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Transcript
Europeans
Explore the East
1400-1800
Chapter 3
Section 1
Main Ideas
 Economics fueled the age of exploration, and the
consequences included worldwide interaction among
people of many cultures.
 The voyages of Columbus prompted a worldwide
exchange of everything from religious and political
ideas to new foods and plants.
For “God, Glory & Gold”
 Prior to 1400:
 Exploration was rare.
 Most Europeans did not have much
interest or the technology to explore.
 Due to Renaissance ideas,
Europeans felt a desire to explore the
world.
 Main reasons for exploration after
1400: the desire to find new sources of
wealth and spread Christianity.
 Sailing advancements also played a
role.
Europeans Seek
New Trade Routes
 After being introduced to spices and luxuries from
Asia, Europeans kept demanding more.
 Supply and demand: What do you think happened to
the prices?
Eliminating the Middle Man
 Muslims & Italians controlled
trade area from East to West.
 Muslims sold goods to Italians.
 Italians controlled area around
the Mediterranean Sea.
 Italians sold goods to
merchants at high prices. →
decreased merchants’ profits.
 Solution? Find a sea route
directly to Asia to bypass Italian
merchants.
Technology Makes
Exploration Possible
 Before the 1400s, European
ships could not sail against the
wind.
 Problems?
 Solution: Development of a
caravel with triangular sails.
 Navigational techniques
improved.
 Astrolabe – allowed captains to
calculate latitude.
 Magnetic compass – track
direction.
The Portuguese
Explore Africa
 Portugal was the leader in development and application
of sailing innovations.
 Prince Henry helped conquer Muslim cities.
 Founded a navigation school.
 Established trade posts along western shore of Africa.
 Why?
 Eventually traded for African slaves.
 Next move? Trade route to Asia.
Portuguese Sailors
Reach Asia
 To reach Asia, Portuguese would have to go
around the southern tip of Africa.
 1488, Bartolomeu Dias rounded tip (Cape of Good
Hope) and explored the southeast coast.
 Food supply low – turned around.
Vasco da Gama
 1497, Vasco da Gama began
exploring the east coast.
 1498, reached India (27,000 miles
away).
 Spices, rare silks, precious gems.
 Returned to Portugal with pepper &
cinnamon.
 Their cargo was worth 60 times the cost
of the voyage!
 Significance? Direct sea route to
India.
Spain Also Makes Claims
 Spain was getting envious of
Portugal.
 1492, Christopher Columbus’
idea?
 Reach Asia by sailing west across
Atlantic.
 What actually happened?
 Spain financed his plan.
 Reached a Caribbean island but
thought it was the East Indies.
 Was he a complete failure?
Columbus
 His mistake would lead to the colonization of the
Americas.
 Portuguese believed Columbus had reached Asia.
 Ever wondered why Native Americans were called
Indians?
 Portuguese also felt that Columbus claimed land for
Spain that was already Portugal’s.
Spain/Portugal Solution?
 1493, Pope Alexander, IV
suggested:
 Line of Demarcation – imaginary
line drawn from north to south
across the Atlantic
 Purpose? – Everything west of line
would be Spain’s; everything east of
line would be Portugal’s.

Line shifted to give modern-day Brazil
to Portugal.
 Signed the Treaty of Tordesillas –
agreeing to honor the line.

Helped decrease conflict over the
claiming of new lands.
Trading Empires in the Indian Ocean
 Da Gama’s voyage led to:
 Direct sea trade with Asia
 Violent conflict with the East
 Europeans scrambled to establish trade routes along
coasts of Africa.
 Battling region’s inhabitants and each other.
The Dutch
 By 1600, they owned 20,000 vessels
(the most in the world).
 The Dutch and English pushed out
Portugal as a leader in the Asian
region.
 Then they battled each other.
 They both had formed an East India
Company to establish a direct trade
throughout Asia.
 Minted money, made treaties and raised
their own armies.
 Who won? The Dutch