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Water potential
Pressure potential
Plasma membrane
Apoplast pathway
Symplast pathway
Vacuolar pathway
Root hair cell
Active transport
Casparian strip
Measures the potential for a solution to lose water.
Water moves from a solution with high water
potential to one of lower water potential, down a
water potential gradient. Water potential is
decreased by the presence of solutes.
Adenosine triphosphate- a molecule used to store
energy temporarily in organisms. The molecule is
broken down to adenosine diphosphate + phosphate
to release energy for metabolic processes.
A carbohydrate polymer, made up of glucose
monomers, that forms plant cell walls.
The movement of water molecules from a region of
higher water potential to a region of lower water
potential across a partially permeable membrane.
When a cell is turgid the water inside the cell starts
to exert pressure on the cell wall, called the pressure
potential. Water moves from an area of high
pressure to low pressure, down a pressure gradient.
Describes a cell that is full of water as a result of
entry of water due to osmosis. When the pressure of
the cell wall prevents more water entering, the cell
is said to be turgid.
The membrane surrounding every cell, forming the
selectively permeable boundary between the cell
and its environment. Made up of a phospholipid
bilayer with embedded proteins.
Detachment of the plasma membrane from the cell
wall, as the cytoplasm shrinks when water is lost
from a plant cell.
Moves water through the cell cytoplasm, through
the plasmodesmata.
Moves the water in the cell walls and between the
Cells in the epithelium of roots that have long
extensions to increase surface area for the
absorption of water and minerals.
Similar to the symplast pathway, but the water is
able to enter and pass through the vacuoles as well.
The attraction of water molecules to the walls of the
The attraction of water molecules to one another.
A strip of waterproof suberin in the cell walls of root
endodermis cells, blocking the apoplast pathway.
Water must therefore pass through the cytoplasm,
which maintains the water potential gradient
between the xylem and cortex cells.
Movement of substances across membranes against
their concentration gradient, requiring energy in the
form of ATP. Active transport usually involves the
use of transport protein.