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AP European History
Review 2nd Semester
Industrial Revolution
To
European Union
The Industrial Revolution
Origins
Agricultural revolution
• New methods of farming increased food production,
led to population growth & surplus of labor
Capital for investment (banking and credit system)
Mineral resources
• Supply of coal & iron ore needed to run machines
• Private and public investment built up infrastructure
 Roads, bridges, canals, railroads etc.
Markets
• colonial empire - market for manufactured goods
Technological Changes
Cotton Industry
Water frame – use of hydro power
Crompton’s mule
• Combined aspects of the water frame & the Spinning Jenny to
increase yarn production
• Water powered machines made rivers key locations for
production
The Steam engine
James Watt (1736-1819)
• Developed the steam engine powered by coal which increased
productivity
• Steam engines did not need to be located by rivers development of factories
• Coal production quadrupled from 1815 to 1850 to keep up with
demand
A Revolution in Transportation: Railroad
• Richard Trevithick’s locomotive
 1st Steam powered
• George Stephenson’s Rocket
 1st public railway line (32 miles long) went 16MPH
The Industrial Factory
Workers were wage earners instead of
entrepreneurs
Workers were forced to work regular hours in
shifts
• Major change from agrarian work
• Disciplined with fines, dismissal or beatings
The Pace of Industrialization on the
Continent
Obstacles to Rapid Industrialization
Lack of a transportation system
• Didn’t have good roads or river transit
Upheavals of war
• French Revolution and Napoleonic Wars
• Weakened political and social stability
• Loss of manpower
The Social Impact of the Industrial Revolution
Population Growth
Decline of the death rate (famine, epidemics, war) &
increase in food supply
• Agricultural revolution all but ended famine
By 1850, European population was over 265 million
The Great Hunger (Exception to increase in food supply)
Irish population growth
• Grew from 4 to 8 million between 1781 & 1845
Reliance on the potato
Potato crop fails, 1845-1851
Over 1 million died of starvation and disease
Over 2 million emigrated to U.S.
Ireland became the only European nation with a
declining population in the 19th century
The Growth of Cities
Rapid, unplanned, growth
Move from rural to urban – left the countryside looking
for work in cities
• Direct result of industrialization
Urban Living Conditions in the Early Industrial Revolution
Cities and suburbs
• Sprang up fast with little planning – quickly overcrowded
Unsanitary conditions
• Waste flowed through the gutters
Crowding
• Rise in prostitution, crime, & sexual immorality
Adulteration of food
• Chemicals were added to food and drinks were watered down
Urban Reformers
Edwin Chadwick
Advocated a system of modern sanitary reform
• Resulted in first Public Health Act
• Use of drainage (sewers) and piped water
Efforts at Change
Efforts at Change: The Workers
Luddites
• skilled craftspeople who attacked the machines they
believed threatened their livelihoods (British)
The People’s Charter (Chartists) British
Workers movement
• Demanded universal male suffrage, payment for
members of Parliament, elimination of property
requirements for members of Parliament & annual
sessions of Parliament
• Attempted to institute change by peaceful,
constitutional means
• Provided working-class with sense of consciousness
Romanticism
The Conservative Order (1815 – 1830)
The Peace Settlement
Quadruple Alliance: Great Britain, Russia, Austria, Prussia
• Defeated Napoleon
• Congress of Vienna (1814 – 1815)
 Created policies to maintain European balance of power
• Lead by Prince Klemens von Metternich (Austrian foreign
minister)
 Believed European monarchs shared common interest of stability
• The principal of legitimacy
 Considered it necessary to restore legitimate monarchs to
preserve traditional institutions
• A new balance of power
 Strengthen countries to prevent one country from dominating
Conservative Ideology
Conservative political thought
• Obedience to political authority
• Organized religion was crucial to social order
• Hated revolutionary upheavals
 Advocated slow, gradual changes
• Unwilling to accept liberal demands or representative
government
Congress of Vienna sought to weaken France and
maintain a balance power
Congress of Vienna managed to prevent an all out
European conflict for almost a century
Conservative Domination: The Concert of Europe
The Concert of Europe
Fear of Revolution & war led to development
of the Concert of Europe
Met several times: congresses
Quintuple Alliance
• Withdraw armies from France, add France to the
Concert of Europe
Principle of intervention
• Great powers reserved the right to send armies into
countries where there were revolutions to restore
legitimate monarchs to their throne
• Britain objected to the principle of intervention
leading to a breakdown in the Concert of Europe
• Britain’s refusal kept Continental Europe from
interfering in revolutions in Latin America
The Revolt of Latin America
Bourbon monarchy of Spain toppled
Latin American countries begin declaring independence
• Simón Bolivar (1783-1830)
 Freed Columbia (1819) & Venezuela (1821)
• José de San Martín (1778-1850)
 Freed Chile (1817)
 After 1825, almost all of Latin America was free of
colonial domination
 Continental Europe looked to intervene, U.S. passed the
Monroe Doctrine pledging to support Latin American
countries
 British Navy was more of a deterrent than U.S. words
Britain began to dominate Latin American economy
• British merchants & investors moved in
Intervention in the Italian States and Spain
Conservative reaction against the forces of nationalism and
liberalism
• Austrian forces intervene in Italy
• French forces intervene in Spain
Repression in Central Europe
Metternich and the forces of reaction
Liberal and national movements in Germany
• Initially weak & remained controlled by landowning class
Burschenshaften – students societies, dedicated to a free and united
Germany (symbol of growing liberalism and nationalism)
Karlsbad Decrees (1819)
• Metternich had this decree drawn up by the Germanic
Confederation in response to the Burschenschaften
 The Karlsbad Decrees (1819)
 Disbanded the Burschenschaften
 Censored the press
 Supervised universities
 Restrictions on university activities
Russia
Start of 19th century, Russia was rural, agricultural, and autocratic
Alexander I (1801-1825)
• Raised on ideas of the Enlightenment & seemed sympathetic to
reform
• Leader of Russia during Napoleonic Wars
• After the defeat of Napoleon, his rule turned stricter leading to
opposition
• Used censorship to govern the people
Nicholas I (1825-1855)
• Military leaders of the Northern Union rebelled against
Nicholas I taking the throne (Decembrist Revolt)
• Revolt was crushed by loyal troops
• Russia became a police state (secret police)
 Nicholas feared revolutions in Russia & in Europe
Political liberalism
 Ideology of political liberalism
 Believed in individual freedom
 Protection of civil liberties
 Freedom before the law, assembly, speech, press
 Modeled after the Declaration of Independence & the
Rights of Man & Citizen
 The rights of a representative assembly (legislature) to
make laws
 Political liberalism was embraced by the industrial
middle class
 They wanted voting rights so they could share power
with the landowning class but they didn’t advocate
extending those rights to the lower class
Nationalism
• Part of a community with common institutions, traditions,
language, and customs
• The community is called a “nation”
 Formation of political loyalty
• Nationalist ideology
 Arose from the French Revolution and spread across Europe
 National unity in Germany or Italy threatened to upset the
balance of power established with the Congress of Vienna
 Independent Hungarian state would breakup the Austrian Empire
 Conservatives tried to repress nationalism (Concert of Europe)
• Allied with liberalism
 Liberals believed their goals could only be realized by people
who ruled themselves
 Nationalists believed that stronger states comprised of their own
people would eventually link communities and ultimately
humanity
Revolution and Reform,
1830-1850
Another French Revolution
Charles X (1824-1830)
• Liberals were winning elections which angered the king
• Issued the July Ordinances
 Rigid censorship
 Dissolved the legislative assembly
 Reduced the electorate in preparation for new elections
• Immediate revolt by liberals
Louis-Philippe (1830-1848)
• Group of moderate liberals appealed to LouisPhilippe, the Duke of Orleans to become the
constitutional king of France
• Charles X fled to Great Britain & a new monarchy
was born
• The bourgeois monarch – support for his rule came
from the upper middle class
• Constitutional changes favor the upper bourgeoisie
 Lower bourgeoisie & working class are disappointed that
they are excluded from political power
Revolutionary Outbursts in Belgium,
Poland, and Italy (Nationalism)
Primary driving force for these three 1830 revolution
was nationalism.
Austrian Netherlands (Catholic Belgium) given to
(Protestant) Dutch Republic by the Congress of Vienna
Nationalistic revolt by the Belgians (Protestants)
established a constitutional monarchy
Revolt attempts in Poland and Italy
• Austrians crushed Italian revolution
• Russians crushed Polish revolution
Reform in Great Britain
The Reform Act of 1832
New political power for industrial urban communities (Whigs take
power over Tories)
July Revolution in France set the stage for change
Benefited the upper middle class (wealthy industrial middle class)
• Reform Act of 1832 – Industrial communities gained a voice in voting
• Number of voters increased from 478,000 – 814,000
• Artisans, industrial workers & lower middle classes still had no vote
New Reform Legislation
Poor Law of 1834 – based on the theory that giving aid to the poor
& unemployed would encourage laziness
• The poor were crowded into workhouses where the living & working
conditions were intentionally miserable so people would be
encouraged to find employment
Repeal of the Corn Laws (1846)
• Economic liberals advocated free trade & lower bread prices for
workers
The Revolutions of 1848
Yet Another French Revolution
1846 – agricultural & industrial depression
1847 – 33% unemployment rate in Paris
Government was corrupt & failed to initiate reform
• No suffrage for the middle class
Louis-Philippe abdicates, February 24, 1848 (fled to
Britain)
Provisional government established
• Elections to be by universal male suffrage
• National workshops – jobs for unemployed
• Growing split between moderate and liberal republicans
 Moderate Government – most of France
 Radical liberals – Parisian working class
Provisional government established workshops under
the influence of Louis Blanc
• Unemployed workers got jobs raking leafs, ditch digging &
other manual labor jobs
• Unemployed workers in the national workshops rose from
10,000 to 120,000, emptying the treasury & prompting
moderates to halt the programs
• Became little more than unemployment compensation units
through public works projects
• Workers refused to except the decision leading to four days of
fighting in this working class revolt (government prevailed)
Second Republic established
• New Constitution ratified
• Charles Louis Napoleon Bonaparte was elected in December,
1848 (nephew of Napoleon)
Revolution in Central Europe
French revolts led to promises of reform
Frederick William IV (1840-1861)
• Germanic state rulers made concessions to the
growing revolutionary sentiments
 Freedom of press, abolishing censorship, new
constitutions, & working towards a united Germany
• Frankfurt Assembly
 All German parliament elected by universal male suffrage
 Purpose was to prepare a constitution for a united
Germany
 Frederick William IV refused the offer of “emperor of the
Germans”
 Frankfurt Assembly disbanded without accomplishing
their goal of a united Germany
Austrian Empire
Louis Kossuth, Hungary
 Advocated the formation of a legislature
• Metternich flees the country after demonstrations
begin & he is dismissed from office
• In Vienna, revolutionary forces took control calling
for a constituent assembly
• Hungary’s wishes granted
 Own Legislature
 National army
 Control over its foreign policy & budget
Austria Cont’d
• Emperor Ferdinand I & Austrian officials made
concessions to revolutionaries but waited for an
opportunity to reassert conservative control
• Tried to capitalize on division between radical &
moderate revolutionaries
• Military forces suppressed Czech rebels
• Ferdinand I abdicated in favor of his nephew
• Francis Joseph I (1848-1916)
• Nicholas I of Russia sent in troops to defeat
Kossuth’s forces and suppress the revolution
 Austrian emperor & propertied classes remained in power
The Failures of 1848
Division within the revolutionaries
Radicals and liberals
Liberties from propertied classes failed to extend male
suffrage to the working classes
Liberals were concerned about their property & security
& the fear of a social revolution by the working class
Divisions among nationalities
Hungarians demanded autonomy from Austrians but
refused to offer the same autonomy to their minorities
The Emergence of an Ordered Society
Development of a regular system of police
Purpose of police
• Preserve property & lives, maintain domestic order,
investigate crime, & arrest offenders & to create a
disciplined law-abiding society
French Police forces in France and England
Crime and Social Reform
Prison Reform
Nationalism
The France of Napoleon III: Louis Napoleon & the
2nd Napoleonic Empire
Louis Napoleon: Toward the Second Empire
Used nationalistic & liberal forces to bolster his power
National Assembly rejected his call for revision of
constitution to allow him to stand for reelection
Responded by seizing government with the military
Restored universal male suffrage
• People elected him president for 10 years so the empire could
be restored
Voted him in by an overwhelming majority
• Assumed the title of Napoleon III, December 2, 1852
The Second Napoleonic Empire
Authoritarian government
Early domestic policies
• Economic prosperity
 Used government spending to stimulate the economy
• Reconstruction of Paris
 Built railroads, harbors, roads, & canals
 Built hospitals & housing for the people
 Baron Haussmann (civil engineer)
 Modernized Paris
 Wider streets, sewage system, water supply, gaslights
Liberalization of the regime in the face of opposition
• Legalized trade unions & gave them the right to strike
• Strengthened power of the government
Foreign policy: Crimean War
The Ottoman Empire
Disintegration of the Ottoman Empire
• Encroachment of the Russian Empire
• Loss of territory
The War
Russian demand to protect Christian shrines (Privilege already
given to the French)
Ottomans refuse; Russia invades Moldavia and Wallachia
Turks declare war, October 4, 1853
Britain and France declare war on Russia, March 28, 1854
Austria remains neutral & does not give the military support
Russia was counting on
War ends in March, 1856 (Treaty of Paris)
• High death count on both sides due to disease
Political effects of the war
•
•
•
•
Destroys the Concert of Europe
Austria & Russia now enemies
Russia withdraws from European affairs, so does Britain
Sets the stage for German & Italian unification
National Unification: Italy
Kingdom of Piedmont
Northern Italian state that had historically stood up to
the Austrian Empire
Victor Emmanuel II (1849-1878) of Kingdom of
Piedmont
• Names Count Camillo di Cavour (1810-1861) as prime
minister
Napoleon III’s alliance with Piedmont, 1858
• Cavour agrees to give Napoleon Nice and Savoy in exchange
for military support in driving Austria out of Italy
War with Austria, 1859
• France wins a couple of early battles and made peace
• Prussia was mobilizing to support Austria
Northern states join Piedmont (nationalists rose up)
Italian nationalists in the 1850’s looked to Piedmont for
leadership to provide unification of Italy
National Unification: Italy
Guiseppi Garibaldi (1807-1882)
The Red Shirts (Volunteer Army)
Invasion of Kingdom of the Two Sicilies, 1860
Moved up the Peninsula until an army from Piedmont
moved south
Garibaldi backs down to prevent a civil war
Kingdom of Italy, March 17, 1861
Annexation of Venetia, 1866
Italy became an ally to Prussia in the Austro-Prussian
War of 1866
Annexation of Rome, 1870
French troops withdrew due to the Franco-Prussian War
1870-1871
Rome became the capital of a unified Italy
National Unification: Germany
Zollverein, German customs union which began to unite
German states economically
William I, 1861-1888
Wanted military reforms – planned to double the army’s size
Otto von Bismarck (1815-1898) (prime minister)`
Reorganization and mobilization of the army
Realpolitik – political realist, ruling by opportunity, not ideology
Bypassed parliament in pursuing political goals
The Danish War (1864)
Bismarck always fought an isolated opponent
Schleswig and Holstein
Austria & Germany defeated Denmark & split control of the two
territories
Joint administration with Austria
Austro-Prussian War (1866)
Austro-Prussian War (1866)
Russia remains neutral out of anger over Austria not helping them
in the Crimean War
Bismarck buys French neutrality by promising him land
Austrian defeat at Königgratz, July 3, 1866
Prussian breech-loading needle gun had a faster rate of fire
Prussian troops moved faster due to network of railroads
Signed an easy peace with Austria to avoid creating a hostile
enemy
North German Confederation – organized states, signed a military
alliance with Southern states (mainly Catholic)
Bismarck proved nationalism & authoritarian government could be
combined successfully
King & Chancellor (Bismarck) held the real power, but two houses of
Parliament had elected officials from the German States
Franco-Prussian War (1870-1871)
Two major powers in continental Europe were bound to clash (Prussia
& France)
Dispute with France over the throne of Spain
Throne was offered to distant relative of Prussian King
Bismarck edited a telegram from the king to goad the French into war
French declaration of war, July 15, 1870
Battle of Sedan, September 2, 1870
Entire French army & Napoleon III are captured
Siege of Paris, capitulates January 28, 1871
France paid 5 billion francs
Gave up provinces of Alsace & Lorraine to Germany
Southern German states join Northern German Confederation
William I proclaimed kaiser, January 8, 1871, of the Second German
Empire
British Prime Minister felt German unification destroyed the previous
balance of power
The Austrian Empire: Toward a Dual
Monarchy
Ausgleich, Compromise, 1867
Creates a dual monarchy of Austria-Hungary
Each monarchy had a separate constitution &
legislature
German speaking Austrians and Hungarian Magyars
dominate minorities
Francis Joseph Emperor of Austria/King of Hungary
Some things held in common
• Army
• Finances
• Foreign policy
Imperial Russia
Alexander II, 1855-1881
Emancipation of serfs, March 3, 1861
• Peasants could own property, marry as they chose, & file suits
in court
Problems with emancipation
• Government bought land from nobles & sold it to the peasants
with long term installment plans
• Land was often the worst available
• Peasants worked for gov. instead of nobles
Zemstvos (local assemblies)
• Dominated by noble landowners
• Created a local system of courts & judicial code of equality
before the law
Growing dissatisfaction
• Conservatives & liberals were upset with reforms
Assassination of Alexander II (1881)
• Populism – student & intellectual group looking to
create a new society through revolutionary acts
• Alexander is shot & killed by another radical group
known as the People’s Will
Alexander III (1881-1894)
• Return to traditional methods of repression
Great Britain: The Victorian Age
Did not experience revolts in 1848
Reforms
Economic growth
Queen Victoria (1837 – 1901) reflected the age
Symbol of high morals and national pride – Victorian Age
Benjamin Disraeli (1804-1881)
Tory (Conservative) Party leader
Extension of voting rights
Reform Act, 1867
•
•
•
•
Lowered voting requirements (taxes paid or income earned)
More male urban workers could vote
Increased overall number of voters
Established tighter organization of Liberal & Conservative parties
William Gladstone (first administration,
1868 – 1874)
Leader of Liberal party (Whigs)
Responsible for liberal reform acts
• Civil Service Exams
• Secret Ballot
Education Act of 1870
• Attempted to provide free public education at the
elementary school level
Industrialization on the Continent
Continental industrialization comes of age (1850 –
1871)
Mechanization of textile and cotton industries
Growth of iron and coal industries
Fueled by the expansion of railroads
• 1850 – 14,500 miles of track in Europe
• 1870 – 70,000 miles of track in Europe
Elimination of trade barriers stimulated economic
growth
Government support and financing
Joint-stock investment banks were crucial to
stimulation of industrial development
Marx and Marxism
Karl Marx (1818-1883) and Friedrich Engels
(1820-1895), The Communist Manifesto, 1848
History is the history of class struggle
Stages of history
End result of history is a classless society
“The proletarians have nothing to lose but their chains.
They have a world to win. Working men of all
countries, unite!”
After 1848 Revolutions, Marx went to London
Marx, Das Kapital (writing on political economy)
International Working Men’s Association, 1864
First International - Organization for working-class
interests (formed by British & French trade unions)
A New Age of Science
Development of the steam engine led to scientific
relationship between heat and mechanical energy
Louis Pasteur – germ theory of disease
1863 – Pasteurization, process of heating a product to destroy
organisms causing spoilage
Dmitri Mendeleyev – atomic weights and formation of
periodic law
Michael Faraday – discovered electromagnetic induction
and created first generator
Science and Materialism
People turned to science for answers rather than religion
Truth was to be found in the concrete existence of human beings,
not religious and romantic ideals
Growing secularization of population
Charles Darwin and the Theory
of Organic Evolution
Charles Darwin (1809-1882)
On the Origin of Species by Means of Natural
Selection, 1859
• All plants and animals have evolved over a long
period of time
• Those who survived had adapted to the environment
The Descent of Man, 1871
• Discussed the humans origin from animals
Ideas highly controversial; gradually accepted
• Later applied to society with social darwinism
Mass Society
The Growth of Industrial Prosperity: New Products
& New Markets
Mass Society
In the late 19th century, human progress was measured with material
progress and consumption of material goods
Europeans began to value leisure activities and the weekend (free from
work)
Lower and middle class began to take trains to amusement parks and the
beach
Mass Politics
After 1871, the focus of European life became the national state
Growing sense of nationalism and popularity of sports
Extension of universal male suffrage leads to nationalism to influence
the masses
First Industrial Revolution
Textiles, railroads, iron, and coal
Second Industrial Revolution
Steel, chemicals, electricity, and petroleum
Internal Combustion Engine (1878-Gas & Air)
Automobile and airplane
• Henry Ford (1863-1947) – mass production (assembly line)
• Zeppelin airship, 1900
• Wright brothers, 1903 (1st passenger air service 1919)
New markets
Focused on consumer goods for domestic markets
Prices of food and manufactured goods decreased
Increased wages
Competition for foreign markets
Tariff
• Reaction against free trade to guarantee domestic markets for
their own industries
Cartels
• Companies worked together to fix prices & set production
quotas
Larger factories
• Assembly lines
New Patterns in an Industrial Economy
Economic Patterns, 1873 – 1914
Depression, 1873 – 1895
Economic boom, 1895 – 1914
German Industrial Leadership
Germany replaces Britain as the industrial leader of Europe
New areas of manufacturing (chemicals, electrical equipment)
Industrialized later, so they invested in modern equipment
Encouraged scientific & technical education
European Economic Zones
Advanced industrial core of Great Britain, Belgium
France, the Netherlands, Germany, western part of the
Austro-Hungarian Empire, and northern Italy
Little industrial development in southern Italy, most of
Austria-Hungary, Spain, Portugal, the Balkan
kingdoms, and Russia
Surplus grain and cheap transportation caused a sharp
drop in agricultural prices.
The Spread of Industrialization
Industrialization in Russia and Japan
Japan’s government took the lead in promoting industry
Emergence of a World Economy
Europe was importing goods from around the world
Foreign countries were used as markets for the surplus
of manufactured goods
Women and Work: New Job Opportunities
Women sought the “Right to work”
Ideal of Domesticity – working class organizations
supported traditional roles for women
Sweatshops – subcontracting work out to women at home
White-Collar Jobs
Increase in white-collar jobs created a shortage of male workers
opening up opportunities for women (After 1870)
Expansion of service sector jobs - secretaries, teachers & nurses
Freedom from domestic patterns
Prostitution
Many lower class women became prostitutes in big cities as a way
to survive
London – 1885 – an estimated 60,000 prostitutes
Contagious Diseases Acts in the 1870s & 1880s
• Called for inspection of prostitutes for venereal diseases
• Acts were repealed over complaints that men were not being checked
Organizing the Working Class
Trade Unions
First half of the 19th Century
Trade Unions functioned as mutual aid societies
Late 19th Century
Formed labor unions and political parties based on
ideas of Karl Marx
Trade unions are increasingly aligned with socialist
parties
Socialist Parties
German Social Democratic Party (SPD)
• Largest German political party by 1912
Growth of socialist parties – spread to other European
countries
Second International – united socialist organization
• Struggled due to internal differences
• Two divisive issues: nationalism and revisionism
Evolutionary Socialism (Revisionism)
• Eduard Bernstein (1850-1932)
 Member of the German Social Democratic Party who
spent years in exile in Britain
 Argued that Marx had made fundamental mistakes and
socialists needed to stress cooperation and evolution rather
than class conflict and revolution
 Stressed the need to work through democratic politics to
create socialism, not revolution.
The Problem of Nationalism
Variation of socialist parties from country to country
Focused on issues in their own countries instead of a unified
workers movement
The Role of Trade Unions
National variations
• German unions were the strongest
Unions and political parties
The Anarchist Alternative
More popular in less industrialized nations (Italy, Spain, Russia, &
Portugal) where people saw no hope of peaceful political change
Initially believed that people were inherently good but got
corrupted by the state and society
Socialist parties and trade unions became less radical so some
people turned to anarchism as a means for a social revolution
Michael Bakunin
• Russian anarchist who advocated violence to dissolve state
institutions
Emergence of a Mass Society
Population Growth
1850 270 million
1910 460 million
Population growth
1850-1880 – caused by increasing birth rate
After 1880 – caused by declining mortality rate
• Medical discoveries and environmental conditions
 Smallpox vaccination
• Improved publication sanitation
 Reduced deaths from diarrhea, dysentery, typhoid fever, cholera
• Improved nutrition
 Better nutrition & food hygiene
 Faster shipment of food
 Pasteurization of milk
Emigration
Economic motives
• Oppressed minorities went to other countries (especially U.S)
Political motives
• Lower class citizens seeking more freedom
Transformation of the Urban
Environment
Urbanization of Europe
Migration from rural to urban
1800 – 21 European cities with a population of 100,000+
1900 – 147 European cities with a population of 100,000+
People moved to the cities for job opportunities
Improving Living Conditions
Reformers: Edwin Chadwick and Rudolf Virchow
Pointed to relationship between living conditions and disease
Buildings begin to be inspected for problems
Public Health Act of 1875 in Britain
•
•
•
•
Clean water into the city
Private baths (Hot water) became accessible to people in 1860s
Shower appears in 1880s
Sewage System
Housing Needs
Reformer-philanthropists focused on relationship of
living conditions to political and moral health of the
nation – built homes for the poor
Government support – increase in regulations
Demolition of old, unneeded urban defensive walls and
new, wider streets
Octavia Hill rehabilitated old homes and built new ones
designed to give the poor an environment they could
use to improve themselves
Redesigning the Cities
Major European cities were redesigned after the
example of Paris in the 1850s
Construction of streetcars & commuter trains created
suburbs
The Social Structure of the Society
The Upper Classes
5% of the population that controlled 30 to 40% of wealth
Plutocrats – aristocrats who made their money on investments in
railroads, public utilities, government bonds, & businesses
Alliance of wealthy business elite and traditional aristocracy
Common bonds – wealthy middle class kids admitted to elite
schools
The Middle Classes
Upper middle class, middle middle-class, lower middle-class
Professionals (law, medicine, civil service)
• New professionals – engineers, architects, accountants,
chemists
White-collar workers (product of the 2nd Industrial Revolution)
• Sales reps, bookkeepers, bank tellers, telephone operators,
secretaries, department store clerks
Middle-class values came to dominate
• Concerned with traditional Christian values and work ethic
The Lower classes
80 percent of the European population
Agriculture
• Many were landholding peasants – sharecroppers,
laborers
Urban working class: Skilled, semiskilled, unskilled
workers
• Skilled artisans – cabinet makers, printers, jewelry
makers
• semiskilled artisans – carpenters, bricklayers,
factory workers
• Unskilled laborers – day laborers, domestic services
The “Woman Question”: The Role of Women
Traditional Values
Marriage the only honorable and available career
Decline in the birth rate in part to some birth control
1840s-invention of vulcanized rubber made birth control an option
Elizabeth Poole Sanford encouraged women to avoid being selfsufficient. Thought women should embrace domesticity and
dependence on their husbands.
Middle-Class and Working-Class Families
Glorified Domesticity
Domestic ideal for the family emphasized togetherness with time
for leisure
Stressed functional knowledge for their children to prepare them
for future roles.
Daughters of working class families worked until married
1890 – 1914: higher paying jobs made it possible to live on
husband’s wages
• Limit size of the family
• Reduced work week
Education in the Mass Society
Expansion of Secondary Education
Universal Elementary Education
States began to offer public education
By 1900, most were free and compulsory at the primary level
States assumed the responsibility for teacher training
Liberal Beliefs About Education
Personal and social development
Needs of industrialization
Differences in education of boys and girls
• Girls - less math & science, more domestic skills
• Boys – humanities plus carpentry & military drill
Political motives
• Need for an educated electorate
• Instilled patriotism and nationalized the masses
Female Teachers
Increased Literacy from mass education
Growth of Newspapers
Western Europe: The Growth of Political
Democracy
Reform in Britain: William Gladstone
Reform Act of 1867: Suffrage extended
English Reform Bill of 1884
• Gave English agricultural workers the right to vote
Redistribution Act of 1885: Reorganized the election boroughs
Salaries paid to members of the House of Commons, 1911
• More people could run for office
Charles Parnell (1846-1891)
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Leader of the Irish representatives in Parliament
Called for Home Rule for Ireland
This would have established a separate Parliament for Ireland
English conservatives voted against home rule
 Resulted in terrorist attacks by the Irish
Reform in France
Louis Napoleon’s 2nd Empire ended with his defeat in the FrancoPrussian War
Universal male suffrage in 1871 enforced by Bismarck
• People elected a new National Assembly
Radical republicans formed an independent government in Paris
known as the Commune
• Fighting broke out between the Commune and the National Assembly
• National Assembly massacred thousands of members of the Paris
Commune
• Brutal suppression of the Paris Commune created a split between the
working class and the middle class
Establishment of the Third Republic, 1875
Monarchists, Catholic clergy and army officers opposed the Third
Republic
General Georges Boulanger - leader of a proposed coup d’etat
• Lost the courage to carry it out and fled the country
• Boulanger crisis rallied French citizens to the republic
Italy
Had pretensions of great power status
Sectional differences in Italy
Italians were loyal to their family, towns and
regions, but not their country
Chronic turmoil beyond the government’s
control
No universal male suffrage
Italy & Spain
• Both remained second rate European powers
Central & Eastern Europe: Persistence of
the Old Order
Germany
Trappings of parliamentary government
1871 constitution
Emperor commands the military in Prussian tradition
Bismarck’s conservatism
• Used coalitions to get what he wanted & then he dropped them
• Kulturkampf - “struggle for civilization” an attack on Catholic
Church
• Tried to weaken Social Democratic Party by passing
antisocialist law
• Tried to woo workers from socialism by passing social welfare
programs
Austria-Hungary
Austrian constitution of 1867 (in reality it was
still an autocracy)
Problem of minorities worsened with universal
male suffrage, 1907
Russia
Alexander III, 1881-1894: Overturns reform
and returns to repressive measures (autocracy)
after assassination of Alexander II
Nicholas II, 1894-1917: Believed in absolute
rule
Age of Modernity
Toward the Modern Consciousness:
Developments in the Sciences
European Intellectual Community
Prior to WWI – prominent thinkers had a sense of confusion and
anxiety about an impending catastrophe
Brought on by the growth of nationalism and technology
The Certainty of Science
Based on ideas from the Scientific Revolution & Enlightenment
Late 19th century - scientists questioned established scientific
theories
Marie Curie (1867-1934) and Pierre Curie (1859-1906)
Marie won Nobel Prizes in physics & chemistry
Discovered radiation (Marie ironically died from leukemia)
Atoms – small worlds with protons & electrons
Their experiments spawned a new theme in physics that studied
the disintegrative processes within atoms
Max Planck (1858-1947)
Energy radiated discontinuously (irregular packets of
quanta)
Formation of quantum theory
Raised questions about the subatomic realm of the atom
& the building blocks of the material world
New physicists began to challenge and ultimately
invalidate some of the work of Newton
Albert Einstein (1879-1955)
Theory of relativity – space & time are not absolute
Four dimensional space-time continuum
Energy of the atom
Toward a New Understanding of the
Irrational
Friedrich Nietzsche (1844-1900)
Glorifies the irrational
• Claimed humans at the whim of irrational life forces
“God is dead”
• Critique of Christianity
• Felt Christianity weakened Western creativity
Concept of the superman
• Superior intellectuals must rise up and lead the masses
Rejected democracy, social reform, & universal
suffrage
Henri Bergson (1859 – 1941)
French philosopher who accepted rational thought but
thought it was incapable of arriving at truth.
Georges Sorel (1847 – 1922)
Advocated revolutionary socialism through violence
Sigmund Freud & Psychoanalysis
Sigmund Freud (1856-1939)
The Interpretation of Dreams, 1900
Foundation of psychoanalysis
The Unconscious
Human behavior was influenced by the unconscious and by inner
desires
Id, Ego, and Superego
Id – center of unconscious (pleasure principle)
Ego – reason, coordinator of life (reality principle)
Superego – moral values of society
The superego served to force the ego to curb the unsatisfactory
drives of the id.
Dreams were the repression of unconscious desires
Oedipus Complex for men (Electra for women)
Desire for the parent of the opposite sex
Social Darwinism and Racism
Herbert Spencer (1820-1903)
British philosopher who applied Darwin’s ideas to
society
Societies are organisms that evolve through time by
struggling with their environment.
Progress came from the “struggle for survival”
Nationalism and Racism
Friedrich von Bernhardi (German general)
• Thought war was necessary for culture
• Evolutionary role “survival of the fittest”
Houston Stewart Chamberlain (1855-1927)
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The Foundations of the Nineteenth Century, 1890
Claimed Aryans were the creators of Western culture
Modern day Germans were the pure successors of “Aryans”
Aryan must be prepared to fight for Western Civilization
The Attack on Christianity
Challenges to Established Churches
Scientific inquiry
Modernization – migration to the city
weakened the base of the church set in village
cultures
New political movements – governments
reestablished ties with the churches after 1848
Revolutions
Anticlericalism – backlash against union of
church & state after 1848 revolutions
Biblical higher criticism
• Ernst Renan wrote Life of Jesus
• Questioned the historical accuracy of the Bible
• Denied the divinity of Jesus
Response of the Churches
Rejection: Pope Pius IX, Syllabus of Errors
• Rigid stand against nationalism, socialism, religious toleration,
& freedom of speech & press
Adaptation: modernism
• New view on the Bible as a book of moral ideas
• Encouraged Christians to get involved in social reform
• Catholic Church condemned Modernism in 1907
Compromise: Pope Leo XIII
• Permitted the teaching of evolution as a theory
• De Rerum Novarum (1891)
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Asserted that socialism was Christian principle
upheld right to private property
condemned evils of capitalism
urged followers to join unions & social reform groups (attempt
to reconnect with the working class)
Modernism in the Arts
Impressionism
Use of light and color
Left the studio & went out to paint what they saw
Camille Pissarro (1830-1903)
• Beginning of impressionist art
• Urged artists to paint nature, people and their surroundings
• Capture light, running water, emotion
Berthe Morisot (1841-1895)
• Female artist who used lighter colors and flowing brush strokes
Post-Impressionism
Kept the Light and color of impression and combined it with structure and
form
Shifted from objective reality to subjective reality
Viewed as the beginning of modern art
Paul Cezanne (1839-1906) – Woman with Coffee Pot
Vincent van Gogh (1853-1890) Starry Night
The Search for Individual Expression
Photography
Cubism: Pablo Picasso (1881-1973) Les Demoiselles d’Avignon
• Use of geometric designs to re-create reality
Abstract Expressionism: Vasily Kandinsky (1866-1944) Abstract painting
Modernism in Music
Included:
Attraction to the exotic, nationalist themes, folk music and the lure of the
primitive
Edvard Grieg (1843 – 1907)
• Scandinavian composer who used folk music to present nationalist
themes
Claude Debussy (1862 – 1918)
• Impressionist musician who used music to evoke the emotion of
poetry
Igor Stravinsky (1882-1971) Rites of Spring
• Classic example of modernism in music
• Use of pulsating rhythm, sharp dissonances, and sensual dancing
caused a riot at its debut in Paris
Sergei Diaghilev (1872-1929)
• Russian ballet director who worked with Stravinsky
Jews in the European Nation-State
By the end of the 19th century, Jews were emancipated in most
countries with some restrictions
Allowed them to get involved in politics and move out of the ghetto
Anti-Semitism
Revival of hatred towards Jews
Portrayed as the murders of Jesus
Strongest anti-Semitism was in Eastern Europe (Germany, Austria, &
Russia)
Persecution in Eastern Europe
Pogroms (massacres) in Russia
Emigration
Jews moved to U.S., Canada & Palestine
The Zionist Movement
Zionism
• Planned migration to Palestine to form a Jewish state
Theodor Herzl (1860-1904) leader of the Zionist Movement
The Jewish State, 1896
• Advocated Jews returning to Israel (Palestine) to form a Jewish state
• Gained support from Jewish bankers
• Slowly, Jews began to emigrate to Palestine
The Transformation of Liberalism: Great Britain & Italy
Britain
Working Class Demands
• Caused Liberals to move away from ideals (like laissez-faire)
Trade Unions
• Advocate “collective ownership” and other controls
• Unions grow in power
• Strike to demand a minimum wage
Fabian Socialists
• Stressed for workers to use their right to vote to capture the
House of Commons and pass legislation to help the laboring
class
• They were not Marxists
• They wanted social revolution through democratic means
Britain’s Labour Party
• Fabian Socialists & trade unions joined forces to form the
Labour Party
David Lloyd George (1863-1945)
• Abandons laissez-faire
• Backs social reform measures
• In order to implement the Liberal Party’s social reforms, he
curtails the power of the House of Lords
• National Insurance Act, 1911
 Sick pay, unemployment
• Beginnings of the welfare state
 Later legislation provided a small pension plan & worker’s
compensation
 Tax increases implemented on the wealthy class
Italy
Giovanni Giolitti (1903 – 1914)
• Prime Minister of Italy
Transformismo (policy of Giolitti)
• Transformism – political groups were transformed into new
government coalitions by political & economic bribery
• Giolitti’s policy eventually make Italian politics corrupt &
unmanageable
France: Travails of the Third Republic
Dreyfus Affair (1895 – 1906)
Evidence of renewed anti-Semitism in Europe
Dreyfus was a Jewish captain in the French military
Accused and found guilty of being a spy, sentenced to
life on Devil’s Island
More evidence revealed that the spy was a Catholic
officer
Military refused to try the Catholic officer
Dreyfus was eventually pardoned
Rise of Radical Republicans
Determined to make France more democratic
Targeted the army and the Catholic Church
Purge of anti-republican individuals and
institutions
1905- separation of church and state
Growing Tensions in Germany
William II (1888-1918)
Ran Germany as a authoritarian, conservative, military
state
Military and industrial power
By 1914, Germany was the strongest military and
industrial power in Europe
Pan-German League (radical right-wing politics)
Advocated:
Strong German Nationalism
Imperialism to united different social classes at home
Anti-liberal policies
Anti-Semitic policies
Austria-Hungary: The Problem of
the Nationalities
Parliamentary agitation for autonomy of
nationalities
Granting universal male suffrage only increased the
problem of governing multiple ethnic groups
Growth of German nationalism from a German
minority group caused problems in Austria
Magyar (Hungarian land owning class) agitation
for complete separation of Hungary from Austria
New Hungarian parliamentary leader kept Magyars
from rising up and worked to keep the Dual Monarchy
(Austria-Hungary) intact
Industrialization and Revolution in Imperial Russia
In 1890s, government sponsored massive industrialization
By 1900 the fourth largest producer of steel
Development of working class
Development of socialist parties
Marxist Social Democratic Party, Minsk, 1898
The Revolution of 1905
Russo-Japanese War, 1904-1905
• Russia’s defeat led indirectly to the Revolution of 1905
“Bloody Sunday” January 9, 1905
• Transport system wasn’t working due to the war, which led to
food shortages
• Workers went to the Winter Palace to present a list of
grievances to the Tsar
• Royal troops fired on the peaceful protest killing hundreds
• Workers called for strikes and organized unions
General strike, October 1905
Under pressure, Nicholas II granted civil liberties and a legislative
body, the Duma
Curtailment of power of the Duma, 1907
The Rise of the United States
Shift to an industrial nation, 1860-1914
World’s richest nation and greatest industrial power
9 percent own 71 percent of wealth
American Federation of Labor
Included only 8.4 percent of industrial labor
Lacked real power due to low membership
Progressive Era
Reform
Meat Inspection Act, Pure Food and Drug Act
Woodrow Wilson, 1913-1921
Income tax and Federal Reserve System
The Growth of Canada
Dominion of Canada
Quebec, Ontario, Nova Scotia, New Brunswick – 1870
Manitoba, British Columbia – 1871
Lack of real unity due to French Quebec
William Laurier, 1896, first French Canadian
prime minister
Made peace between French Canadians and the rest of
Canada
Helped industrialize Canada
Led to hundreds of thousands of immigrants
The New Imperialism
Causes of the New Imperialism
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Competition among European nations for prestige
Social Darwinism and racism
Religious humanitarianism, “White man’s burden”
Economic motives and military bases
The Scramble for Africa
South Africa
• Cecil Rhodes (1853-1902)
 Diamond and gold companies
 Takes the Transvaal (Dutch Region)
 Attempts to overthrow the neighboring Boer Government
• Boer War, 1899-1902
 British defeat Boers (Dutch) and offer them a lenient peace
• Union of South Africa, 1910
The Scramble for Africa (cont)
Portuguese and French Possessions
Mozambique
Angola
Algeria, 1830
West Africa and Tunis
The British in Egypt
Belgium and Central Africa
Leopold II, 1865-1909
International Association for the Exploration and Civilization of
Central Africa, 1876
Exploration of the Congo
French reaction is to move into territory north of the Congo River
German Possessions
Bismarck was against colonialism, he knew it helped win elections
South West Africa; Cameroons; Togoland; East Africa
Impact on Africa
By 1914, almost all of Africa was carved up between European powers
Imperialism in Asia
The British in Asia
James Cook to Australia, 1768-1771
British East India Company
Empress of India bestowed on Queen Victoria, 1876
Russian Expansion
Siberia
Reach Pacific coast, 1637
Korea and Manchuria
China
British acquisition of Hong Kong
European rivalry and the establishment of spheres of influence
Japan and Korea
Matthew Perry opens Japan, 1853-1854
Southeast Asia
British and French control
American Imperialism
US and the Spanish-American War
Controlled Pacific Islands for military bases to trade with Asia
Responses to Imperialism
Africa
New class of educated African leaders
Resentment of foreigners
Intellectual hatred of colonial rule
• Political parties and movements
China
Boxer Rebellion, 1900-1901, Society of Harmonious Fists
Chinese nationalists who tried to kick foreigners out by force
• Brutally put down by armies from around the world
Fall of the Manchu dynasty, 1912, founding of the Republic of China
Sun Yat-sen (1866-1925)
• Overthrew the Manchu dynasty – China remained weak
Japan
Mutsuhito (1867 – 1912) – young emperor who westernized Japan
Meiji Restoration
• Created democratic political & financial institutions but remained
authoritarian in practice
• Imitation of the West – sent Japanese abroad to get a western education
India
Costs and benefits of British rule
Brought order & introduced technology but subjugated the people
Indian National Congress (1883)
Moderate, educated Indians began to seek self government
International Rivalry and the
Coming of War
The Bismarckian System
Tried to preserve European peace
Wanted to isolate France (still mad over FrancoPrussian War)
The Balkans: Decline of Ottoman Power
• Russia and Austria-Hungary both want territory
Congress of Berlin (1878)
• Limited the size of the new Bulgarian state and humiliated
Russia in front of the European powers
New Alliances
• Triple Alliance, 1882 – Germany, Austria, Italy
• Reinsurance Treaty between Russia and Germany, 1887
 Bismarck didn’t want France and Russia to become allies
 Warned of a possible two front war
• Dismissal of Bismarck, 1890 by William II
New Directions and New Crises
Emperor William II and a “place in the sun”
• Aggressive policy of expansion
• Ended the Reinsurance Treaty with Russia
Military alliance of France and Russia, 1894
Triple Entente, 1907 – Britain, France, Russia
Triple Alliance, 1907 – Germany, AustriaHungary, Italy
Crisis in the Balkans, 1908-1913
Austria annexes Bosnia and Herzegovina, 1908
Serbian protest, Russian support of Serbia
Primary antagonists in the Balkans region were
Serbs and Austrians
First Balkan War, 1912
Balkan League (Serbia, Bulgaria, Montenegro, &
Greece) defeats the Ottomans
Second Balkan War, 1913
Couldn’t agree on division of Ottoman provinces of
Macedonia & Albania
Greece, Serbia, Romania, and the Ottoman Empire
attacked and defeated Bulgaria
Serbia’s ambitions
London Conference
Twentieth-Century Crisis
The Road to World War I
Before the outbreak of WWI, European were optimistic about material
progress
Felt European society was moving towards an earthly utopia
WWI kills millions of Europeans and brings an end to the period
known as the age of progress
Nationalism and Internal Dissent
Nationalism
• Liberals claimed that creation of national states would bring
peace
• Instead it was the most responsible for triggering WWI
• Led to competition instead of cooperation
• Brinkmanship
 Defended national honor
 Believed they had to support allies to preserve their own
internal security
Internal dissent
• Ethnic tensions
 Irish in British Empire
 Slavic minorities in the Balkans &
Austrian Empire
 Poles in the Russian empire
• Growing power of Socialist labor
movements
 Increase is strikes alarmed conservative
leaders
Militarism
Conscription
• Armies doubled in size between 1890 1914
Influence of military leaders
• Developed complex military plans that
took precedence over political plans
The Outbreak of War: The Summer of 1914
The effects of the Balkan Wars prior to 1914
• Tension between Russia & Austria for control of Balkan states
• Nationalism pushed minority groups to seek independence
Immediate cause of WWI was the assassination of
Archduke Francis Ferdinand and wife Sophia, June 28,
1914
Germany gives “full support” to Austria
• Blank Check
• Austria declares war on Serbia on July 28, 1914
Russian mobilization
• Germans responded with an ultimatum
• Russians ignored it and Germany declared war on
Russia
Schlieffen Plan
• Minimal troops against Russia
• Quick strike against France by moving through
Belgium
• Germany declared war on France to carry out their
plan
• Britain declares war on Germany for invading
Belgium neutrality
The War 1914-1915: Illusions & Stalemate
European attitudes toward the beginning of war
Belief in a short, romantic war, that would provide a
release from the dull and boring existence of mass
society
Started in Aug. 1914 – troops thought they would be
home for Christmas
Failure of the Schlieffen Plan
Right flank was weakened to prevent Russian invasion
in Eastern Germany
British mobilized faster than expected
Most important consequence - Western front bogs down
into trench warfare
First Battle of the Marne, September 6-10, 1914
Germans stopped.
War in the East
Fighting was characterized by more mobility than
the trench warfare on the Western Front, but still
resulted in high numbers of casualties.
Russian Failures
Battle of Tannenberg, August 30, 1914
Battle of Masurian Lakes, September 15, 1914
Austrian Failures
Galicia and Serbia
Germans come to Austria’s aid
Defeat Serbia
Inflict heavy casualties on Russia (2.5 million dead)
Italy doesn’t honor prewar alliance – joins allies in
1915
The War 1916-1917: The Great Slaughter
Trench warfare
“No-man’s land” – area between trenches
Political pressure for military results prompted
Generals to throw massive amounts of men at defensive
positions
Daily life for the soldiers was characterized by long
periods of boredom followed by artillery barrage and
frontal assaults by troops
Trench warfare became a senseless slaughter of troops
incompetent officers continually ordered their troops to
accomplish impossible battlefield objectives
“Softening up” the enemy (usual tactic)
• Artillery barrage before soldiers attack
 intended to destroy enemy barbed wire, make them hide in
bunkers, psychologically shock them and make them
vulnerable to attack
Battle of Verdun, 1916, Germans lost 700,000 men in
10 months
Battle of the Somme, 1916, British lost 60,000 men in
one day.
• Heaviest one-day loss in World War I
As the soldiers settled into trench warfare
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They became miserable in rat-infested trenches
Dealt with trench foot
Lost the romantic feel to the war
Lost morale as they waited to die
The Widening of the War
August 1914: Ottoman Empire enters the war
Battle of Gallipoli, April 1915
May 1915: Italy enters the war against Austria-Hungary
September 1915: Bulgaria enters the war on the side of the
Central Powers
Middle East
Lawrence of Arabia (1888-1935)
April 1917: Entry of the United States
The United States tried to remain neutral
Sinking of the Lusitania, May 7, 1915
Return to unrestricted submarine warfare January 1917
Germany gambles – starve Britain before the U.S. enters the war
United States enters the war, April 6, 1917
• Zimmerman Telegram and unrestricted submarine warfare
U.S. provides fresh troops and morale for the surge of 1918
A New Kind of Warfare
Air Power
1915: first use of airplanes on the battle-front
• First for recon, then for combat
German use of zeppelins
Tanks
1916: first use of tanks on the battlefield by British
• Early tanks ineffective
1918: British Mark V first effective tank
• Tanks play a larger role in WWII
The Home Front: The Impact of Total War
Increased Government Centralization and expansion of
Government power
Conscription
draft, or mandatory military service
Death rates from the war hit all social classes
Highest death rates
• Junior officers from aristocracy who led charges across “no man’s
land”
• Unskilled laborers and peasants who were infantry troops
Effects on Economies
European governments gradually took full control of all aspects of
their economies
Inflation from higher wages and scarcity of consumer goods
Large industrialists benefited from the war due to wartime
contracts for weapons and munitions
Public Order and Public Opinion
Dealing with unrest
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Use of military to break up strikes
Police powers were expanded to include the arrest of all dissenters
Loss of freedom of speech
Liberals and Socialists opposed the war because of wide scale human
slaughter, nationalism and militarism
Defense of the Realm Act
• British arrested dissenters and traitors
Propaganda to boost morale for the war effort
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Work or fight campaigns
Music as propaganda
Germans “The Watch on the Rhine”
Americans “Over There”
British “The Old Barbed Wire”
Social Impact of Total War
Labor benefits – allowed unions, gained higher wages
New roles for women
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Male concern over wages
Women began to demand equal pay
Gains for women
After the war, women demand the right to vote
The Russian Revolution
War and Discontent
Nicholas II was an autocratic ruler
• Led the military
• Wife kept him isolated from the reality of domestic
disturbances
Russia not prepared for war
• Incompetent political leadership of Nicholas II
• Lack of guns and ammunition
• Over 2 million killed, 4-6 million wounded or captured
Influence of Rasputin (the mad monk)
• Holy man who influenced Tsar Nicolas’s wife and eventually
the Tsar’s decisions
• Series of military and economic disasters caused Russians to
lose faith in the Tsar
• Conservative aristocracy assassinated Rasputin
The March Revolution
Problems in Petrograd
• Bread rationing
March of the women, March 8, 1917
• Women marched through the streets “Peace and
Bread!”
Calls for a general strike
Soldiers join the marchers
Provisional Government takes control
• Tried to carry on the war
• Soviets sprang up – councils of workers and
soldiers
Bolsheviks under the leadership of Vladimir
Ulianov, 1870-1924
• Sent back to Russia in a sealed train by the
Germans
• April Theses – Lenin’s version of a Russian
socialist movement that skipped the
bourgeois revolution
• Promised “Peace, land and bread” to the
people
Russian Revolution (cont)
The Bolshevik Revolution
Bolsheviks control Petrograd and Moscow soviets
Collapse of Provisional Government, November 6-7, 1917
Lenin ratifies redistribution of land and worker control of factories
to gain the support of the masses
Treaty of Brest-Litovsk, March 3, 1918
• Russian and German treaty
Civil War
Bolshevik (Red) army and Anti-Bolshevik (White) army
Murder of the Tsar and his family (July 16, 1918)
Disunity among the white army
Communists and “War communism”
• Military prevails due to ruthless discipline and the leadership of Leon
Trotsky.
• War Communism ensures regular supplies for the Red Army
Invasion of allied troops (support White army)
1921: Communists victory
The Last Year of the War
Last German offensive, March 21-July 18, 1918
Allied counterattack, Second Battle of the Marne, July 18,
1918
German attack is repelled
Ends Germany’s final attempt to win the war
General Ludendorff informs German leaders that the war is
lost
William II abdicates, November 9, 1918
Republic established
Armistice, November 11, 1918
The Casualties of the War
8 to 9 million soldiers killed, 22 million wounded
1915 – Armenians rebelled against Ottoman Empire
• Ottoman Empire retaliated with what is known as the Armenian
holocaust, killing an estimated 1 million Armenians
Revolutionary Upheavals in Germany and Austria-Hungary
German November revolution of 1918
Series of mutinies & demonstrations
German socialists come to power
Division of German Socialists
• Majority favored parliamentary democracy in route to an
elimination of capitalism
• Radicals favored an immediate social revolution
Formation of two governments
Failure of radicals to achieve control
Communists attempt to seize power and are brutally repressed
• Left a fear of communism that Hitler would build upon
Revolution in Austria
Ethnic upheaval
Formation of independent republics based largely on
ethnicity
• Austria, Hungary, Czechoslovakia, & Yugoslavia
The Peace Settlement
Palace of Versailles, January 1919, 27 Allied nations
Woodrow Wilson
Most important goal in the Paris Peace Conference was to assure
acceptance of his Fourteen Points
Lloyd George (GB) was determined to make Germany pay
Georges Clemenceau of France concerned with his nation’s
security
Wanted to punish Germany and make sure they could never wage
war against France again
January 25, 1919, the principle of the League of Nations
adopted but United States Senators do will not allow the
US to be included
The Treaty of Versailles
Five separate treaties (Germany, Austria, Hungary,
Bulgaria, and the Ottoman Empire)
The most important was the Treaty of Versailles,
June 18, 1919
Article 231, War Guilt Clause
Forced Germany to pay reparations to GB & France
100,000 man army
Eliminate Germany’s air force
Restrict the size of Germany’s navy
Loss of Alsace and Lorraine
Sections of Prussia to the new Polish state
Germans were outraged at the “dictated peace” but they
had to either accept it or go back to war where they
faced defeat
The Other Peace Treaties
German and Russian Empires lost territory in eastern
Europe
WWI resulted in new nation-states in Eastern Europe:
Finland, Latvia, Estonia, Lithuania, Poland,
Czechoslovakia, Austria, and Hungary
Romania acquired additional lands from Russia, Hungary,
and Bulgaria
Compromises will lead to future problems
Minorities in every eastern European states
Ottoman Empire dismembered
Promises of independence of Arab states in the Middle East
Mandates (League of Nation term - imperialism)
• France – Lebanon and Syria
• Britain – Iraq and Palestine
United States Senate rejects the Versailles Peace Treaty
Europe Between the Wars
An Uncertain Peace: Search for Security
Weaknesses of the League of Nations
U.S. did not join
Only weapon against aggression was economic sanctions
U.S. & G.B didn’t form defensive alliances with France
The French Policy of Coercion (1919 – 1924)
Desire for strict enforcement the Treaty of Versailles
France forms alliance with Little Entente (Czech, Yugoslavia,
Romania)
Allied Reparations Commission, April 1921 $33 billion
Paid in annual installments of 2.5 billion gold marks
Germany unable to pay in 1922
French occupation of the Ruhr Valley
• Chief industrial & mining center
• German government begins printing money to pay debt
German mark fall to 4.2 trillion to $1, end of November 1923
The Hopeful Years (1924 – 1929)
Dawes Plan, 1924
• Reduced reparations on Germany’s ability to pay
• $200 million loan for German recovery (from U.S.)
• Led to more investment from U.S.
Treaty of Locarno, 1925
• Guaranteed Germany’s new western borders with France &
Belgium
• Spirit of Locarno – viewed as the start of a new era in
European peace
• Germany is admitted into the League of Nations
• 1924-1929 – growing spirit of optimism for a peaceful future
Coexistence with Soviet Union
• Western countries established diplomatic relations with the
new communist government
German Government under Stresemann ends
passive resistance and looks to carry out
provisions of the TOV
The Great Depression
Problems in domestic economies
Loan debt, strength of unions, & trade tariffs
International financial crisis
Crash of the American stock market, October 1929
• American investors pulled $ out of European
markets to cope with losses in American Stock
market
Downturn in domestic economies
• Overproduction causes a drop in agricultural prices
(wheat)
• Cheaper energy sources (oil & electricity) lead to a
slump in coal industry
Unemployment
Germany 40%, Britain & U.S. 25%
Banks failed, industrialists scaled back production
Social Repercussions
Women obtained menial jobs as servants &
housekeepers
Men remained unemployed & grew resentful (opens the
door for dynamic leaders to influence them)
Powerlessness of Governments
Governments became more involved in
economy (end of laissez-faire)
Growing trend of communism
Overall effect of the Great Depression in
Europe was a rise in authoritarian movements
The Democratic States
Great Britain
Labour Party failed to solve problems
Coalition (Liberals & Conservatives) claimed credit for
prosperity
• Got them out of the worst stages of the depression
John Maynard Keynes (1883-1946)
• Keynes says the government should create jobs
(public works)
• Deficit spending would create jobs and thereby
increase demand for goods
France
Conservative National Bloc government led by
Raymond Poincare
• Took a hard stance against Germany (reparations & Ruhr
occupation)
Could not solve financial problems (Poincare stabilized
the economy from 1926-1929)
Great Depression brought political chaos
Popular Front (coalition of Socialists & Radicals) was
formed in 1936 out of fear of extremists
• French “New Deal” – Established 40 hour work week,
collective bargaining, two week vacations, & minimum wage
• Policies helped a little but failed to solve the problems of the
Depression
The United States
Herbert Hoover, (1929-1933)
Franklin D. Roosevelt, (1933-1945)
• New Deal
 Provided social reforms that helped avert a possible social
revolution
• Public works projects
 Brought partial economic recovery
• World War II ends the depression
 Full employment to do wartime industries
European States and the World: Colonial Empires
Despite WWI, Europeans kept their colonial
empires
France & G.B. even added to theirs by dividing
Germany’s colonial possession
Political and social foundations and the selfconfidence of European imperialism was
undermined during the 1920s and 1930s.
Rising tide of unrest in Asia and Africa against
imperialism
Increasing worker activism, rural protest, rising
national fervor
The Middle East
Division of Ottoman Empire
• New regimes in Turkey & Iran
• European influence remained strong in Syria, Lebanon, Jordan
& Palestine
Turkey
• Colonel Mustafa Kemal (Atatürk – “Father Turk”) (1923)
• Made a conscious effort to adopt a Westernized secular culture
after WWI
India
Mohandas Gandhi (1869 – 1948)
Used civil disobedience against British imperialism to win self rule
for India
Africa
Protest movements
Demands for independence from colonial rule came from Africans
who were educated in Europe and the United States
Retreat from Democracy: The Authoritarian and
Totalitarian States
Totalitarianism
By 1939 only France and Great Britain are only
major democratic states in Europe
Totalitarianism regimes in Germany, Italy, &
the Soviet Union Hoped to control every aspect
of their citizens’ lives
The modern totalitarian state
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Active commitment of citizens
Mass propaganda techniques
High speed communication – radio, film
Led by single leader and single party
Fascist Italy
Impact of World War I
Italians angry over failure to receive territory after World War I
• Received Trieste, wanted Fiume & Dalmatia (went to Yugoslavia)
• Fascist movement aided by nationalistic resentment toward Italy’s
treatment following WWI
Birth of Fascism
Benito Mussolini (1883-1945)
Growth of the socialist party – largest party spoke of a revolution
Squadristi, armed bands of Fascists who used violence to
intimidate enemies
• attacked socialist offices & newspapers
Fascist movement gains support from industrialists (squadristi
were breaking up strikes, protecting capitalism)
March on Rome, 1922
• King Victor Emmanuel made Mussolini Prime Minister
• The next day, Mussolini’s blackshirts marched on Rome to give the
illusion of a military take over
• Italy becomes the first fascist state in Europe
Mussolini and the Italian Fascist State
Fascist Government
All parties outlawed, 1926 – Fascist dictatorship established
Government censorship enforced by OVRA – secret police
Mussolini’s view of a Fascist state
Unity, values, state above all else
“Mussolini is always right!” – propaganda slogan
Young Fascists
Program to indoctrinate young people to fascist ideals
Family is the pillar of the state
Reinforced stereotypes about women
Women should stay home and make babies
Mussolini’s Fascist Italy never achieves the degree of totalitarianism
like Germany or Soviet Union
Lateran Accords, February 1929
Established Vatican City
Provided Funding
Established Catholicism as the state religion
Hitler and Nazi Germany
Weimar Germany
No outstanding leaders
Paul von Hindenberg elected president, 1925
Great Depression
The Emergence of Adolf Hitler
Adolf Hitler (1889-1945)
Vienna
• Influenced by politics & ideology (anti-semitism & German
nationalism)
Moved to Munich & fought for Germany in WWI
The Rise of the Nazis
German Workers’ Party
• Took control of party
• Renamed it the National Socialist German Workers’ Party (NSDAP),
1921 (Nazis)
Sturmabteilung (SA), Storm Troops
Nazi party largest in the Reichstag after 1932 election
• Successful in making the Nazi party appeal to all segments of
German society
Support from right-wing elites
Becomes chancellor, January 30, 1933
Reichstag fire, February 27, 1933
Successes in 1933 election
Enabling Act, March 23, 1933
• Amendment to the Weimar Constitution
• Provided legal basis for Hitler’s acts
Gleichschaltung, coordination of all institutions under
Nazi control
Night of the Long Knives
• Hitler has Ernst Rohm and other SA leaders killed
President Paul von Hindenburg dies, August 2, 1934
The Nazi State (1933-1939)
Parliamentary republic dismantled
Mass demonstrations and spectacles to create
collective fellowship
Nuremberg was the largest annual demonstration
Constant rivalry in politics gives Hitler power
Economics and the drop in unemployment
Controlled the working class through mandatory
membership in Nazi-sponsored German Labor Front
Helped the economy by government spending rearming
Germany
Heinrich Himmler and the SS
Controlled the secret police and later the death camps
Carried out the racial and terrorist policies of the Nazis
Used the SS for terror & ideology
Churches, schools, and universities brought under
Nazi control
Hitler Jugend (Hitler Youth) and Bund deutscher
Mädel (League of German Maidens)
Influence of Nazi ideas on working women
Expected to be housewives and child bearers
Aryan Racial State
Nuremberg laws, September 1935
• Separated Jews from Germans politically, socially & legally
Kristallnacht, November 9-10, 1938
• Organized riots against Jewish businesses and synagogues
Restrictions on Jews
The Soviet Union
New Economic Policy
Modified form of the capitalist system (NEP)
Peasants and small show keepers could sell products
Saved economy from collapse
Union of Socialist Republics established, 1922
Revived economy
Lenin suffers strokes, (1922-1924)
Division
Leon Trotsky
• Military leader
• Goes into hiding after Stalin takes over
Joseph Stalin
• General Party Secretary – appointed regional Communist
positions, which aided his emergence as the leader of the
Communist party
The Stalinist Era, (1929-1939)
First Five Year Plan, 1928
Emphasis on industry
Real wages declined
Use of propaganda
Rapid collectivization of agriculture
Famine of 1932-1933; 10 million peasants died
Political Control
Stalin’s dictatorship established, 1929
Political purge, 1936-1938;
• Millions of ordinary citizens arrested and sent to
force labor camps in Siberia.
• 8 million arrested, millions never returned
Authoritarianism in Eastern Europe
Conservative Authoritarian Governments
Dominant form of government in Eastern Europe in 1920s and 1930s
Eastern Europe
Austria, Poland, Czechoslovakia, and Yugoslavia adopted
parliamentary systems
• Czechoslovakia is the only eastern European nation to
maintain political democracy in the 1930s
Romania and Bulgaria gained new parliamentary constitutions
Greece became a republic
Hungary parliamentary in form; controlled by landed aristocrats
Problems
Little or no tradition of liberalism and parliamentary form
Rural and agrarian society
Ethnic conflicts
Dictatorship in the Iberian Peninsula
General Miguel Primo de Rivera and the End of
Parliamentary Government (1923)
The Spanish Civil War
The Popular Front – anti-fascist group
General Francisco Franco (1892 – 1975)
• Fascist military leader
Foreign intervention
• Popular Front gets supplies from Soviets
• Franco gets supplies and military help from Germany & Italy
Franco emerges victorious (March 28, 1939)
• Establishes a conservative, authoritarian, and anti-democratic regime
backed by the Spanish Catholic Church
The Franco Regime
Traditional, conservative, dictatorship
Portugal
Antonio Salazar (1889 – 1970)
Finance Minister and leader of military group that overthrows the
government
Expansion of Mass Culture and
Mass Leisure
The Roaring Twenties
Decade named for its exuberant culture
Berlin, the entertainment center of Europe
Josephine Baker (1906-1975)
American Jazz singer
Became the symbol for the flapper generation
Jazz Age
Radio and Movies: Mass forms of
Communication & Entertainment
Radio
Discovery of wireless radio waves propels radio industry
Nellie Melba, June 16, 1920 – 1st radio broadcast of a live concert
BBC, formed in 1926
Movies
Full length movies - Quo Vadis; Birth of a Nation
Stars became subjects of adoration
Marlene Dietrich
Popularized new images of women’s sexuality
Used for political purposes
Nazis encourage cheap radios & put speakers in the streets
Triumph of the Will, 1934
• Propaganda film from Nuremberg demonstration
Mass Leisure
Sports
Growth of professional sports for mass audiences
Tourism
Passenger flights for the rich
Trains, buses and car travel for everyone else
Organized Mass Leisure in Italy and Germany
Dopolavoro in Italy – national recreation centers
• Clubhouses with libraries, gyms, radios, theaters
• Strengthened public support for the fascist regime
“Strength Through Joy” in Germany
• Coordinated and monitored working class leisure time
• Concerts, operas, films, tours & sporting events
• Built public support for Nazi policies
Cultural & Intellectual Trends in the
Interwar Years
Prewar avant-garde culture becomes acceptable
Provoked by a disillusionment with Western Civilization
provoked by the horrors of WWI.
Political, economic, and social insecurities
Radical changes in women’s styles
Short skirts, short hair, makeup
Theodor van de Velde
Ideal Marriage: Its Physiology and Technique
Discussed birth control & glorified sex for pleasure
Nightmares and New Visions: Art and Music
Abstract painting; fascination with the absurd
Dadaism
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Tristan Tzara (1896-1945)
Expressed contempt for Western culture
Created “anti-art” to mock traditional culture
Celebrated chaos & absurdity of life
Popular artistic movement in Weimar Germany
Surrealism
• Salvador Dali (1904-1989)
• Depicted reality beyond the conscious world
Functionalism in Modern Architecture
Bauhaus School in Germany
Founded by Walter Gropius
Known for ideas of functionalism & practicality in
architecture
Cultural & Intellectual Trends (cont)
A Popular Audience
Kurt Weill, The Threepenny Opera
Opera aimed at a lower class audience
Art in Totalitarian Regimes
Art in service of the state – propaganda
Culture in Nazi Germany centered around
simple art with sentimental and realistic scenes
used to glorify the Aryans
Literature & Physics Between the Wars
The Search for the Unconscious
James Joyce (1882-1941), Ulysses
• Stream of consciousness
• Writer presents interior monologues for characters
Virginia Woolf (1882-1942 writer who used inner monologue
Hermann Hesse (1877-1962)
• German writer who combined Carl Jung’s psychological theories and
Eastern religions
• Focused on spiritual loneliness of modern humans
Impact of Freud
• becomes more mainstream after WWI
Carl Jung (1856-1961)
• Psychological theories:
• Collective unconscious
 shared memories with other humans
• Process of individualization
• Universal archetypes
 mental forms or images
• Importance of universal myths
The “Heroic Age of Physics”
Ernest Rutherford (1871-1937), atom could be
split
Werner Heisenberg (1901-1976)
• Proposing that uncertainty was at the bottom of all
physical laws.
World War II
The “Diplomatic Revolution” (1933-1937)
Hitler becomes chancellor, January 30, 1933
First dramatic act as chancellor
• withdrew from League of Nations and Geneva Disarmament
Conference
Repudiation of disarmament clauses of the TOV, 1935
• Slow rearmament
Anglo-German Naval Pact 1935 – Germany can build a navy 35%
of Britain’s & an equal number of submarines
Troops into the demilitarized Rhineland, March 7, 1936
• Allies did nothing to this violation of the TOV
Appeasement – allied policy of giving into Hitler to avoid war
New Alliances
• Rome-Berlin Axis, October 1936
• Anti-Comintern Pact between Germany and Japan, November
1936 – maintain a common front against Communism
Hitler demands Danzig
British offer to protect Poland
Non-aggression pact with the Soviet Union, August 23,
1939
Invasion of Poland, September 1, 1939
Soviet Union invades Poland Sept. 17, 1939
Britain and France declare war on Germany, September 3,
1939 - Official Start of WWII
Unable to mobilize quick enough to help Poland
Poland falls in a few weeks to the combined forces of
German and the Soviets
New military tactic of Blitzkrieg “lighting war” air attack, tank
attack, infantry attack
After the fall of Poland, there is no fighting until the spring
of 1940
Period called the Phony War or “sitzkrieg”
The Course to World War II
Britain & France pledge to back up Poland
Blitzkrieg (lightening war) (planes, tanks, troops)
Russia attacks from the other side
Poland divided on September 28, 1939
Victory and Stalemate
“Phony War”, winter 1939-1940
France built the Maginot Line, defensive structures on their eastern
border, and waited for a defensive war
Germany resumes offensive, April 9, 1939, against Denmark and
Norway
Attack on Netherlands, Belgium, and France, May 10, 1940
Evacuation of Dunkirk (330,000 troops)
Surrender of France, June 22, 1940
Vichy France
• Marshal Henri Pétain (1856-1951)
• Unoccupied France, but seen as a German puppet state
Battle of Britain, August-September 1940
Winston Churchill replaces Neville Chamberlain as Prime Minister
of G.B.
German Luftwaffe (air force) wages a massive air
attack
British use radar and broke German codes to prepare
for attacks
Hitler switches to bombing cities (after attack on
Berlin), allowing the RAF to rebuild
Hitler is forced to postpone his invasion of Britain
German Mediterranean strategy
Capturing Egypt and the Suez Canal and cutting off the British oil
supply from the Middle East
Leaves this strategy largely up to Italy, but they fail
Hitler sends troops to support Italy, but it is to late
Germany invades the Soviet Union, June 22, 1941
Supposed to start in the spring and finish by winter
The Course of the War (1942-1943)
German success in 1942 in Africa and Soviet
Union
Allies invade North Africa, November 1942,
victory in May 1943
Major Turning Points in the War
• North African Campaign
• Battle of El Alamein, Summer 1942
 British stopped German General Rommel
 Safeguarded the Suez Canal and oil shipments from the
Middle East
 Combined U.S. and British forces force Germans and
Italian troops to surrender North Africa in 1943
The Last Years of the War
Invasion of Sicily, 1943
Invasion of Italy, September 1943
Rome falls June 4, 1944
D-Day invasion of France, June 6, 1944
Five assault divisions landed on Normandy beaches
Within three months, two million men landed
Greatest naval invasion in history
Opened up 2nd Front in Europe
German surrender at Stalingrad, February 2, 1943
Tank Battle of Kursk, Soviet Union, July 5-12, 1943
Largest tank battle of all time– Germans defeated
Over 15,000 tanks combined
Germans are defeated
Russians enter Berlin, April 1945
End of the War
Hitler’s suicide, April 30, 1945
Surrender of Germany, May 7, 1945
Death of FDR, April 12, 1945
Difficulty of invading the Japanese homeland
New President Harry Truman makes decision to
use the atomic bomb
Hiroshima Aug. 6, 1945
Nagasaki Aug. 9, 1945
Surrender of Japan, August 14, 1945
Human losses in the war: 17 million military dead,
18 million civilians dead but may have numbered
as high as 50 million dead
The Holocaust
First focused on emigration of Jews
The Final Solution
Planned Extermination of all European Jews
Developed by Hitler and Himmler (head of SS)
Reinhard Heydrich (1904-1942)
• SS officer responsible for carrying out the final solution
Wannsee Conference – Jan 20, 1942
• Established procedures for the Final Solution
Einsatzgrupen
• Special strike forces used in eastern Europe that rounded up and
executed Jews
Largest death camp was Auschwitz-Birkenau
• Use of Zyklon B (hydrogen cyanide) and huge ovens
• Death of 2 out of 3 European Jews
The Other Holocaust
Death of 9 - 10 million people beyond the 5 - 6 million Jews
40 percent of European Gypsies
Aftermath: The Emergence of the
Cold War
Chief concern at conferences was determining spheres of influence for
each allied power in post-war Europe
The Conferences at Teheran and Yalta
Conference at Tehran, November 1943
• Future course of the war, invasion of the continent for 1944
• Agreement for the partition of postwar Germany
• Germany was to be divided into four occupied zones after the war
Conference at Yalta, February 1945
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Soviet military assistance for the war against Japan
Creation of a United Nations
German unconditional surrender
Free elections in Eastern Europe
Intensifying Differences
Conference at Potsdam, July 1945
Truman replaces FDR – learns of A-bomb
Truman and Stalin argue over free elections in eastern Europe
The Emergence of the Cold War
Mutual mistrust
Ideological conflict
Cold War
Confrontation of the Superpowers
WWII devastated the countries, cities and people of Europe, bringing
about an end to European supremacy in the world.
The Cold War
The indirect conflict between the Soviet Union and the U.S. over
ideologies and control of the post WWII world.
First Area of Conflict - Disagreement over Eastern Europe
United States and Britain championed self-determination and
democracy
Soviet forces occupied all of Eastern Europe and wanted to
establish pro-Soviet governments there to create a buffer zone
against potential western attacks.
Between 1945 and 1947 Communist governments were entrenched
in East Germany, Bulgaria, Romania, Poland, and Hungary
Truman Doctrine, March 12, 1947
U.S. foreign policy developed due to a civil war in Greece
Provided $400 million in aid to countries threatened by aggression.
Assistance in defense of Greece and Turkey
Defined America’s fear of Communist expansion
Pledged U.S. support to support “free peoples” and “Fight
Communism anywhere, anytime”
Marshall Plan, June 1947, European Recovery Program
$13 billion for the economic recovery intended to
rebuild war-torn Europe
Soviet view – Western European countries sold their
political & economic freedom for U.S. loans. Made
Stalin push for more control of Eastern bloc countries
The American Policy of Containment
Stop the spread of Communism
Contention over Germany
Germany is partitioned into 4 sections (so is Berlin)
Soviets dismantle and remove 380 factories
Blockade of Berlin, 1948-1949
• Soviets cut off rail and road access through East Germany
• Supplies were flown in to west Berlin
• Soviets eventually back down
Germany separated, 1949
• West German Federal Republic, September
• German Democratic Republic, October
- East Germany
Cold War Tension
Soviet Union detonates its first atomic bomb, 1949
Communist forces win the Civil War in China, 1949
Mutual deterrence – belief that an arsenal of nuclear weapons
prevented war through mutually assured destruction
New Military Alliances
North Atlantic Treaty Organization, (NATO)
1949
• Western Alliance
• Belgium, Britain, Denmark, France, Iceland, Italy,
Luxembourg, the Netherlands, Norway, Portugal,
Canada and the U.S.
• A few years later, West Germany, Greece & Turkey
joined
Warsaw Pact, 1955
• Communist Alliance
• Albania, Bulgaria, Czechoslovakia, East Germany,
Hungary, Poland, Romania, and the Soviet Union
The Soviet Union: From Stalin to
Khrushchev
Stalin’s Policies
Stalin’s method for the recovery of the Soviet Union
• Use Soviet labor to produce goods to export so
Russia could bring in foreign capital to build
machinery and Western technology
By 1947 the Soviet Union had attained pre-war levels
of industrial production
• Emphasized development of heavy industry & the
production of modern weapons and space
technology (Sputnik)
• Very few consumer goods produced
Stalin continued his iron rule until his death in 1953
Nikita Khrushchev (1894-1971)
Ends the forced labor camps
Condemns Stalinist programs of forced labor and terror
There seem to be a loosening of restraint
(destalinization)
Allowed more intellectual freedom
• Allowed publication of Alexander Solzhenitsyn’s novel A Day
in the Life of Ivan Denisovich which portrayed life in Stalin’s
forced labor camps
Encouraged rebellion in satellite nations
• Rebellions will be crushed by Red Army (Hungary,
Czech etc)
Economic policies focused on production of light
industry and consumer goods & increase agricultural
output
• Failed to benefit the Soviet economy and industry
Forced into retirement by party members in 1964
Eastern Europe: Behind the Iron
Curtain
In 1945 Soviet Union occupied all of the Balkans
Communist governments were under the control of the
Soviet Union
Due to strong democratic traditions, Czechoslovakia was
the last Eastern European nation to fall under Soviet
control
Albania and Yugoslavia were the exceptions to total Soviet
rule
Albania had a Stalinist type regime, but became more independent
Josip Broz, Tito, took control of Yugoslavia
• Asserted Yugoslavia’s independence from the end of WWII into the
1970s.
• Form of communism was less centralized and closer to MarxistLeninist ideal
Eastern European countries followed the Soviet
pattern
Five year plans
Farm collectivization
Upheaval in Eastern Europe
Khrushchev interferes less with the satellite countries
Rebellion in Poland
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Wladyslaw Gomulka , 1956, elected first secretary
Poland pledged to follow its own socialist plan
Got nervous about a Soviet military response
Compromised and agreed to support the Warsaw Pact
Eastern Europe: Behind the Iron
Curtain: Hungary & Czechoslovakia
Hungary, 1956
This time dissent was directed at communism as well
Dissatisfaction and economic problems creates tense situation
Imry Nagy (1896-1958) declares Hungary free, November 1, 1956
Promises free elections – Soviet military invades
Soviet military intervention reasserts Communist leadership
Janos Kadar (1912-1989) replaced Nagy
Czechoslovakia, 1968
Antonin Novotny (1904-1975) known as “Little Stalin”
• Appointed by Stalin in 1952
• Resigned in the late 1960s over protests
Alexander Dubcek (1921-1992), “socialism with a human face”
• Initiated by Dubcek’s reforms – “Prague Spring”
Reform crushed by the Warsaw Pact – Red Army invades Czech
Western Europe: The Revival of
Democracy and the Economy
Europe recovered rapidly from World War II
Marshall Plan money was important to the recovery
France: The Domination of De Gaulle
Charles de Gaulle (1890-1970)
• Feels he has mission to reestablish the greatness of France
• Kept France largely independent politically
• Wanted to make France a nuclear power
Defeat in Indochina
Algerian crisis
• Algeria rebels against France for independence
• Anti-war movement almost leads to French civil war
Fifth Republic, 1958
• Powers of the President enhanced
Economic growth
Student riots, Labor Strikes, in 1968 over rising cost of living
Resignation of de Gaulle, April 1969
Western Europe: The Revival of Democracy and the Economy
West Germany: A Reconceived Nation
Konrad Adenauer (1876-1967) (Christian Democrats)
• Founding hero of West Germany
Reconciliation with France
Resurrection of the economy (“economic miracle”)
• New currency, free markets, low taxes
Payments to Holocaust survivors and Israel
Great Britain: The Welfare State
Clement Atlee (1883-1967) (Labour Party)
• British Welfare State (social security, socialized medicine)
 National Insurance Act and National Health Act
• Meant dismantling of the British Empire
• No longer viewed as a world power after loss of Suez Canal
Continued economic problems
• Economy lagged behind and failed to re-industrialize
• Lost colonies and their revenues
• Debt from international commitments
Italy: Weak Coalition Government
Postwar reconstruction
Alcide de Gaspari (prime minister, 1948 –
1953)
Unstable political coalitions
• Christian Democrats gained power with the backing
of the Catholic Church
Italy’s “economic miracle”
• Marshall Plan helped stabilize the economy and
increase production of steel and consumer goods
Europe Since 1973
The Revolutionary Era in the
Soviet Union
The Brezhnev Years (1964-1982)
The Brezhnev Doctrine – the right of the
Soviet Union to intervene if socialism was
threatened in another soviet state (Soviet
version of the Truman Doctrine)
• Used in Czechoslovakia in 1968
Détente – period of less tensions between the
Soviets and Americans
By the early 1980s, the Soviet Union was in
poor shape
• They were dependent on buying grain from
capitalist countries
The Gorbachev Era
The Soviet Union under Brezhnev was stable
but lacked strong leadership and reform
• Problems of rigid and centralized planning
• Decline in the standard of living for soviet people
Perestroika (restructuring) – a reordering of
the economic policy to allow limited free
enterprise and some private property
(eventually reforms carry over into social and
political spheres)
• Creation of a new Soviet Parliament
• Creation of a market economy with limited free
enterprise and private property
Glasnost (openness) – Soviet citizens & officials were
encouraged to discuss openly the strengths and
weaknesses of the Soviet Union
1988-1990 nationalist movements erupt in Soviet
Satellite nations after Gorbachev made it clear his
government would not intervene
Gorbachev’s policies led to new thinking about world
affairs which led to arms treaties and greater
independence for Eastern European nations.
Nov. 11, 1989 – The Fall of the Berlin Wall (Symbol of
the end of the Cold War)
• Lithuania launched a successful independence movement 1990
The End of the Soviet Union
Gorbachev arrested, August 19, 1991; coup fails
Yeltsin gains favor by opposing the coup
Ukraine votes for independence, Dec. 1991, others
follow
December 25, 1991, Gorbachev resigns and turns
power over to Boris Yeltsin, president of Russia
Yeltsin introduces a free market economy
Yeltsin is reelected to the presidency of Russia in 1996
but resigns in 1999
Brutal war against Chechnya undermined his support
• Chechnya wanted to break away and be independent
Vladimir Putin replaced Yeltsin when he
resigned
In 2001 launches reforms including
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unrestricted sale and purchase of land
Trying to end organized crime
Vows to return breakaway state of Chechnya
Economic reforms
Reform did not resolve Russia’s economic
problems
• An estimated 40% of the people live in poverty
The Reunification of Germany
East German leader Erich Honecker established
a dictatorship by using the Stasi or secret police
during the 1970s & 1980s.
Unrest due to economic problems in the 1980s
Communist government falls, November 1989
Berlin Wall comes down in November 1989
• Symbolic ending of the Cold War
Politically unified, October 3, 1990
• Reunification of Germany was accomplished
through the leadership of Helmut Kohl.
The Disintegration of Yugoslavia
Death of Tito in 1980
League of Communists ruled until their collapse at the end
of the 1980s under the wave of reform movements
Yugoslavia was divided into warring factions over
demands for ethnic separation
Slbodan Milosevic, the former leader of the Serbian
communist party managed to stay in power by supporting
Serbian nationalism
Milosevic rejects these efforts without new border
arrangements to accommodate Serb minorities living
outside of their borders
Slovenia and Croatia declare independence
Yugoslavian army sent to attach Croatia
Army becoming more and more a Serbian
Army
1992 Serbs turn on Bosnia-Herzegovina
Milosevic’s government controlled the
Yugoslavian army – attacked Croatia
Ethnic cleansing – Serbians killed or removed
Bosnian Muslims from their lands
NATO strikes back against Serbia
War in Kosovo
Kosovo had been made an autonomous province of
Yugoslavia in 1974
Ethnic Albanians and a minority of Serbians
War erupted in 1999
Kosovo Liberation Army founded by ethnic Albanians
Serbian forces began to massacre ethnic Albanians in an
effort to crush the KLA
US and NATO intervene
Yugoslavian President Milosovic ousted from office in fall
elections, 2000
Brought to trial by an international tribunal for war crimes against
humanity
Dies in prison
Great Britain: Thatcher and Thatcherism
Problems in England
Problems of Northern Ireland – fighting between Catholics and
Protestants
Direct rule from London, 1972 – Irish Republican Army lead
terrorist attacks against England, example of nationalist terrorism
British industry was hampered by labor strikes
Politics Prime Minister Margaret Thatcher (Thatcherism)
Broke power of the labor unions & weakened the Labour Party
Thatcherism – used strict measures to control inflation
Serous cutbacks to education funding.
Military buildup and hard line against communism
Popular military victory against Argentina in Falklands War
Attempted to replace property taxes with a flat rate tax
Anti-tax riots force Thatcher to resign, November 1990
Tony Blair - Labour Party, became Prime Minister in 1997
Popularity plummets over support of U.S. invasion of Iraq
Confusion in Italy
Coalition Politics
Eurocommunism – an attempt to broaden support
for communism by dropping Marxist ideology
Economic recession in the 1970s, economic
growth in the 1980s
Political Corruption
Use of political bribes to secure public contracts
Social problems
Red Brigade
Political terrorist organization that kidnap which
kidnapped children of prominent officials to coerce the
government
The Unification of Europe
1973: European Economic Community (EEC) becomes European
Community (EC) when Great Britain, Ireland, and Denmark join
1992 – Maastricht Treaty (formally known as the Treaty of the
European Union)
1994: EC renames itself European Union (EU) and focuses on political
unification
Committed states of the European Community to an economic and
monetary union
2002: Introduction of common currency (euro)
Problems in the 21st Century
Many Europeans remain committed to a national identity and don’t
identify themselves as “Europeans.”
Toward a United Europe: May 2004: Czech Republic, Estonia,
Hungary, Latvia, Lithuania, Malta, Poland, Slovakia, Slovenia, and
Cyprus join EU
The End of the Cold War
During the late 1980s, US and Soviet Union
move to slow down arms race
1989-1990: Political upheaval in Eastern
Europe upset postwar status quo
1991 – Breakup of the Soviet Union