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*INSECT TAXONOMY DIVERSITY* By : Mo’Esha Jackson *INSECT ORDERS* Emhemeroptera Diptera Odonata Siphonoptera Blattaria Hymenoptera Isoptera Mantodea Dermatpera Plecoptera Orthoptera Phasmida Hemiptera Coleoptera Lepidoptera • EPHEMEROPTERA Ephemeroptera comes from the Greek ephemeros meaning lasting a day and pteron meaning wing. the adults exhibit an erratic up and down flight pattern over water or nearby rocks and bushes, mate in flight, lay eggs on the surface of a water body and die, usually within a day but ranging from a few minutes to several days. The adults have no functioning mouthparts with which to feed, their only purpose is reproduction and dispersal. • ODONATA Odonata is divided into two suborders, Zygoptera (damselflies) and Epiprocta (dragonflies), both have aquatic juvenile stages. As exopterygote insects (incomplete metamorphosis), there can be confusion as to whether juvenile dragonflies should be called nymphs or larvae. Tillyard (1917) decided that by definition larval structure differs significantly from adult form and therefore dragonflies are larvae because they do not exhibit the elongated abdomen that damselflies do. • BLATTARIA The oriental cockroach, also known as the waterbug, is a large species of cockroach adult males being 18–29 mm and adult females being 20– 27 mm. Scientific name: Blatta orientalis Biological classification: Species • ISOPTERA Scientific name: Termitoidae Consists of: Termopsidae · Mastotermes darwiniensis · Kalotermitidae · Hodotermitidae · Rhinotermitidae · Termitidae · Serritermitidae 3. Belongs to: Cockroach 4.Termites are a group of eusocial insects that, until recently, were classified at the taxonomic rank of order Isoptera 1. 2. • DERMATPTERA Earwigs make up the insect order Dermaptera and are found throughout the Americas, Africa, Eurasia, Australia and New Zealand. With about 2,000 species in 12 families, they are one of the smaller insect orders Scientific name: Dermaptera Higher classification: Exopterygota Rank: Order • ORTHOPTERA Orthoptera is an order of insects with paurometabolous or incomplete metamorphosis, including the grasshoppers, crickets, cave crickets, Jerusalem crickets, katydids, weta, lubber, Acrida, and locusts. Scientific name: Orthoptera Rank: Order Higher classification: Exopterygota Lower classifications: Ensifera, Grasshopper • PHASMIDA The Phasmatodea are an order of insects, whose members are variously known as stick insects, walking sticks or stickbugs, phasmids, ghost insects and leaf insects 2. Scientific name: Phasmatodea 3. Higher classification: Exopterygota 4. Rank: Order 5. Lower classifications: Diapheromeridae, Pseudophasmatidae, Phasmatidae 1. • HEMIPTERA Hemiptera is an order of insects most often known as the true bugs, comprising around 50,000–80,000 species of cicadas, aphids, planthoppers, leafhoppers, shield bugs, and others. 2. Scientific name: Hemiptera 3. Rank: Order 4. Higher classification: Exopterygota 5. Lower classifications: Peloridiidae, Auchenorrhyncha, Sternorrhyncha, Heteroptera 1. • COLEOPTERA Coleoptera (beetles and weevils) is the largest order in the class Insecta. The Coleoptera order of insects is commonly called beetles. beetles are regarded as major pests of agricultural plants and stored products • LEPIDOPTERA Lepidoptera is a large order of insects that includes moths and butterflies. It is one of the most widespread and widely recognizable insect orders in the world, encompassing moths and the three. It is one of the most widespread and widely recognizable insect orders in the world, encompassing moths and the three superfamilies of butterflies, skipper butterflies, and mothbutterflies. • DIPTERA The order Diptera includes all true flies. These insects are distinctive because their hind wings are reduced to small, club-shaped structures called halteres - only the membranous front wings serve as aerodynamic surfaces. The halteres vibrate during flight and work much like a gyroscope to help the insect maintain balance. • SIPHONOPTERA Fleas are the insects forming the order Siphonaptera. They are wingless, with mouthparts adapted for piercing skin and sucking blood. • Adults : Body bilaterally flattened • Mouthparts suctorial (haustellate) • Large bristles (ctenidia) often present on head or thorax (genal and pronotal combs) • Hind femur enlarged, adapted for jumping • Immatures: Body vermiform (maggot-like), sparsely covered with hairs • Head reduced, eyeless, mouthparts mandibulate • HYMENOPTERA • Immatures: Sawflies: Eruciform (caterpillar-like); well developed head capsule; chewing mouthparts; fleshy abdominal prolegs • Bees and wasps: Grub-like; well developed head; chewing mouthparts; legless and eyeless • Parasitic wasps: Body form highly reduced; lacking head, eyes or appendages • Adults: Chewing mouthparts - except in bees where maxillae and labium form a proboscis for collecting nectar. • Compound eyes well developed. • Tarsi usually 5-segmented. • MANTODEA • Adults: • Filiform antennae • Head triangular with well-developed compound eyes • Mouthparts mandibulate, hypognathous • Prothorax elongate with large, spiny front legs adapted for catching prey • Front wings thickened, more slender than hind wings • Tarsi 5-segmented • Cerci short, multi-segmented • Immatures: • Structurally similar to adults • Developing wingpads often visible on thorax • PLECOPTERA • Immatures • Antennae long, filiform • Body flattened, legs widely separated • Tracheal gills present as "tufts" behind the head, at base of legs, or around the anus • Each segment of thorax is covered by a large dorsal sclerite • Cerci long, multi-segmented • Adults • Antennae long, filiform • Front wings long and narrow; M-Cu crossveins form distinctive boxes near center of front wing • Hind wings shorter than front wings; basal area of hind wing enlarged and pleated • Cerci long, multi-segmented THE END !!!