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Transcript
Endocrine System
Hormones
& Homeostasis
AP Biology
2006-2007
Homeostasis

Homeostasis

maintaining internal balance in the body



organism must keep internal conditions
stable even if environment changes
also called “dynamic equilibrium”
example: body temperature

humans:
 too cold = shiver
 too warm = sweat

Regents Biology
lizard:
 too cold = bask in sun
 too warm = hide in shade
Regulation

How we maintain homeostasis

nervous system


nerve signals control body functions
endocrine system


Regents Biology
hormones
chemical signals control body functions
Nervous System Control
Feedback
Controlling Body Temperature
nerve signals
brain
sweat
high
body temperature
low
brain
constricts surface shiver
blood vessels
Regents Biology
nerve signals
dilates surface
blood vessels
Hormones

Why are hormones needed?
chemical messages from one body part
to cells in other parts of body
 communication needed
to coordinate whole body
 maintaining homeostasis

Regents Biology
growth hormones
Endocrine System

Endocrine system releases hormones

glands which secrete (release)
chemical signals into blood

chemicals cause changes
in other parts of body
 growth hormones
 sex hormones
 response hormones
 metabolism hormones
 and more….
Regents Biology
Responding to hormones

Lock and key system

hormone fits receptor on “target” cell
target
cell
secreting
cell
Regents Biology
can’t
read
signal
nontarget
cells
can’t
read
signal
Glands

Pineal


Pituitary


insulin, glucagon
Ovary


adrenaline
Pancreas


thyroxine
Adrenal


many hormones:
master gland
Thyroid


melatonin
estrogen
Testes

testosterone
Regents Biology
Feedback
Maintaining homeostasis
hormone 1
lowers
body condition
gland
high
specific body condition
low
raises
body condition
Regents Biology
gland
hormone 2
Negative Feedback

Response to changed body condition

if body is high or low from normal level


signal tells body to make changes that will
bring body back to normal level
once body is back
to normal level,
signal is
turned off
gland
hormone 1
lowers
body condition
high
Regents Biology
specific body condition
Endocrine System Control
Regulation of Blood Sugar
Feedback
insulin
liver stores
sugar
body
cells take
up sugar
from blood
pancreas
high
liver
blood sugar level
(90mg/100ml)
low
triggers
hunger
Regents Biology
liver
releases
sugar
liver
pancreas
glucagon
reduces
appetite
Everyone’s doing it, so
Ask Questions!!
AP Biology
2006-2007
Sex & Growth Hormones

Large scale body
changes

how do they work


turn genes on
start new processes
in the body by
turning genes on
that were lying
“dormant”
Regents Biology
Pituitary gland hormones

Sex & reproductive hormones

FSH



LH




luteinizing hormone
stimulates ovaries & testes
prepares uterus for fertilized egg
oxytocin



follicle stimulating hormone
stimulates egg & sperm production
stimulates childbirth contractions
releases milk in nursing mothers
prolactin

milk production in nursing mothers
Regents Biology
hormones
hormones
Reproductive hormones

Testosterone



from testes
sperm
production &
secondary sexual
characteristics
Estrogen


from ovaries
egg production,
preparing uterus
for fertilized egg
& secondary
sexual
characteristics
Regents Biology
Male
reproductive
system

Sperm production
over 100 million produced per day!
Regents 
Biology
~2.5 million released per drop!

seminiferous
tubule
sperm
spermatocytes
Regents Biology
Male reproductive system

Testes & epididymis


sperm production &
maturation
Glands
seminal vesicles,
prostate,
bulbourethal
 produce seminal
fluid


Regents Biology
nutrient-rich
Male reproductive system

Testicles


Scrotum


where sperm mature
Vas deferens


sac that holds testicles outside of body
Epididymis


produces sperm & hormones
tubes for sperm to travel from testes to penis
Prostate, seminal vesicles,
Cowper’s (bulbourethal) glands

nutrient rich fluid to feed & protect sperm
Regents Biology
Female reproductive system
Regents Biology
Female reproductive system

Ovaries


Uterus


tubes for eggs to travel from ovaries to uterus
Cervix


nurtures fetus; lining builds up each month
Fallopian tubes


produces eggs & hormones
opening to uterus, dilates 10 cm for birthing baby
Vagina

birth canal for birthing baby
Regents Biology
Female reproductive system
Regents Biology
Egg maturation in ovary
releases
progesterone
maintains
uterus
lining
Regents Biology
produces estrogen
LH
Menstrual cycle

Controlled by
interaction of
4 hormones egg development
FSH & LH
 estrogen
 progesterone
FSH
ovulation = egg release

corpus luteum
estrogen
progesterone
lining of uterus
Regents Biology
days 0
7
14
21
28
Feedback
Female reproductive cycle
egg
matures &
is released
(ovulation)
estrogen
builds up
uterus lining
corpus
luteum
ovary
progesterone
FSH & LH
maintains
uterus lining
fertilized egg
(zygote)
HCG
yes
pituitary
gland
pregnancy
GnRH
Regents Biology
hypothalamus
no
corpus luteum breaks down
progesterone drops
menstruation
corpus
luteum
progesterone
maintains
uterus lining
Female hormones

FSH & LH




Estrogen




released from pituitary
stimulates egg development & hormone release
peak release = release of egg (ovulation)
released from ovary cells around developing egg
stimulates growth of lining of uterus
decreasing levels causes menstruation
Progesterone
released from “corpus luteum” in ovaries
 cells that used to take care of developing egg
 stimulates blood supply to lining of uterus
 decreasing levels causes menstruation
Regents Biology

Fertilization
Regents Biology
Any Questions??
AP Biology
2006-2007
What do they do?

Maintain homeostasis
blood sugar level
 temperature control


Start a new process
growth
 fetal development
 sexual development

Regents Biology
Body Temperature
Negative Feedback

Negative feedback

every time body is
high or low from
normal level a signal
tells the body to
make changes that
will bring body back


body temperature
control of blood sugar
Regents Biology
Regulation by chemical messengers


Neurotransmitters released by neurons
Hormones release by endocrine glands
endocrine gland
neurotransmitter
axon
hormone
carried by blood
receptor proteins
Regents Biology
receptor proteins
target cell
Body Regulation

Nervous system &
Endocrine system work
together

hypothalamus



“master nerve control center”
receives information from
nerves around body about
internal conditions
communicates with
pituitary gland


“master gland”
releases many hormones
hormones
 sexual development, growth,
Regents Biology
milk production, pain-relief
hormones