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America In WWII Chapter 36 1941-1945 America at War Goal – “Germany First” Devote energies to defeating Germany in Europe, then focus on Japan Hitler is the bigger threat US Treatment of Japanese Over 100,000 Japanese-Americans were placed in concentration camps Washington believed they may act on the side of Japan and cripple the US Building the War Machine American factories produced an enormous amount of weaponry, such as guns and planes The War Production Board (WPB) – in charge of production War Efforts WPB halted production of passenger cars, rationed gasoline, and set a national speed limit War Labor Board – placed ceilings on wage increases Smith-Connally Anti-Strike Act – authorized government to take over businesses that went on strike. (1943) ex. coal mines, railroads, etc. Manpower and Womanpower The draft left the nation’s farms and factories shorthanded. 1942 – agreement made with Mexico to bring in braceros to work in fruit and grain crops in the West Manpower and Womanpower US Armed Services – enlisted 216,000 women in WWII. Many women took jobs outside the home in the war industry Population 1.6 million blacks left for jobs in the North and West – Great Migration South – received most of the defense contracts in order to fix economic crisis in the South beginnings of the Sunbelt 25,000 Native Americans served in US Armed Forces Comanche in Europe and Navajo in Pacific became “code talkers” The Home Front Americans at home suffered little from the war The national debt grew from $41 billion in 1941 to $259 billion by 1945 WWII Japan attacked Guam, Wake Island, and the Philippines Gen. Douglas Macarthur led American forces at the Philippines April 9, 1942 – US had to retreat at Bataan Japan and Midway May 1942 – Battle of the Coral Sea – Americans win first battle that was based on an aircraft carrier June 3-6, 1942 – Battle of Midway – Japanese retreated after losing four carriers Turning point of war in the Pacific Toward Tokyo August 1942 - American forces gained foothold on Guadalcanal Island and the Solomon Islands in an attempt to protect the supply-lines from America to Australia through the Southwest Pacific. US Navy leapfrogged islands controlled by Japan on its way to Tokyo – “Island Hopping” Major islands of the Marianas fell to U.S. attackers in July and August 1944 From the Marianas, US B-29 bombers could reach Japan The Halting of Hitler Hitler entered the war with a superb group of U-boats Oct. 1942 – US and allied forces win at El Alamein in North Africa Sept. 1942 – Soviets drive Germans out after attack on Stalingrad North Africa To Rome Nov. 1942 – Dwight Eisenhower led troops against Axis troops in North Africa The German-Italy army was trapped in Tunisia in May 1943. Allied forces captured Sicily in August 1943 North Africa To Rome September 1943, Italy surrendered unconditionally and Mussolini was overthrown. Nazis attempted to hold on to Italy. Rome was taken on June 4, 1944 D-Day – June 6, 1944 Roosevelt, Churchill, and Stalin met at Tehran, Iran from Nov. 28-Dec. 1, 1943 US Gen. Eisenhower given command French Normandy was chosen as place to invade France Paris was liberated August 25, 1944 FDR’s Fourth Term Election of 1944 FDR (D) Thomas Dewey (R) FDR won by a landslide because Americans did not want a new president in the middle of a war The Last Days of Hitler Battle of the Bulge – Hitler’s last attempt at keeping war hopes alive Dec. 15, 1944 –US forces stood firm and won April 1945 – Ike’s troops reach the Elbe River, finding and liberating concentration camps The Last Days of Hitler The Soviets reached Berlin in April 1945 Adolph Hitler committed suicide April 30, 1945 April 12, 1945 – FDR died suddenly of a brain hemorrhage – Truman takes over May 7, 1945 – German government surrendered officially. Japan Dies Hard Submarines and bombers continued to inflict damage upon Japan. Leyte Gulf - series of 3 battles took place from October 23-26, 1944, knocking out Japan’s massive and powerful Navy. Iwo Jima was captured in March 1945. Needed for US bombers to land. The Atomic Bomb Potsdam Conference – Truman, Churchill, and Stalin announced that Japan must surrender or be destroyed. July 16, 1945 - first atomic bomb was detonated The Atomic Bomb “Little Man” - 1 “Fat Boy” – 2 Japan refused to surrender Aug. 6, 1945 – Atomic Bomb dropped on Hiroshima Japan refused to surrender Aug. 9, 1945 – Atomic Bomb dropped on Nagasaki The Surrender of Japan August 10, 1945 – Japan surrendered under the condition that the Emperor Hirohito be allowed to remain emperor The formal end of the war came on Sept. 2, 1945 War Casualties U.S. casualties – 1,000,000 U.S.S.R. casualties – 20,000,000 After the war, much of the world was destroyed with the exception of the United States – it was left untouched.