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Dr Marek Porzycki
Chair for Economic Policy
Two stages:
 Creation of the monetary base by the central
 Creation of scritpural (cashless) money by
deposit and credit operations of commercial
banks  influenced by the monetary policy of
the central bank, in particular by the reserve
requirement and interest rates
Liabilities of a central bank:
 Currency (physical cash) in circulation
 Reserves
- deposits of commercial banks held at the central
- currency (physical cash) held in bank vaults
Required reserves – reserves that commercial banks are
required to hold at the central bank, calculated as a
percentage of total deposits (reserve requirement)
Excess reserves – voluntary additional reserves held by
the banks („money parked at the central bank”).
Monetary base is steered by the central bank via
monetary policy instruments (open market
operations, interest rates, reserve requirements).
Fractional reserve banking – banks keep only a
fraction of their customers’ deposits as readily
available reserves (i.e. cash in vaults and deposits
at the central bank). They are not required to
maintain 100% backing for all deposits.
This practice is safe in general, as depositors
generally do not all demand payment at the same
time. However, it makes banks vulnerable to
become insolvent in case of a bank run.
Commercial banks use their reserves to extend
credit (make loans) to general public.
Fractional reserve banking allows for the creation
of money.
Money lent to the general public eventually
returns to the banking system as deposits.
Deposits constitute cashless money and can
be used for payment.
Deposits are also used to fund further
loans/credit, which again eventually returns
to the banking system as new deposits.
This scheme is repeated as long as market
participants are able and willing to take and
extend new loans and make deposits.
See table in the handout
Money multiplier  maximum money creation
possible from a specified monetary base. Money
multiplier is the inverse of the reserve requirement.
Actual creation of money depends on the credit
expansion - actual volume of lending by
commercial banks and of the resulting deposits.
Lending by commercial banks is influenced by
interest rates of the central bank set within the
framework of its monetary policy (see next course).
Monetary base – M0
 Monetary aggregates:
- M1 (narrow money): Currency in circulation + overnight
deposits (can be immediately converted into currency or
used for cashless payments)
- M2 („intermediate” money): M1 + deposits with an
agreed maturity up to 2 years + deposits redeemable at
a period of notice up to 3 months.
- M3 (broad money): M2 + repurchase agreements +
money market fund (MMF) shares/units + debt
securities up to 2 years
Source: ECB website,
Definition: decrease in the value of money
over time, resulting in an increase in general
level of prices
Measure: inflation rate, annualized change in
a price index (CPI, HICP)
Hyperinflation – inflation exceeding 50% per
Causes of inflation - debate: monetarism vs.
„Inflation is always and everywhere a monetary
phenomenon in the sense that it is and can be produced
only by a more rapid increase in the quantity of money
than in output” – Milton Friedman
 Equation by Irving Fisher: MV = PQ
M – money supply
V – velocity of money (number of times each currency unit
is spent)
P – general price level
Q – quantity of goods, services and assets sold, total
output of the economy
 Simplified: a rise in the money supply not
corresponding to a rise in output (=economic growth)
causes inflation
Inflation is caused by increase in aggregate
demand in the economy – „demand-pull
„Demand-pull” inflation is linked to economic
growth (Phillips curve).
„Cost-push” inflation results from increase of
costs (e.g. oil price hike).
Inflation results also from expectations,
leading employees to demand higher wages.
Monetarist view of inflation (quantity theory
of money) explains inflation in the long run,
as in the long run inflation results from
changes in money supply.
Quantity theory of money provides
explanation for all cases of hyperinflation.
Keynesian theory of inflation explains causes
of increasing prices in the real economy,
which tend to influence inflation in the short
Options of any government running a budget deficit:
a) borrowing money by issuing bonds bought by the general
public (mostly financial sector)
b) creating new money to pay for expenses
c) asking the central bank to create new money in order to buy
govt bonds („monetizing debt” or „monetary financing”)
Options b) and c) result in an expansion of monetary base
(„printing money”). If such situation persists, according to the
quantity theory of money it will lead to inflation.
There is no inflation if the overall money supply does not grow
(in case of credit contraction). In such case the increase in the
monetary base is offset by the decrease of the money
multiplier resulting from less lending by banks. Example:
economic crisis from 2008 onwards.
Definition – opposite of inflation: increase in
the value of money over time, resulting in
decrease in general level of prices
Why is deflation harmful for the economy?
Deflation creates incentive to delay purchases
and consumption, reducing demand and
economic activity. This in turn causes prices
to decrease more, creating a deflationary
F. Mishkin, The Economics of Money, Banking, and
Financial Markets, Pearson, 10th ed. 2013
 Chapter 15 „The Money Supply Process”
- p. 379-381, 400-405 (mandatory)
- p. 382-399 (facultative)
 Chapter 22 „Quantity Theory, Inflation and the
Demand for Money”
- p. 534-548 (facultative)
- „The Zimbabwean Hyperinflation”, p. 542
 „What is inflation?” on the ECB website:
„Inflation Island”, an educational game:
Cartoon on price stability, featuring the
Inflation Monster: