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Transcript
Lecture 1. Electrical Transport
1.1 Introduction
* Objectives
* Requirements & Grading Policy
* Other information
1.2 Basic Circuit Concepts
* El
Electrical
t i l quantities
titi
⇒ current, voltage & power, sign conventions
* Circuit elements
⇒ Passive, active and sources
* Basic laws
⇒ Ohm’s law and Kirchhoff’s laws
1
EEE 202: Circuits 1
1, Spring 2008
Prerequisite EEE 101
Pre- or co-requisites: MAT 274 or MAT 275,
275 PHY 131
131, 132
132.
Instructor: Dr. NJ Tao ([email protected])
Wh
Where:
S h d Classroom
Schwada
Cl
& Offi
Office 150
When: Tu and Th 3:15-4:30 pm
Office Hours: Tu and Th 2:00 - 3:00 p.m. or by appointment.
Office Location: GWC618
Class Website:
http://www.public.asu.edu/ ntao1/Teaching/ECE202/EEE202web.htm
http://www.public.asu.edu/~ntao1/Teaching/ECE202/EEE202web.htm
2
1.2. Basic Circuit Concepts
* Electrical quantities
⇒ current,
current voltage & power,
power sign conventions
* Circuit elements
⇒ Passive, active and sources
* Basic laws
⇒ Ohm’s law and Kirchhoff’s laws
3
Electrical Quantities
• Basic quantities:
– Current (I): time rate of change of electric charge
I = dq/dt
Unit: 1 A
Amp = 1 C
Coulomb/sec
l b/
– Voltage
g ((V):
) electromotive force or p
potential
Unit: 1 Volt = 1 Joule/Coulomb = 1 N·m/coulomb
– Power (P): rate at which work is done
P=IV
1 Watt = 1 Volt·Amp = 1 Joule/sec
4
Water Analogy
Base
quantity
Flow
variable
Potential
variable
Electrical
Hydraulic
Charge (q)
Mass (m)
Current (I)
Fluid flow (G)
Voltage (V)
Pressure (p)
5
Current,, I
• The sign of the current indicates the direction of flow
positive & negative
g
charge
g carried;; the
• Current due to p
moving direction of positive charge is conventionally
defined as direct of current.
What are charge carries in copper wire
wire, Silicon and salt solution?
• DC & AC currents:
– direct current (dc):
batteries and some special generators
I(t)
– alternating current (ac):
household current which varies
with time
6
Voltage,
g ,V
• Voltage is the difference in electrical potentials between,
g , two p
points in a circuit;; it is the energy
gy required
q
to move
e.g.,
an unit charge from one point to the other.
• Voltage with respect to a common point or “ground”.
• Positive (high) and negative (low) voltages.
Circuit Element(s)
+
V(t)
–
What is electrical potential?
7
Default Sign
g Convention
• Passive sign convention : current should enter the
positive
iti voltage
lt
tterminal
i l
I
+
Circuit Element
–
• Passive sign convention: P = I V
– Positive (+) Power: element absorbs power
– Negative (-) Power: element supplies power
8
Active vs. Passive Elements
• Active elements can generate energy
– Voltage and current sources
– Batteries
• Passive elements cannot generate energy
– Resistors
– Capacitors and Inductors (but CAN store energy)
9
Independent Sources
An independent
p
source ((voltage
g or current)) may
y be DC
(constant) or time-varying (AC), but does not depend on
other voltages or currents in the circuit
+
–
10
Resistors
• A resistor is a circuit element that dissipates
p
electrical
energy (usually as heat)
• Real-world devices that are modeled by resistors:
incandescent light bulbs, heating elements (stoves,
heaters, etc.), long wires
• Resistance is measured in Ohms (Ω)
11
Ohm’s Law
v(t) = i(t) R - or p(t) = i2(t) R = v2(t)/R
V=IR
[+ (absorbing)]
i(t)
The
Rest
of the
Circuit
+
R
v(t)
–
12
Open
p Circuit
• What if R
R=∞?
∞?
i(t)=0
The
Rest of
the
Circuit
+
v(t)
–
• i(t)
( ) = v(t)/R
() =0
13
Short Circuit
• What if R
R=0?
0?
i(t)
The
Rest of
the
Circuit
+
v(t)=0
–
• v(t)
( ) = R i(t)
()=0
14
Resistors in Series
Two or more elements are in series if the current that flows
through one must also flow through the other.
R1
R2
In series
I1 = I2
Not in series
R1
R2
I1 ≠ I2
15
Resistors in Parallel
• Two or more elements are in parallel if they are connected
between (share) the same two (distinct) end nodes;
• The voltages across these elements are the same.
R1
R1
R2
R2
Parallel
Not Parallel
16
Kirchhoff’s
Kirchhoff
s Laws
• Kirchhoff
Kirchhoff’s
s Current Law (KCL)
– sum of all currents entering a node is zero
– sum of currents entering
g node is equal
q
to sum of
currents leaving node
– Conservation of charge
• Kirchhoff’s Voltage Law (KVL)
– sum off voltages
lt
around
d any loop
l
iin a circuit
i it iis zero
– Conservation of energy
17
KCL ((Kirchhoff’s Current Law))
i1(t)
i5(t)
i2(t)
i4(t)
i3((t))
The sum of currents entering the node is zero:
n
∑ i (t ) = 0
j =1
j
Analogy: mass flow at pipe junction
18
Class Examples
p
• Drill Problems 1,, 2,, 4
19