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Chapter 21
THE CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM: BLOOD VESSELS AND
HEMODYNAMICS
Outline and Objectives
INTRODUCTION
1. Discuss the focus of study in this chapter.
ANATOMY OF BLOOD VESSELS
2. Identify the different types of blood vessels in the body and their connections
to each other.
Arteries
3. Describe the structure of arteries and their functional properties.
Elastic Arteries
4. Describe the role of the elastic arteries as a pressure reservoir.
Muscular Arteries
5. Explain the function of muscular arteries.
Arterioles
6. Compare and contrast arteries and arterioles.
Capillaries
7. Explain how the structure of capillaries is ideally suited to its function to
permit nutrient and waste exchange between the blood and tissue cells.
8. Distinguish among the different types of capillaries.
9. List the four routes materials can use to cross blood capillary walls.
Venules
10. Describe the structure and function of venules.
Veins
11. Compare and contrast the structure of veins and arteries.
12. Explain what happens when vein valves become leaky.
Anastomoses
13. Define anastomosis and explain the function of anastomoses.
Blood Distribution
14. Describe the distribution of blood in the body.
CAPILLARY EXCHANGE
15. List the three ways substances enter and leave capillaries.
Diffusion
16. Describe the substances that use diffusion as a capillary exchange method.
Transcytosis
17. Explain vescicular transport and the types of substances to be transported.
Bulk Flow: Filtration and Reabsorption
18. Discuss the importance of bulk flow, the pressures involved in bulk flow, and
the pressure changes that occur for bulk flow to happen.
19. Define edema and list some of its causes.
HEMODYNAMICS: PHYSIOLOGY OF CIRCULATION
20. State the overall function of the cardiovascular system.
Velocity of Blood Flow
21. Explain the factors that regulate the velocity of blood flow.
Volume of Blood Flow
22. Explain the factors that regulate the volume of blood flow.
Blood Pressure
23. Explain how blood pressure changes throughout the cardiovascular system
and describe the factors that determine mean arterial blood pressure.
Resistance
24. Explain the factors that determine systemic vascular resistance.
Venous Return
25. Explain how the return of venous blood to the heart is accomplished.
26. Discuss the nature of syncope and its causes.
CONTROL OF BLOOD PRESSURE AND BLOOD FLOW
27. Discuss the need for control of blood pressure and blood flow.
Cardiovascular Center
28. Describe the structure and function of the cardiovascular center.
Input to the Cardiovascular Center
29. Identify the sources of input to the cardiovascular center.
Output from the Cardiovascular Center
30. Identify the outcome of sympathetic and parasympathetic output from the
cardiovascular center.
Neural Regulation of Blood Pressure
Baroreceptor Reflexes
31. Describe the role of baroreceptors in the aortic and carotid sinus reflexes and
the purpose of these reflexes.
32. Describe the effect of carotid sinus massage on syncope.
Chemoreceptor Reflexes
33. Discuss the types of chemicals to which chemoreceptors react and the
response of the blood regulatory system to each.
Local Regulation of Blood Pressure
34. Describe the physical changes and chemical mediators that inact appropriate
responses through vascular smooth muscles in various organs and tissues.
SHOCK AND HOMEOSTASIS
35. Define shock and its general consequences.
Types of Shock
36. Discuss four causes of shock.
Homeostatic Responses to Shock
37. Describe the homeostatic responses to shock.
Signs and Symptoms of Shock
38. Describe the characteristic signs and symptoms of shock.
CHECKING CIRCULATION
Pulse
39. Describe locations on the body where a pulse is commonly taken and classify
abnormal heart rates and pulse characteristics.
Measurement of Blood Pressure (BP)
40. Discuss the blood pressures, show how they are measured, and contrast the
clinical significance of systolic, diastolic, and pulse pressure.
CIRCULATORY ROUTES
41. Briefly describe the systemic, coronary, cerebral, hepatic portal, pulmonary,
and fetal circulations.
Systemic Circulations
42. Outline the location and routes of the major divisions of the aorta, two levels
of arterial branches that extend from the aorta, and the regions of the body
they supply.
43. Review the routes and regions of the body drained by the major veins of the
systemic circulation.
Hepatic Portal Circulation
44. Diagram the vessels and direction of blood flow through the hepatic portal
circulatory pathway.
Pulmonary Circulation
45. Describe the circuit of arteries and veins that direct the primary blood volume
through the lung tissue for the purpose of gas exchange.
Fetal Circulation
46. Emphasize the unique vessels and pathways of blood flow in the fetal system
that allow blood to mainly bypass the lungs and liver and circulate through the
placenta for exchange of essential materials.
47. Indicate the changes that occur in the specialized fetal circulation upon birth.
DEVELOPMENTAL ANATOMY OF BLOOD VESSLS AND BLOOD
48. Describe the development of blood vessels and blood.
AGING AND THE CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM
49. Explain the effects of aging on the cardiovascular system.
DISORDERS: HOMEOSTATIC IMBALANCES
50. List the types, causes, effects, and treatments for hypertension.
MEDICAL TERMINOLOGY
51. Define medical terminology associated with blood vessels.