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ATP Water potential Osmosis Cellulose Turgid Pressure potential Plasmolysis Plasma membrane Apoplast pathway Symplast pathway Vacuolar pathway Root hair cell Cohesion Adhesion Active transport Casparian strip Measures the potential for a solution to lose water. Water moves from a solution with high water potential to one of lower water potential, down a water potential gradient. Water potential is decreased by the presence of solutes. Adenosine triphosphate- a molecule used to store energy temporarily in organisms. The molecule is broken down to adenosine diphosphate + phosphate to release energy for metabolic processes. A carbohydrate polymer, made up of glucose monomers, that forms plant cell walls. The movement of water molecules from a region of higher water potential to a region of lower water potential across a partially permeable membrane. When a cell is turgid the water inside the cell starts to exert pressure on the cell wall, called the pressure potential. Water moves from an area of high pressure to low pressure, down a pressure gradient. Describes a cell that is full of water as a result of entry of water due to osmosis. When the pressure of the cell wall prevents more water entering, the cell is said to be turgid. The membrane surrounding every cell, forming the selectively permeable boundary between the cell and its environment. Made up of a phospholipid bilayer with embedded proteins. Detachment of the plasma membrane from the cell wall, as the cytoplasm shrinks when water is lost from a plant cell. Moves water through the cell cytoplasm, through the plasmodesmata. Moves the water in the cell walls and between the cells. Cells in the epithelium of roots that have long extensions to increase surface area for the absorption of water and minerals. Similar to the symplast pathway, but the water is able to enter and pass through the vacuoles as well. The attraction of water molecules to the walls of the xylem. The attraction of water molecules to one another. A strip of waterproof suberin in the cell walls of root endodermis cells, blocking the apoplast pathway. Water must therefore pass through the cytoplasm, which maintains the water potential gradient between the xylem and cortex cells. Movement of substances across membranes against their concentration gradient, requiring energy in the form of ATP. Active transport usually involves the use of transport protein.