Download chapter 3 - section 1 age of exploration

yes no Was this document useful for you?
   Thank you for your participation!

* Your assessment is very important for improving the work of artificial intelligence, which forms the content of this project

Document related concepts

Nanban trade wikipedia, lookup

Portuguese India wikipedia, lookup

Voyages of Christopher Columbus wikipedia, lookup

Conquistador wikipedia, lookup

Portuguese discoveries wikipedia, lookup

Treaty of Tordesillas wikipedia, lookup

History of Portugal (1415–1578) wikipedia, lookup

Age of Discovery wikipedia, lookup

Spice trade wikipedia, lookup

Explore the East
Chapter 3
Section 1
Main Ideas
 Economics fueled the age of exploration, and the
consequences included worldwide interaction among
people of many cultures.
 The voyages of Columbus prompted a worldwide
exchange of everything from religious and political
ideas to new foods and plants.
For “God, Glory & Gold”
 Prior to 1400:
 Exploration was rare.
 Most Europeans did not have much
interest or the technology to explore.
 Due to Renaissance ideas,
Europeans felt a desire to explore the
 Main reasons for exploration after
1400: the desire to find new sources of
wealth and spread Christianity.
 Sailing advancements also played a
Europeans Seek
New Trade Routes
 After being introduced to spices and luxuries from
Asia, Europeans kept demanding more.
 Supply and demand: What do you think happened to
the prices?
Eliminating the Middle Man
 Muslims & Italians controlled
trade area from East to West.
 Muslims sold goods to Italians.
 Italians controlled area around
the Mediterranean Sea.
 Italians sold goods to
merchants at high prices. →
decreased merchants’ profits.
 Solution? Find a sea route
directly to Asia to bypass Italian
Technology Makes
Exploration Possible
 Before the 1400s, European
ships could not sail against the
 Problems?
 Solution: Development of a
caravel with triangular sails.
 Navigational techniques
 Astrolabe – allowed captains to
calculate latitude.
 Magnetic compass – track
The Portuguese
Explore Africa
 Portugal was the leader in development and application
of sailing innovations.
 Prince Henry helped conquer Muslim cities.
 Founded a navigation school.
 Established trade posts along western shore of Africa.
 Why?
 Eventually traded for African slaves.
 Next move? Trade route to Asia.
Portuguese Sailors
Reach Asia
 To reach Asia, Portuguese would have to go
around the southern tip of Africa.
 1488, Bartolomeu Dias rounded tip (Cape of Good
Hope) and explored the southeast coast.
 Food supply low – turned around.
Vasco da Gama
 1497, Vasco da Gama began
exploring the east coast.
 1498, reached India (27,000 miles
 Spices, rare silks, precious gems.
 Returned to Portugal with pepper &
 Their cargo was worth 60 times the cost
of the voyage!
 Significance? Direct sea route to
Spain Also Makes Claims
 Spain was getting envious of
 1492, Christopher Columbus’
 Reach Asia by sailing west across
 What actually happened?
 Spain financed his plan.
 Reached a Caribbean island but
thought it was the East Indies.
 Was he a complete failure?
 His mistake would lead to the colonization of the
 Portuguese believed Columbus had reached Asia.
 Ever wondered why Native Americans were called
 Portuguese also felt that Columbus claimed land for
Spain that was already Portugal’s.
Spain/Portugal Solution?
 1493, Pope Alexander, IV
 Line of Demarcation – imaginary
line drawn from north to south
across the Atlantic
 Purpose? – Everything west of line
would be Spain’s; everything east of
line would be Portugal’s.
Line shifted to give modern-day Brazil
to Portugal.
 Signed the Treaty of Tordesillas –
agreeing to honor the line.
Helped decrease conflict over the
claiming of new lands.
Trading Empires in the Indian Ocean
 Da Gama’s voyage led to:
 Direct sea trade with Asia
 Violent conflict with the East
 Europeans scrambled to establish trade routes along
coasts of Africa.
 Battling region’s inhabitants and each other.
The Dutch
 By 1600, they owned 20,000 vessels
(the most in the world).
 The Dutch and English pushed out
Portugal as a leader in the Asian
 Then they battled each other.
 They both had formed an East India
Company to establish a direct trade
throughout Asia.
 Minted money, made treaties and raised
their own armies.
 Who won? The Dutch