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And its Structures
– basic unit of living organisms (could
not be studied until microscopes were
invented, because they are so small.
 Cells
Microscope – used to examine small objects
1. (Anton van Leeuwenhoek) first to see living cells
as seen through a simple microscope.
2. (Robert Hooke) used a light microscope to study
cork cells and he was the scientist to name the
cell.
Schleiden, Schwann and Virchow came up with the
cell theory. (3 Ideas)
1. All organisms are composed of one or more cells.
2.
3.

The cell is the basic unit of structure and
function for organisms.
All cells come from pre-existing cells (Cell
division)
2 Basic Cell Types
1. Prokaryote – an organism with a cell that lacks
internal structures (no nucleus) (most are singlecelled)
2. Eukaryote – organisms that have cells containing
structures (organelles)
 Organelles – internal membrane bound structures
in a eukaryotic cell
Eukaryote or Prokaryote?
How do you know?
What is the main difference
between the two cell types?

i.
The nucleus is the largest organelle that
contains the cell’s DNA and manages the
cell’s functions (control center) (contains the
chromosomes)
Cells must have boundaries
a.
b.
Plasma membrane – (cell membrane) thin,
porous, flexible boundary between the cell and
its external environment (regulates what
materials go into and out of the cell)
Cell wall – inflexible structure that surrounds the
plasma membrane (cells of plants, fungi, and
bacteria have cell walls) ANIMAL CELLS HAVE NO
CELL WALL
Can you identify the cell
nucleus?
What component of the cell
membrane keeps it from
dissolving in the water that
surrounds it on both sides?
II.
a.
Organelles that control cell functions
Chromatin – long tangled strands that found in
the nucleus only during certain stages of cell
division in eukaryotic cells
b. Nucleolus – region within the nucleus of
eukaryotic cells that produces ribosomes
c.
Ribosomes – organelles involved in the
production of proteins
Where is the
chromatin located
in the cell to the far
right, and in the
middle cell?
What structure is the
arrow pointing to?
Where are the
ribosomes located in
this micrograph?
iii.
a.
Structures for assembly and transport of
proteins
Cytoplasm – clear fluid (Mostly water) inside the
cell surrounding the nucleus and organelles
b. Endoplasmic reticulum – (E.R.) folded, complex
system of membranes forming a type of transport
system in the cytoplasm
1. Rough ER – studded (covered) with ribosomes
2.
Smooth ER – contains NO ribosomes
IV.
a.
Structures for Protein production
Golgi apparatus – membrane sacs that give off
excretions of repackaged proteins
The Golgi apparatus is
often referred to the
distribution and shipping
department for the cell.
Vacuoles and Storage
v.
a.


Vacuole – membrane bound fluid filled space
within the cytoplasm; temporarily stores food,
enzymes, and waste
Plant cells contain 1 large central vacuole
Animal cells have small and multiple vacuoles
within the cytoplasm
In the plant cell the vacuole will be
the largest organelle.
vi.
a.

Lysosomes and Recycling
Lysosomes – organelle containing enzymes that
digest food particles, viruses, bacteria and worn
out cell parts
These organelles will be found in large numbers
in the digestive tract and white blood cells
Functions of the
lysosomes
vii.
a.



Energy Transformers
Mitochondria – (powerhouse of the cell) organelle
in which food molecules are broken down to
produce energy in the form of ATP
Found in both plant & animal cells
Large numbers of mitochondria would be found
in cells that require a high amount of energy
Ex. Muscle cells
Why are there folded
membranes inside the
mitochondria?
To provide more surface
area for reactions to
occur.
viii.
a.
b.
c.
Chloroplasts and Energy
Chloroplasts –organelle found in green plants
containing chlorophyll; site where light energy is
converted into chemical energy through
photosynthesis (found only in plant cells and
algae)
Chlorophyll – found in the inner membrane of
chloroplasts, this green pigment gives leaves and
stems of plants their green color
Plastids – plant organelles that gives some fruit
and flowers their color; also stores starch and
lipids
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Where in the plant itself would you
find the majority of chloroplasts?
In the leaves
ix.
a.
Structures for Support
Cytoskeleton – network of cytoplasm, provides
support for organelles and is important in cell
locomotion (moving) microtubules and
microfilaments
x.
a.
b.
Structures for Movement
Cilia – short, numerous, hair-like projections on a
cell’s surface that are composed of microtubules;
Cilia propel unicellular organisms and move
fluids over the cell’s surface in multicellular
organisms
Flagella – long, thread-like structures composed
of microtubules; propel cells and organisms by a
whip- like motion
Paramecium (Fresh water
organism)
Where in the human body would you find
cells that are covered with cilia?
Cells of the
respiratory and
digestive systems.
Sperm cells
Where in the human body would you find
cells that use flagella for movement?
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
Know your vocabulary.
Know your notes
Study your diagrams (colored). (Know what
the organelles look like.)
What is the difference between prokaryotic
and eukaryotic cells?
Who discovered the cell? Know what each
person contributed.
What are the 3 parts to the cell theory?
What is the function of every organelle that
we have discussed? I-X in your notes
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
What is the difference between rough and
smooth ER?
What are the general differences between
plant and animal cells?
What type of cells (in the human body)
would contain large numbers of lysosomes
and mitochondria?
Know the difference between cilia and
flagella and be able to give examples of
cells that use these two structures.
What is the difference between the cell wall
and cell membrane? Know their location.
Cell Structure Quiz
1. This acts as a barrier between the outside environment and the inside
environment of the cell. ___________________
2. A _______________ is a cellular structure on which proteins are made.
3. A _______________ is an organelle that uses light energy to make sugar from
carbon dioxide and water.
4. A long thread-like structure that rotates to quickly move an organism through its
environment. ________________
5. The fluid inside the cell. _________________
6. A cell type that contains an nucleus and organelles. ________________
7. An _______________ is a structure that carries out specific activities inside the
cell.
8. The __________________ is a system of internal membranes that move
proteins and other substances through the cell.
9. A cell type that does not contain a nucleus. ________________
10. A __________________ uses energy from organic compounds to make ATP.
chloroplast
ribosome
eukaryote
endoplasmic reticulum
cell membrane
organelle
flagella
nucleus
mitochondria
prokaryote
cytoplasm
vesicle
Cell Structure Quiz
11. Who is the person given credit for naming the cell?
12. Give at least 2 examples of cell types that HAVE a cell wall.
13. Name 2 of the 3 differences between plant and animal cells.
14. Explain the function of the cell membrane?
15. What organic molecule makes up the cell membrane that prevents it from
dissolving in water?
BONUS +5
What type of cell is shown below and give the names of the organelles labeled A, B
and C in the diagram.
B.
A.
C.
CHAPTER 7 QUIZ
11. The cell membrane is made up of a double layer of ___________. This keeps
the cell from dissolving in water.
12. Who is the person given credit for naming the cell?
13. What is the difference between the rough and smooth ER?
14. When is the only time that chromatin can be seen in the nucleus of a cell?
15. Give at least 2 examples of cell types that HAVE a cell wall.
BONUS (+5)
Give the names of the organelles labeled A, B and C in the diagram.
B.
A.
C.
CELL ORGANELLE QUIZ
1. This serves as a boundary between the inside of the cell and the outside of
the cell. ________________
2. This organelle holds the DNA of the cell and controls all cell
functions._____________
3. The organelle to the right is known as the “powerhouse of the cell. _________
4. Chromatin –
5. What is the difference between the rough and smooth E.R.?
6. Ribosomes –
7. Cell Wall –
8. Where is the nucleolus located?
9. This fluid inside the cell is mostly water and helps give the cell
shape. _________________
10. In what type of cell would you find large number of lysosomes?
Cell membrane
Cytoplasm
Mitochondria
Lysosomes
Nucleus
A secondary boundary that is only found in plant, bacterial and fungal cells
A system of folded membranes that help to move proteins throughout the cell
Long thin strands of DNA that are unseen in the nucleus except during cell division
Location of protein production (Where proteins are made)
A.
H.
E.
I.
B.
F.
J.
G.
D.
C.
Plant vs. Animal Cell Lab
DIRECTIONS
Use the flat side of the tooth pick to scrape the inside of your cheek. The more you scrape
the more cells will be removed.
• Rub the toothpick on to the middle of the slide, transferring the cells from the toothpick.
• Use 1 drop of methylene blue to cover the cells.
• Gently place the cover slip on top of the dye and cells. This will reduce the number of air
bubbles on the slide. View what you have prepared.
ANALYSIS
1. Draw an example of the plant and animal cell that you see from high power.
2. Label the following on each cell if applicable. (cell membrane, cell wall, nucleus,
cytoplasm, vacuole, nucleolus)
3. What are the 3 main differences between plant and animal cells?
4. If the onion is a plant, explain why you do not see a chloroplast.
5. If the cells were placed next to each other, how would you determine which is animal
and which is plant?
6. Is the cheek (animal) cell prokaryote or eukaryote? How do you know?
7. List two organelles that were NOT visible but should have been in the cheek cell.
8. Why are the dyes important to this lab?
9. Cheek cells do not move on their own, so you will not find two organelles that function
for cell movement. Name these organelles.
10. Keeping in mind that the mouth is the first site of chemical digestion in a human, what
organelle do you think would be numerous inside the cells of your mouth?
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