hepatitis
Hepatitis A, B, and C are the most
common form of this disease and there
is no cure for them.
There are, however, vaccines for hepatitis
A and B.
Common Communicable
Diseases: Hepatitis
Hepatitis A:
Hepatitis A is most commonly spread
through contact with feces of an
infected person. Infected persons
who do not wash their hands properly
may contaminate objects or food or
spread the virus through direct
contact.
1)
Common Communicable
Diseases: Hepatitis
Symptoms of Hepatitis A are generally
mild and may include fever, nausea,
vomiting, fatigue, abdominal pain, and
Jaundice (a yellowing of the skin and
eyes).
Most infected individuals recover
completely.
Common Communicable
Diseases: Hepatitis
The best way to reduce your risk of
hepatitis A is to practice careful hand
washing and avoid close contact with
people who are infected.
Get the vaccine!
Common Communicable
Diseases: Hepatitis
2) Hepatitis B:
The hepatitis B virus is found in most
bodily fluids of an infected person,
especially blood.
It is most often spread through sexual
contact and through needles shared by
infected drug users.
Common Communicable
Diseases: Hepatitis
Most people who are infected never
experience symptoms.
Hepatitis B causes severe liver damage,
liver failure, and cirrhosis (scarring) of
the liver.
Common Communicable
Diseases: Hepatitis
You can reduce your risk of hepatitis B by
practicing abstinence from sexual
contact and illegal drug use, and not
sharing personal items such as
toothbrushes and razors.
Get the vaccine!
Common Communicable
Diseases: Hepatitis
3) Hepatitis C: the most common
chronic bloodborne infection in the
United States.
Hepatitis C is most often transmitted by
direct contact with infected blood
through contaminate needles shared by
drug users.
Common Communicable
Diseases: Hepatitis
Most people who are infected never
experience symptoms.
Hepatitis C can lead to chronic liver
disease, liver cancer, and liver failure.
Common Communicable
Diseases: Hepatitis
You can reduce your risk of hepatitis C by
practicing abstinence from illegal drug
use, and not sharing personal items
such as toothbrushes and razors.
There is no vaccine for hepatitis C.
Common Communicable
Diseases: Emerging Infections
Emerging Infections: a communicable
disease whose incidence in humans has
increased within the past two decades
or threatens to increase in the near
future
Examples: West Nile virus, AIDS, Lyme
disease
Common Communicable
Diseases: Emerging Infections
Reasons for Emerging Infections:
1)Transport across borders
2)Population Movement
3)Resistance to Antibiotics
4)Changes in Food Technology
5)Agents of Bioterrorism
Common Communicable Diseases
1)Activity# 90 (Concept Mapping)
2)T-Charts
3)Activity# 90 (Applying Health Skills)