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Chapter 21 THE CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM: BLOOD VESSELS AND HEMODYNAMICS Outline and Objectives INTRODUCTION 1. Discuss the focus of study in this chapter. ANATOMY OF BLOOD VESSELS 2. Identify the different types of blood vessels in the body and their connections to each other. Arteries 3. Describe the structure of arteries and their functional properties. Elastic Arteries 4. Describe the role of the elastic arteries as a pressure reservoir. Muscular Arteries 5. Explain the function of muscular arteries. Arterioles 6. Compare and contrast arteries and arterioles. Capillaries 7. Explain how the structure of capillaries is ideally suited to its function to permit nutrient and waste exchange between the blood and tissue cells. 8. Distinguish among the different types of capillaries. 9. List the four routes materials can use to cross blood capillary walls. Venules 10. Describe the structure and function of venules. Veins 11. Compare and contrast the structure of veins and arteries. 12. Explain what happens when vein valves become leaky. Anastomoses 13. Define anastomosis and explain the function of anastomoses. Blood Distribution 14. Describe the distribution of blood in the body. CAPILLARY EXCHANGE 15. List the three ways substances enter and leave capillaries. Diffusion 16. Describe the substances that use diffusion as a capillary exchange method. Transcytosis 17. Explain vescicular transport and the types of substances to be transported. Bulk Flow: Filtration and Reabsorption 18. Discuss the importance of bulk flow, the pressures involved in bulk flow, and the pressure changes that occur for bulk flow to happen. 19. Define edema and list some of its causes. HEMODYNAMICS: PHYSIOLOGY OF CIRCULATION 20. State the overall function of the cardiovascular system. Velocity of Blood Flow 21. Explain the factors that regulate the velocity of blood flow. Volume of Blood Flow 22. Explain the factors that regulate the volume of blood flow. Blood Pressure 23. Explain how blood pressure changes throughout the cardiovascular system and describe the factors that determine mean arterial blood pressure. Resistance 24. Explain the factors that determine systemic vascular resistance. Venous Return 25. Explain how the return of venous blood to the heart is accomplished. 26. Discuss the nature of syncope and its causes. CONTROL OF BLOOD PRESSURE AND BLOOD FLOW 27. Discuss the need for control of blood pressure and blood flow. Cardiovascular Center 28. Describe the structure and function of the cardiovascular center. Input to the Cardiovascular Center 29. Identify the sources of input to the cardiovascular center. Output from the Cardiovascular Center 30. Identify the outcome of sympathetic and parasympathetic output from the cardiovascular center. Neural Regulation of Blood Pressure Baroreceptor Reflexes 31. Describe the role of baroreceptors in the aortic and carotid sinus reflexes and the purpose of these reflexes. 32. Describe the effect of carotid sinus massage on syncope. Chemoreceptor Reflexes 33. Discuss the types of chemicals to which chemoreceptors react and the response of the blood regulatory system to each. Local Regulation of Blood Pressure 34. Describe the physical changes and chemical mediators that inact appropriate responses through vascular smooth muscles in various organs and tissues. SHOCK AND HOMEOSTASIS 35. Define shock and its general consequences. Types of Shock 36. Discuss four causes of shock. Homeostatic Responses to Shock 37. Describe the homeostatic responses to shock. Signs and Symptoms of Shock 38. Describe the characteristic signs and symptoms of shock. CHECKING CIRCULATION Pulse 39. Describe locations on the body where a pulse is commonly taken and classify abnormal heart rates and pulse characteristics. Measurement of Blood Pressure (BP) 40. Discuss the blood pressures, show how they are measured, and contrast the clinical significance of systolic, diastolic, and pulse pressure. CIRCULATORY ROUTES 41. Briefly describe the systemic, coronary, cerebral, hepatic portal, pulmonary, and fetal circulations. Systemic Circulations 42. Outline the location and routes of the major divisions of the aorta, two levels of arterial branches that extend from the aorta, and the regions of the body they supply. 43. Review the routes and regions of the body drained by the major veins of the systemic circulation. Hepatic Portal Circulation 44. Diagram the vessels and direction of blood flow through the hepatic portal circulatory pathway. Pulmonary Circulation 45. Describe the circuit of arteries and veins that direct the primary blood volume through the lung tissue for the purpose of gas exchange. Fetal Circulation 46. Emphasize the unique vessels and pathways of blood flow in the fetal system that allow blood to mainly bypass the lungs and liver and circulate through the placenta for exchange of essential materials. 47. Indicate the changes that occur in the specialized fetal circulation upon birth. DEVELOPMENTAL ANATOMY OF BLOOD VESSLS AND BLOOD 48. Describe the development of blood vessels and blood. AGING AND THE CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM 49. Explain the effects of aging on the cardiovascular system. DISORDERS: HOMEOSTATIC IMBALANCES 50. List the types, causes, effects, and treatments for hypertension. MEDICAL TERMINOLOGY 51. Define medical terminology associated with blood vessels.