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Transcript
Department of Electrical Engineering
LABORATORY WORKS
in
SEMICONDUCTOR ELECTRONICS
Valery Vodovozov and Zoja Raud
http://learnelectronics.narod.ru
Tallinn
2014
Contents
Safety warnings...................................................................................................... 3
Preliminary notes about the workflow ..................................................................... 4
Circuit preparation .............................................................................................. 4
Wiring................................................................................................................. 5
Experimentation and reporting............................................................................ 6
Job instructions ................................................................................................... 7
Work 1. Diodes................................................................................................... 7
Target............................................................................................................. 7
Lesson preparation......................................................................................... 7
Experimentation.............................................................................................. 7
Report contents .............................................................................................. 8
Optional section.............................................................................................. 8
Work 2. Transistors ............................................................................................ 9
Target............................................................................................................. 9
Lesson preparation......................................................................................... 9
Experimentation.............................................................................................. 9
Report contents ............................................................................................ 10
Optional section............................................................................................ 10
Work 3. Thyristors ............................................................................................ 11
Target........................................................................................................... 11
Lesson preparation....................................................................................... 11
Experimentation............................................................................................ 11
Report contents ............................................................................................ 12
Optional section............................................................................................ 12
Work 4. Operational amplifiers ......................................................................... 13
Target........................................................................................................... 13
Lesson preparation....................................................................................... 13
Experimentation............................................................................................ 13
Report contents ............................................................................................ 14
Optional section............................................................................................ 14
References.......................................................................................................... 14
Annexes .............................................................................................................. 15
1. Diode datasheet ........................................................................................... 15
2. Transistor datasheet..................................................................................... 15
3. Thyristor datasheet....................................................................................... 15
4. Opamp datasheet......................................................................................... 15
5. Color coding ................................................................................................. 16
6. Breadboard layout ........................................................................................ 17
2
Safety warnings
Safety warnings
This is a tutorial aid to implement laboratory works in electronics. The students are
expected to have acquired knowledge of electronic components, electrical wiring,
and electrical schematic symbols [1]. The manual complies with the curriculum and
the syllabus of the course AAR3320 “Electronics and Semiconductor Engineering”
[2], [3]. The laboratory has dangerous equipment whose voltages above 60 VDC or
30 VAC can pose a shock hazard, therefore read carefully the following safety
warnings and respect all the safety precautions.
1. Never apply the mains power if it may cause a danger or an injury. In the case of
an accident, switch off the nearest safety switch and release the sufferer from the
voltage. Thereafter call the rescue service (numbers 112 and 0112) and provide
the first aid.
2. In the case of overheating, smelling, the sparkles or electric arc between
contacts, switch off the supply immediately. Additional red safety push-button is
located on the front panel of the main laboratory switchboard. In the case of an
emergency, press this button to switch off all the lab benches. After avoiding an
emergency, pull out this push-button to restore the supply.
3. To avoid an electric shock, never switch on the supply without the instructor’s
permission, never open the covers, and do not touch with wires while the circuit is
powered.
4. Enable free access to the feeder board, lab bench, emergency switches, and all
the devices, which are adjusted during the experimentation. All equipment and
appliances should be well visible and their displacement or pulling down from the
table should be avoided.
5. When assembling the circuits, connect no more than two conductors to one
terminal or socket. To change the circuit, switch off the power.
6. Before energizing the lab bench, make sure that all devices and measuring
instruments are suitable for operation throughout the voltage and current ranges
provided by this manual. Do not run the circuits over the rated voltages and
currents and do not allow their overloading. Do not use equipment if it looks
damaged or operates abnormally.
7. It is prohibited to lean and sit, to hang clothes, to place bags, cases etc. on the
workplaces, to leave and to enter the laboratory without the instructor’s
permission, to eat, drink and smoke in the laboratory, to touch the devices not
needed for the given work, and to implement the experiments alone.
3
Preliminary notes
Preliminary notes about the workflow
Circuit preparation
1. Every student should implement the mandatory part of the works and may employ
the optional part given in small print in this tutorial aid.
2. Prepare for a work beforehand. Using the annexes of this manual, find the data
of the studied semiconductor devices, resistors, and the breadboard layout.
3. Basing on the schemes shown in Fig. 1, develop the principal circuit diagram for
experimentation. Each circuit includes a studied semiconductor device and
voltage dividers. Restrict the supply voltage Us = 10 V and set its polarity
accordingly the component data. Limit the power consumption of every part P ≤
1 W. Calculate the buffer resistors R1 to limit the current through a component.
Connecting a semiconductor without such resistors is a sure-fire way to kill it! To
adjust the voltage U2 across the component, apply the potentiometers R2 of 1 kΩ
or 10 kΩ. Therefore,
R1 ≥ max { Us / Imax; Us2 / P }
P1 ≥ Us2 / R1
I1 ≤ Us / R1
R1
VD
IA
UAC
R2
RLED
Us
LED
R1B
R2B
R1C
R1G
IC
IB
VT
UBE
UCE
R2C
R2C
Us
R1A
IG
IA
VS
UGC UAC
R2A
Us
Fig. 1. Basic schemes for experimentation
4. Add a circuit to indicate whether the scheme is energised using a LED and a
resistor:
RLED ≥ (Us – ∆ULED) / ILED
PLED ≥ ILED2⋅RLED
5. To estimate the voltages and currents, supplement your circuit with meters. Use
the digital multimeter or a voltmeter to measure the voltage across two leads. To
this aim, place the positive terminal on the lead with higher voltage (if known) and
the negative terminal on the lead with a lower voltage. A digital multimeter can be
used as an ammeter to determine the current flow through a wire or electrical
component. This measurement is accomplished by placing the multimeter or the
ammeter in series with the wire that the current is flowing through. Draw expected
characteristics.
4
Preliminary notes
Wiring
1. Develop the wiring diagram. Every workplace is accomplished with a breadboard,
a board with a studied device, a power supply, and measuring devices.
Converting the principal circuit to a wiring diagram, example of which is shown in
Fig. 2, is not straightforward because the arrangement of components will look
quite different from the principal circuit.
Power supply
Measuring
devices
– Us +
Coloured
safety wires
PA
Bread board
Sockets
Bus strips
Board of the
studied
device
VD
LED
RLED
R1
DO NOT COPY
PV
Components
Jumper wires
Clip rows
R2
Clip columns
Fig. 2. Example of a wiring diagram
2. Place the resistors, potentiometers, and LED on the breadboard layout. Use the
clip rows for the parts those thin leads do not exceed 0,6 mm in diameter and the
clip columns at the foot of the breadboard for the potentiometers and resistors
with thicker leads.
3. Link the components routing the jumper wires around the parts, not over them
thus making changing the components easier when needed. Wire the red positive
supply socket of the breadboard with a red bus strip and the black negative
supply socket with a black bus strip. Do not insert the component leads to the bus
5
Preliminary notes
strips; instead, use the jumper wires to wire the bus strips with the leads pushed
into the clips.
4. Apply the blue and green sockets to wire the emitter and collector of the
transistor board or the anode and cathode of the diode and thyristor boards. Use
the yellow socket to wire the control leads (base, gate).
5. Connect also the external board of a studied device, the supply, the measuring
devices, and the signal generators (if required) to these sockets.
Experimentation and reporting
1. Assemble the circuit accordingly the wiring diagram by pushing the component
leads to the breadboard clips. Keep the jumper wires on the board flat, so that the
board does not look cluttered.
2. Provide the link-up of the breadboard with the board of a studied device and the
measuring devices using the coloured cord set of special safety wires belonging
to the workplace outfit. Choose the red wires for the positive polarity and the black
ones for the negative polarity.
3. Before experimentation, check all the connections carefully. Make sure that
semiconductor devices are the correct way round and no leads are touching
(unless they connect to the same block).
4. When selecting the measuring range of the meters, ensure that the maximum is
above the expected reading anticipated. Selection of a high range prevents the
meter overloading. When the range of the value to be measured is unknown, set
the highest possible range or, wherever possible, choose autoranging.
5. Adjust the supply voltage to about 10 V and then turn off the power with the
pushbutton. After that, connect the breadboard to the positive (red) and negative
(black) terminals of the power supply and press the pushbutton to test the circuit.
If your circuit does not work, deenergize the breadboard and very carefully recheck every connection against the circuit diagram.
6. In experimentation, change the voltages by potentiometers and measure voltages
and currents. Any overvoltage, overcurrent, and overheating are prohibited!
During the measuring you can optimise the meter range for the best reading. If
possible, enable all the leading digits to not read zero, and in this way the
greatest number of significant digits can be read.
7. Before changing functions or experiments, power off the breadboard. Never
perform resistance or continuity measurements on live circuits!
8. At the end of experimentation, submit the protocols and other results to the
instructor. After instructor’s permission, take off the circuit, switch off and return
the measuring devices and equipment onto their places, and leave the workplace
in order.
9. Every student must prepare and defend the personal report about every work.
The report includes the title sheet, protocols, tables of experiments, calculations,
diagrams, and conclusions. In conclusions, evaluate compliance of the results
with the theoretical aspects and valid standards, and expediency of the used
methods. Pay attention to the differences of the results obtained, experimental
errors, mistaken measurement readings, and their reasons.
6
Diodes
Job instructions
Work 1. Diodes
Target
Making the simple diode circuits and acquainting with diode characteristics.
Lesson preparation
1. Using Annex 1 in this manual, find the LED and the diode data: their types,
maximum forward currents IF max, maximum reverse voltages UR max, and forward
voltage drops ∆UF.
2. Familiarise with the available power source, its voltage Us max, and current Is max.
3. Develop the LED circuit indicating whether the breadboard is energised.
4. Develop the circuit and wiring diagrams to explore the forward volt-ampere
characteristic of a studied diode. Calculate and place a voltage divider between
the power supply and the diode to protect the circuit from overloading. Choose
the potentiometer of 1 kΩ or 10 kΩ and the buffer resistor to this aim.
5. Provide the circuit link-up with:
• dc voltmeter PV to measure the diode forward voltage UF and reverse
voltage UR
• dc ammeter PA to measure the diode forward current IF and reverse
current IR
and find out the data of the available measuring devices: their types, measuring
limits, and maximum measured values.
6. Sketch an expected volt-ampere characteristic and diode voltage waveforms.
Experimentation
1. Familiarise with a LED:
•
Wire the red (positive) supply socket of the breadboard with a red bus strip
and the black (negative) socket with a black bus strip.
•
In the first breadboard row, assemble the circuit for indication whether the
breadboard is energised by inserting the current-limiting resistor and the LED
to the clips, putting them together, and linking to the bus strips.
•
Adjust the power supply voltage to 10 V. Connect it to the breadboard sockets.
Self-examine and ask an instructor to examine the assembled circuit.
•
Power on the supply and ensure the LED beams. Then, power off the supply
and ensure the LED dims. If a fault occurs in any instant, deenergize the
breadboard immediately, examine the circuit and eliminate errors.
2. Tune the potentiometer:
•
Put together the current-limiting resistor and the potentiometer and link to the
bus strips. Wire the potentiometer slider with the blue socket and the negative
(black) bus strip with the green socket.
7
Diodes
•
Choose the measuring devices and assign their ranges and terminals for
wiring. Connect the voltmeter across the blue and green sockets. Selfexamine and ask an instructor to examine the assembled circuit.
•
Power on the supply. Turn the potentiometer knob and find its positions that
correspond to the maximum and minimum voltages. Assign the minimum
voltage and then power off the supply.
3. Estimate the forward volt-ampere characteristic:
•
Assemble the desired circuit, self-examine and ask the instructor to check it.
•
Power on the supply. Turn the potentiometer smoothly until the maximum
supply voltage or the diode permissible current is achieved. At every step,
measure the diode voltage and current, fill the measured values in the
protocol, and plot the diagram.
•
Restore the minimum voltage and power off the supply.
4. Following the instructor’s permission, switch off the devices, take off the circuit,
and introduce proper order at the workplace.
Report contents
1. Wiring diagram of the experimental setup with specification of the components.
2. Circuit diagram of the experimental setup.
3. Calculation of the resistors.
4. Tables of the observed data.
5. Scaled diagrams of the experimental volt-ampere characteristic.
6. Estimation of the knee voltage and the forward voltage drop ∆UF in the upper
point of the volt-ampere characteristic.
7. Conclusions regarding estimation, comparison and explanation of the expected
and obtained results.
8. Signed protocol.
Optional section
1. Design and assemble the circuit to estimate the reverse volt-ampere characteristic, repeat
experimentation, and include the table and the characteristic obtained to your report.
2. Using a signal generator and an oscilloscope, develop and assemble the circuit to trace the diode
voltage waveform and employ experimentation in the given point of the volt-ampere characteristic.
3. Calculate the diode power dissipation at the maximal anode current and prove your result with
simulation.
4. Design the circuit whose supply voltage exceeds the diode breakdown (Us > UR max), calculate the
voltage divider, and prove your design with simulation.
5. Design the rectifier circuit which load voltages and currents exceed the diode ratings (ULOAD >
UR max, ILOAD > IF max), and prove your design with simulation.
8
Transistors
Work 2. Transistors
Target
Making the simple transistor circuits and acquainting with input and output
characteristics of a transistor in the common emitter mode of operation.
Lesson preparation
1. Using Annex 2, find the transistor data: type, permissible collector-emitter voltage
UCE max, base voltage UBE max, collector current IC max, power dissipation Pmax, beta
gain β, and frequency fmax. Calculate an expected base current IB max.
2. Familiarise with the available power source, its voltage Us max, and current Is max.
3. Develop the wiring and circuit diagrams to study an input characteristic IB(UBE) at
zero collector-emitter voltage UCE and an output characteristic IC(UCE) at different
base currents IB of a transistor in the common emitter mode of operation.
Consider the pnp or npn transistor structure to set the proper supply polarity.
Calculate and place a voltage divider between the power supply and the base
circuit to bias and protect the base. Calculate and place another divider between
the power supply and the collector circuit to protect the collector. Choose the
potentiometers of 1 kΩ or 10 kΩ in these dividers.
4. Provide the circuit link-up with:
• dc voltmeters PV to measure the transistor collector-emitter voltage UCE
and base voltage UBE
• dc ammeters PA to measure the transistor collector current IC and base
current IB
and find the data of the available measuring devices: their types, measuring
limits, and maximum measured values.
5. Sketch expected input and output characteristics and voltage waveforms.
Experimentation
1. Select the measuring devices and assign the required measuring ranges and
sockets for wiring. Adjust the supply voltage to 10 V.
2. Find the positions of the potentiometer knobs that correspond to the maximum
and minimum voltages and set the minimum voltages on their sliders.
3. Assemble the desired circuit to estimate the input characteristic IB(UBE) at an open
collector. Self-examine and ask an instructor to examine your circuit.
4. Power on the base supply and ensure the circuit operates properly. If the fault
occurs, power off the breadboard immediately, examine the circuit and eliminate
errors.
5. To build the input characteristic, increase smoothly UBE by turning the base
potentiometer knob until the maximum base voltage UBE or current IB max is
achieved. At every step, measure the base voltage UBE and current IB, fill the
measured values in the protocol, and plot the graph. Afterwards, remove the base
voltage and the breadboard supply.
9
Transistors
6. Assemble the desired circuit to estimate the output characteristics IC(UCE), selfexamine and ask the instructor to examine it also.
7. Using the selected resistor values, calculate the expected saturation current IC sat
and cutoff voltage UCE cutoff.
8. To build an output characteristic, keep the base current IB far below the IB max and
increase smoothly UCE until the cutoff voltage UCE cutoff is achieved or the collector
current IC reaches the saturation level IC sat. At every step, measure IC, write
down IB, UCE and IC to the protocol, and plot the graph.
9. Following the instructor’s permission, switch off the devices, take off the circuit,
and introduce proper order in the workplace.
Report contents
1. Wiring diagram of the experimental setup with specification of the components.
2. Circuit diagram of the experimental setup.
3. Calculation of voltage dividers and an expected base current.
4. Tables of the observed data (UBE, IB) at an open collector and (UCE, IC) at given IB.
5. Scaled diagrams of the experimental input and output characteristics.
6. Estimation of the cutoff voltage (UBE cutoff) and saturation current (IC sat), load line,
operating point at observed IB, beta and alpha gains, as well as the differential
input and output resistances at the operating point.
7. Conclusions regarding estimation, comparison and explanation of the expected
and obtained results.
8. Signed protocol.
Optional section
1. Find an output characteristic at the maximal base current and include to the report the table and
the characteristic obtained, load line, operating point at observed IB, beta and alpha gains, as well
as the differential input and output resistances at the operating point.
2. Estimate an input characteristic at IC > 0. To this aim, keep IC < IC max and increase smoothly UBE
until the permissible base voltage UBE or current IB max of the transistor is achieved. At every step,
measure the base voltage UBE and current IB, fill the measured values in the protocol, and plot the
graph.
3. Using a signal generator and an oscilloscope, develop and employ the circuit to trace the base
and collector voltage waveforms in the given point of the output characteristic.
4. Design an employ an additional experiment to demonstrate the non-linear modes of the transistor
operation and prove your result with simulation.
5. Calculate the transistor input and output voltage drops at the operating point of the highest current
gain and prove your result with simulation.
6. Calculate the transistor input and output power dissipation rates at the operating point of the
highest power dissipation and prove your result with simulation.
10
Thyristors
Work 3. Thyristors
Target
Making the simple thyristor circuits and acquainting with input and output
characteristics of a thyristor.
Lesson preparation
1. Using Annex 3, find the thyristor data: type, maximum forward current IF max,
forward voltage UF max, reverse voltage UR max, gate voltage UG max, and gate
current IG max.
2. Familiarise with the available power source, its voltage Us max, and current Is max.
3. Develop the circuit and wiring diagrams to study the input characteristic IG(UGC) at
an open anode and output characteristic IF(UF) of a thyristor. Calculate and set a
voltage divider between the power supply and the gate circuit to protect the power
source and the gate from overloading. Calculate and set another voltage divider
between the power supply and the anode/cathode circuit to protect the thyristor.
Choose the potentiometers of 1 kΩ or 10 kΩ in these dividers.
4. Provide the circuit link-up with:
• dc voltmeters PV to measure the gate voltage UGC and thyristor voltage UF
• dc ammeters PA to measure the gate current IG and the thyristor current IF
and find the data of the available measuring devices: names, measuring limits,
and maximum measured values.
5. Sketch expected input and output characteristics and voltage waveforms.
Experimentation
1. Select the measuring devices and assign the required measuring ranges and
sockets for wiring. Adjust the supply voltage to 10 V.
2. Find the positions of the potentiometers that correspond to the maximum and
minimum voltages and set the minimum voltages on their outputs.
3. Assemble the desired circuit to estimate the input characteristic IG(UGC) at the
open anode circuit. Self-examine and ask an instructor to examine the circuit.
4. Power on the supply source and ensure the circuit operates properly. If the fault
occurs, power off the lab bench immediately, examine the circuit and eliminate
errors.
5. To estimate an input characteristic, increase smoothly the gate voltage by the
gate potentiometer until the accessible gate current or maximum gate voltage is
achieved. At every step, measure the gate voltage and current, fill the measured
values in the protocol, and plot the graph. Afterwards, remove the gate voltage
and the breadboard supply.
6. Assemble the desired circuit to estimate the output characteristic IF(UF), selfexamine and ask an instructor to check it. Make sure the gate voltage is zero.
7. To build the output characteristic, set the maximum accessible thyristor voltage
UF and increase smoothly the gate voltage until the thyristor opens (i.e. until UF
11
Thyristors
drops and the anode current appears). Since the thyristor is open, remove the
gate voltage and make sure the anode current continues to flow.
8. Then, decrease the thyristor voltage accurately and, at every step, measure the
thyristor voltage and current, fill the measured values in the protocol, and plot the
graph. Fix the hold point, i.e. the last non-zero point of this graph.
9. Following the instructor’s permission, switch off the devices, take off the circuit,
and introduce proper order in the workplace.
Report contents
1. Wiring diagram of the experimental setup with specification of the components.
2. Circuit diagram of the experimental setup.
3. Calculation of voltage dividers.
4. Tables of the observed data UGC, IG and UF, IF.
5. Scaled diagrams of the experimental input and output characteristics.
6. Estimation of the hold voltage and hold current as well as the forward voltage
drop ∆UF in the upper point of the output diagram.
7. Conclusions regarding estimation, comparison and explanation of the expected
and obtained results.
8. Signed protocol.
Optional section
1. Find experimentally the gate currents to open the thyristor at a couple of other UF voltages and
build the firing diagram IG(UF).
2. Using a signal generator and an oscilloscope, develop and employ the circuit to trace a voltage
waveform UF(t) in the given point of the output diagram.
3. Assemble the circuit and plot the forward and reverse characteristics of the closed thyristor without
the gate control.
4. Calculate the thyristor input and output impedances, prove your calculation with simulation, and
explain their differences.
5. Calculate the thyristor input and output voltage drop at the highest current and prove your result
with simulation.
6. Calculate the thyristor input and output power dissipations at the highest current and prove your
result with simulation.
12
Annexes
Work 4. Operational amplifiers
Target
Acquainting with amplitude and phase frequency responses and voltage waveforms
of a non-inverting voltage amplifier with negative feedback built on the operational
amplifier (opamp).
Lesson preparation
1. Using Fig 3 and Annex 4, find the opamp data: type, supply voltage, open-loop
voltage gain, slew rate, gain-bandwidth product, and input impedance. Acquire
with the tuning knobs and plugs of the test board. Locate the output potentiometer
R1, the feedback potentiometer R2, the input potentiometer R3, the signal inputs
1, 2, and the output 3.
R3
+Us
+
−
R2
R1
DO NOT COPY
Fig. 3. Circuit to study an opamp
2. Familiarise with the available power and signal sources: their names, voltage
shapes, maximum voltage Us max, and maximum current Is max.
3. Develop the circuit diagram to study amplitude and phase frequency responses
and voltage waveforms of a non-inverting voltage amplifier with negative
feedback built on the base of an opamp. Provide the circuit link-up with the power
source, signal generator on the input (1), and oscilloscope on the input (2) and
output (3) of the amplifier.
4. Draw expected frequency responses and voltage waveforms of the voltage
amplifier.
Experimentation
1. Assemble the desired circuit to estimate the input and output waveforms. Selfexamine the assembled circuit and ask the instructor to examine it.
2. Switch on the power source and set the voltage of 10 V. Ensure the circuit
operates properly. If the fault occurs in any instant, power off the lab bench
immediately, examine the circuit and eliminate errors.
3. Switch on the signal generator and the oscilloscope. Set the sinusoidal waveform
of the signal generator with the frequency of 100 Hz and attenuation of 50 dB
(50 − 300 mV).
13
Annexes
4. Set the given feedback level and tune the maximum output sinusoidal signal of
the amplifier using the input and output potentiometers. Measure the input peakto-peak signal value Upk-pk in and write down it to the protocol.
5. Measure the output signal peak-to-peak value Upk-pk out and the time shift φ [µs]
between input and output waveforms; write down them to the protocol.
6. Smoothly increasing frequency f [MHz], make 3−5 measurements in each of the
three frequency bands − Hz, kHz, MHz (10−20 points altogether) − and repeat
item 5 at every step.
7. Following the instructor’s permission, power off the devices, take off the circuit,
and introduce proper order in the workplace.
Report contents
1. Circuit diagram of the experimental setup, with specification of the components.
2. Calculation example of the voltage amplification factor Ku [p.u.], Ku [dB] and the
phase shift φ [rad].
3. Table of the observed and calculated data at the given input (Upk-pk in) and
feedback signals: f [MHz], Upk-pk out [V], φ [µs] and φ [rad], Ku [p.u.] and Ku [dB].
4. Scaled diagrams of the amplitude
Ku [dB] (f [MHz]) and φ [rad] (f [MHz]).
and
phase
frequency
responses
5. Bandwidth estimation.
6. Input and output voltage waveforms at the cutoff frequencies.
7. Conclusions regarding estimation, comparison and explanation of the expected
and obtained results.
8. Signed protocol.
Optional section
1. Set another feedback level and repeat the abovementioned items 4 to 6. Build the graph of the
bandwidth dependence upon the feedback fraction.
2. Set another signal shape and repeat the items 4 to 6. Build the graph of the bandwidth
dependence upon the signal shape.
3. Define experimentally the frequency and voltage bands in which the opamp is a linear device.
Build the input and output voltage waveforms of the non-linear opamp operation.
References
1. Vodovozov, V., Jansikene, R., Electronic Engineering, Tallinn: TUT, 2006, 148 p.
2. Vodovozov, V., Jansikene, R., Elektroonika ja Jõupooljuhttehnika (Tõlge inglise
keelde), Tallinn: TTÜ, 2008, 140 lk.
3. Vodovozov, V. Introduction to Electronic Engineering, Available at:
http://bookboon.com/int/student/electro/introduction-to-electronic-engineering
14
Annexes
Annexes
1. Diode datasheet
Quantity
АЛ102А
АЛ336Б
5
2
2,8
10
2
2,0
Forward current IF max, mA
Reverse voltage UR max, V
Forward voltage drop ∆UF, V
Pinouts
C
C
A
A
Д206
(1N360)
100
100
0,5
C
A
BAV21
1N4148
NTE177
250
200
1,0
150
75
1,0
250
150
1,0
C
A
C
A
C
A
2. Transistor datasheet
Quantity
Structure
Collector-emitter voltage UCE max, V
Base-emitter voltage UBE max, V
Collector current IC max, mA
Power dissipation Pmax, mW
Beta gain β
Frequency fmax, MHz
KT312Б
(BF240)
npn
35
4
30
225
25…100
120
B
Pinouts
E
KT345Б
(BC513)
pnp
20
4
200
300
50…150
350
C
B E
KT3107A
(BC557)
pnp
45
5
100
300
20…140
200
C
KT347A
pnp
15
4
50
150
30...400
500
B E
C
C
B
KT816Б
(BD234)
pnp
45
5
3000
1000
25...275
3
E
ECB
3. Thyristor datasheet
Quantity
Forward current IF max, mA
Forward voltage UF max, V
Reverse voltage UR max, V
Gate voltage UG max, V
Gate current IG max, mA
KУ201E
2000
100
100
6
100
BRX45-T
800
60
60
0,9
0,2
A
Pinouts
A
G C
2N5060
800
30
30
1,2
0,2
C
G A
NTE5402
800
100
100
0,8
0,05
C
G A
G
C
4. Opamp datasheet
Quantity
Supply voltage, V
Open-loop voltage gain, dB
Slew rate, V/µs
Gain-bandwidth product, MHz
Input impedance, Ω
OPA 2681
±6
56…100
1200…2100
45…90
5
10
15
OPA 2703
4…12
120
0,6
1
9
10
OPA 300
2,7…5,5
95…106
80
150
13
10
OPA 337
2,7…5,5
100…120
4,6
12,5
13
10
Annexes
5. Color coding
Examples
16
Annexes
6. Breadboard layout
17