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Communication
Communication
Media
Learning Objectives
• State the definition of communication
• Appreciate fully the significance of
effective communication in any given
situation.
• Identify the two main types of
communication;
Verbal and Non-verbal.
• Explain the three major communication
media: written, oral and electronic by
giving examples
What is communication ?
 The
word communication has originated from
a Latin word “Communes” which means
something common.
 Communication is a process of exchanging
information, ideas, thoughts, feeling and
emotions through speech signals, writing or
behavior.
 In communication process, a sender encodes
a message and then using a medium and
send it to appropriate feedback using a
medium
Communication process model
Sender
Message
Channel
Medium
Receiver
Feedback
© PhotoDisc
Communication Channel
A
medium through which a message is
transmitted to its intended audience
(1. People or market segment at whom an advertising message or campaign is aimed.
2.Total number of readers, listeners, or viewers reached by a particular advertising medium.)
such as print media
(The industry associated with
the printing and distribution of news through newspapers and magazines.)
or broadcast (electronic) media.
Importance of communication
Express
thoughts, ideas and feelings
 Creating awareness
To fulfill a goal
Avoid isolated
Highlight issues
Progress, development
Educating the masses etc.
Communication Networks
Affected by:
 Number
of people involved
 Complexity
 Volume
of the message
and urgency of message
 Confidentiality
of material
Verbal Communication
 Message
is transmitted verbally, communication
is done by word, mouth and a piece of writing.
 Objective
of every communication is to have
people understood what we are trying to
convey.
Parts of verbal communication
Verbal Oral written
Oral Communication
 Spoken
words are used.
 Face-to-face
conversations, speech,
telephonic conversation, video, radio,
television, voice over internet.
 Communication
is influenced by pitch,
volume, speed and clarity of speaking
Oral communication &
• Face-to-face discussions, telephone conservations,
formal presentations and speeches
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Sounds and sound combinations
Stress
Rhythm
Intonation
Speed
pausing
Clarity of articulation
Voice modulation: volume & pitch variation (avoiding
“monotonous speech
Oral communicationAdvantages
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Questions can be asked and answered
directly;
Feedback is immediate; he sender’s attitude
can be sensed.
Better relationships
Time saving
Effective tool of persuasion
Effective tool of group communication
Economical
Allows to measure effectiveness immediately
It’s the only way out during an emergency
Written Communication
 Written
signs or symbols are used to
communicate.
 May
be printed or hand written.
 Message
can be transmitted via email, letter,
report, memo etc.
 Is
influenced by the vocabulary & grammar used,
writing style, precision and clarity of the language
used.
Written communication
Advantages
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Ready reference
Legal defense
Promotes uniformity
Mass access
Suitable for distance
communication
Image building
Accurate and unambiguous
Permanent in nature
Permits substitution
and revision
•
Disadvantages
• Limited to literature
world
• Time consuming
• Lot of paper work
• Needs expertise in
expression
• Lack of immediate
feedback
• Costly
• More men hours
needed
No immediate
clarification
Non-verbal communication
 Through
signs & symbols.
 Non-verbal
can go without verbal
communication.
 Verbal
can’t go without non-verbal
communication.
Importance of Non-verbal
communication
 The
way message is conveyed:
 words
 1st Qtr 10% Body language
 2nd Qtr 50%
 3rd Qtr Tone of voice 40%
 Types
of Non-verbal
communication:








KINESICS (BODY
LANGUAGE)
HAPTICS (TOUCH
LANGUAGE)
PROXEMICS ,(SPACE
LANGUAGE)
ARTIFACTS
ENVIRONMENTAL
CHRONEMICS (TIME
LANGUAGE)
SILENCE
SIGN
PARALANGUAGE VOCALIC
 Types
of Non-verbal
Communication:
 KINESICS (BODY
LANGUAGE)
 FACIAL EXPRESSION
 HEAD
 EYE GAZE
 GESTURES
 POSTURES
 SHAPE OF BODY
 PERSONAL
APPEARANCE
ADORNMENT
TYPES OF COMMUNICATION
 Inter-personal:
between two or more people
 Intra-personal:
a process in which people
communicate with themselves either consciously
or unconsciously
 Extra-personal:
human entities
between human beings and non-
Barriers in Achieving Effective
Communication
 Different
Backgrounds of Sender and
Receiver
 Signaling- messages conveyed without
words
 Communication Situation
 Quality of Message Content
 Speaking Skills
 Listening Skills
 Noise/Sound/Distraction
Barriers in Achieving Effective
Communication

Semantic Barriers- occurs when meaning is either
present or absent from the language used and is not
shared by both the sender and receiver.
Different words in our language have different
meanings. These difference is referred to as denotation
and connotation
Denotative – meaning created by people and
understood by many, and recorded in dictionary.
Connotative - refers to the attitudes or feelings a person
has to a word he uses or hears e.g. RESPECT/
BEING RESPECTFUL.
Ways in Overcoming Barriers in
Communication
 Eliminating
 Use
differences in perception
of Simple Language
 Reduction
 Active
and elimination of noise levels
Listening
 Emotional
State
Ways in Overcoming Barriers in
Communication
Simple
Organizational Structure
Avoid Information Overload
Give Constructive Feedback
Proper Media Selection
Flexibility in meeting the targets
Mass communication
 Communication
through electronic gadgets (mass
media) like books, journals, TV, newspapers etc
MEDIA
 Is
a means of transmitting the message,
thought opinion and view point.
 its
purpose is to facilitate communication
and learning.
 Broadcast
or storage media that take
advantage of electronic technology.
 Includes:
television, radio, Internet, fax, CD-ROMs,
DVD, and any other medium that requires
electricity or digital encoding of information.
 The
term 'electronic media' is often used in
contrast with print media.

(Source: businessdictionary.com/definition/electronic-media)
ELECTRONIC MEDIA
 Computer-based
communication.
 It

system that facilitates scholarly
has its own set of concerns and issues.
The Internet offers users the benefits of access,
file transfer, and electronic mail(which includes
electronic journals) with remote systems around
the world.
Principles for scholarly system of
communication
 protection
of each users rights
 the freedom of all users to publish onto the
network
 a free market status for the network dministration,
 remote access
 privacy from government eaves dropping
 recognition of intellectual property which includes
copyright enforcement and royalty distribution.
Traditional & Hybrids Types
1)
Television
2) Radio
3) Internet
4) Smart phones (new media type, cross between Phone & internet)
5) Electronic display advertising, electronic
streaming billboards (a new hybrid)
 Advantages
 Disadvantages
 Immediacy
 Noise
 Information
&
entertainment
 Creates awareness
among people
 Develops thoughts &
ideas
 Keeps one in touch
with rest of the world
 Makes communication
increasingly easier
 Connects diverse pple
from far & near
geographical locations
pollution
 Decision making
 Common diseases &
complications brought
on by electronic media:
i)
eye-sight
ii) exposure to radiation
iii) obesity
Electronic Media
Advantage: Messages can be delivered
instantly, over long distances, and to a large
number of people.
Disadvantage: But not all people have can
access to the media.
Characteristics of effective
communication
 Clearness
and integrity of message to be conveyed.
- Adequate briefing of the recipient.
- Accurate plan of objectives.
- Reliability and uniformity of the message.
- To know the main purpose of the message.
- Proper response or feedback.
- Correct timing.
- Use of proper medium to convey the message
properly.
- Use of informal communication.
Important guidelines for
communication effective:  Simplify
thoughts before communicating the intended
message.

Analyze the intent of each and every message.
•
Consider the overall physical setting whenever you
communicate.
Discuss with others, where appropriate, in planning
communication.
Important guidelines for
communication effective: -
 Be
careful while communicating, of the overtone
as well as basic content of your message.
 Take the opportunity to suggest something of
help or value of the receiver.
 Follow-up your communication.
 Prepare for transmitting the message in a proper
way.
 Be sure actions support communication.
 Seek not only to be understood but understand.
Effective Communication
References
 http://www.slideshare.net/tayyabsheikhg/
types-of-communication