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Insect taxonomic
Insect orders
Insect orders
Insect orders
They have been placed into an ancient group of insects termed
the Palaeoptera, which also contains dragonflies and damselflies.
They are aquatic insects whose immature stage (called "naiad" or,
colloquially, "nymph") usually lasts one year in fresh water. The
adults are short-lived, from a few minutes to a few days,
depending on the species. About 2,500 species are known
worldwide, including about 630 species in North America
The smallest living dragonfly is Nannophya pygmaea (Anisoptera:
Libellulidae) from east Asia, which a body length of 15 mm and a
wing span of 20 mm, and the smallest damselflies (and smallest
odonates of all times) are species of the genus Agriocnemis
(Zygoptera: Coenagrionidae) with a wing span of only 17–18 mm.
• The name "cockroach" comes from the Spanish word for cockroach,
cucaracha, transformed by English folk etymology into "cock" and "roach".
The term cucaracha (streak bug, sp.) originally was used for the wood louse
(the sow bug), but later was used to mean the palmetto bug (the flying
cockroach). It is from this later Mexican usage that English-speaking
Americans began using the term for regular (non-flying) cockroach.[citation needed]
• Termite colonies produce a reproductive caste when they have
reached a certain size. These individuals consist of male and
female termites that on warm humid nights usually fly away from
the nest to mate and begin new colonies.
Earwigs are abundant and can be found throughout the Americas
and Eurasia. The common earwig was introduced into North
America in 1907 from Europe, but tends to be more common in
the southern and southwestern parts of the United States.[6]:739
The only native species of earwig found in the north of the
United States is the spine-tailed earwig (Doru aculeatum),[7]:144 found
as far north as Canada, where it hides in the leaf axils of emerging
plants in southern Ontario wetlands. However, other families can
be found in North America, including Forficulidae (Doru and
Forficula being found there), Labiidae, Anisolabididae, and
• is an order of insects with paurometabolous or incomplete metamorphosis,
including the grasshoppers, crickets, cave crickets, Jerusalem crickets,
katydids, weta, lubber, Acrida, and locusts. Many insects in this order
produce sound (known as a "stridulation") by rubbing their wings against
each other or their legs, the wings or legs containing rows of corrugated
• Phasmatodea (sometimes called Phasmida or Phasmatoptera) are an
order of insects, whose members are variously known as stick insects (in
Europe and Australasia), walking sticks or stick-bugs (in the United States
and Canada), phasmids, ghost insects and leaf insects (generally the
family Phylliidae)
• is an order of insects most often known as the true bugs (cf. bug),
comprising around 50,000–80,000 species[2] of cicadas, aphids, planthoppers,
leafhoppers, shield bugs, and others. They range in size from 1 mm (0.04 in)
to around 15 cm (6 in), and share a common arrangement of sucking
mouthparts.[3] Sometimes, the name true bugs is applied more narrowly still to
insects of the suborder Heteroptera only
The Coleoptera include more species than any other order,
constituting almost 25% of all known types of animal lifeforms.[2][3][4] About 40% of all described insect species are beetles
(about 400,000 species[5]), and new species are discovered
frequently. Some estimates put the total number of species,
described and undescribed, at as high as 100 million, but a figure
of one million is more widely accepted.[6] The largest taxonomic
family is commonly thought to be the Curculionidae (the weevils
or snout beetles), but recently the Staphylinidae (the rove beetles)
have claimed this title.[
• These insects undergo complete metamorphosis; that is,
each individual goes through four stages: egg, larva (the
caterpillar), pupa (chrysalis or cocoon)
Flies are adapted for aerial movement and typically have short and
streamlined bodies. The first tagma of the fly, the head, consists
of ocelli, antennae, compound eyes, and the mouthparts (the
labrum, labium, mandible and maxilla make up the mouthparts).
Fleas are wingless insects (1/16 to 1/8-inch (1.5 to 3.3 mm) long)
that are agile, usually dark colored (for example, the reddishbrown of the cat flea), with tube-like mouth-parts adapted to
feeding on the blood of their hosts.
The Hymenoptera are one of the largest orders of insects,
comprising the sawflies, wasps, bees and ants. Over 150,000
species are recognized, with many more remaining to be described.
The name refers to the wings of the insects, and is derived from
the Ancient Greek ὑμήν (hymen): membrane and πτερόν (pteron):
wing. The hind wings are connected to the fore wings by a series
of hooks called hamuli.
The English common name for the order is the mantises, or
rarely (using a Latinized plural of Greek mantis), the mantes. The
name mantid refers only to members of the family Mantidae,
which was, historically, the only family in the Order, but with 14
additional families recognized in recent decades, this term can be
confusing. The other common name, often applied to any species
in the order, is "praying mantis"
The Plecoptera are an order of insects, commonly known as
stoneflies. Some 3,500 species are described worldwide,[1] with
new species still being discovered. Stoneflies are found worldwide,
except Antarctica.[2] Stoneflies are believed to be one of the most
primitive groups of Neoptera, with close relatives identified from
the Carboniferous and Lower Permian geological periods, while
true stoneflies are known from fossils only a bit younger. The
modern diversity, however, apparently is of Mesozoic origin.[3]
The end