1. Hi everyone, today I will present you 'the new brutalism' by Reyner Banham. Banham published what he purported to be the definitive statement on The New Brutalism, comprising an international selection of buildings. His contention was that the interplay of ethics and aesthetics defined production and reception of brutalism. 3. Reyner Banham was one of the most influential writers on architecture, design, and popular culture from the mid1950s to the late 1980s. Banham entered the London University in 1945 to study art history. During this time he wrote criticism on contemporary architecture for The Architectural Review and other journals. As a critic, he particularly espoused modernist architecture. Banham wrote his thesis under Nikolaus Pevsner at the Warburg, Theory and Design in the First Machine Age which appeared as a book in 1960. His topic focused on Expressionism and Futurism's contribution to architecture. In 1952, Banham began working for the Architectural Review. Banham also had connections with the Independent Group, the 1956 . This Is Tomorrow art exhibition – considered by many to the birth of pop art – and the thinking of the Smithsons and, on the 'New Brutalism', which he documented in his 1966 book The New Brutalism: Ethic or Aesthetic? 4. Brutalism is an architectural style that spawned from the modernist architectural movement and which flourished from the 1950s to the 1970s. Brutalist building typically contains poured concrete. Brutalist buildings usually are formed with striking repetitive angular geometries, and, where concrete is used, often revealing the texture of the wooden forms used for the in-situ casting. Although concrete is the material most widely associated with Brutalist architecture, not all Brutalist buildings are formed from concrete. Instead, a building may achieve its Brutalist quality through a rough, blocky appearance, and the expression of its structural materials, forms, and services on its exterior. For example, many of Alison and Peter Smithson's private houses are built from brick. Brutalist building materials also include brick, glass, steel, rough-hewn stone, and gabion. 8.Le Corbusier was born in Switzerland and became a French citizen in 1930.nineteen thirty. He was a Swiss-French architect, designer, painter, urban planner, writer, and one of the pioneers of what is now called modern architecture. 9.The best known early Brutalist architecture is the work of the Swiss architect Le Corbusier, in particular his Unité d'Habitation. Corbusier created his own modular inspired from the human proportions and the golden section and the concept fromed the basis of several housing developments designed by him throughout Europe with this name, and to create a whole neighborhood in one building. He put the five principles of modern architecture in his vision. The building comprises 337 apartments arranged over twelve stories, all suspended on large pilot. 10.Illinois Institute of Technology, Chicago, as Le Corbusier had concrete, another of the brutalists idols had done the same with steel. Mies van der Rohe, particularly with the Illinois Institute of Technology, “had made and honest use of steel as a builders’ material, employing it, not as an abstract ideal of structural stiffness, but as a real substance having surface, substance and character of its own, and structural habits as reliable and as comprehensible as those of brick or masonry.” Although Mies Van der Rohe was an pioneers of the modern architecture, materials in his buildings are revealed and showed clearly and Brutalism movement was based by his works in the direction of Peter & Alison Smithson. 11.English architects Alison Smithson and Peter Smithson together formed an architectural partnership, and are often associated with the New Brutalism. They met while studying architecture at Durham University and they married. They first came to prominence with Hunstanton School which used some of the language of high modernist Mies van der Rohe. They are arguably among the leaders of the British school of New Brutalism. 12. For Peter and Alison Smithson, this gentle populism and watered-down design was not what Modernism was all about. They demanded a return to a more rigid, formal architecture and put their ideas to work with their Secondary School in Hunstanton, Norfolk, completed in 1954. At Hunstanton, the Smithsons made a virtue of the construction process of the building: structural and service elements were left exposed and the austere steel and glass frame gave the building a skeletal appearance. This "truth to materials" approach was antiaesthetic, but, the Smithsons believed, more honest and true to Modernism's basic principles. Reynar Banham dubbed the school 'the New Brutalism', a movement which aimed, in his words, to "make the whole conception of the building plain and comprehensible. No mystery, no romanticism, no obscurities about function and circulation. 13. Robin Hood Gardens is a residential estate in London designed in the late 1960s. by architects Alison and Peter Smithson. Highly visible examples of Brutalist architecture. It was intended as an example of the 'streets in the sky' concept: Social housing characterized by broad aerial walkways in long concrete blocks. It was a reaction against Le Corbusier' s Unite d'Habitation. It covers about two hectares and consists of two blocks, one of ten stories, the other of seven, built from precast concrete slabs and containing 213 flats. 14. Paul Marvin Rudolph was born in 1918 in Kentucky. He was an American architect and the Chair of Yale University's Department of Architecture for six years, known for his use of concrete and highly complex floor plans. known for his contributions to modernism throughout the latter half of the 20th century. 15. His most famous work is the Yale Art and Architecture Building, a spatially complex brutalist concrete structure. It was Completed in 1963, the building is formed of intersecting volumes of bush-hammered concrete. Smooth concrete and glass horizontal elements are supported by a sequence of towers that protrude above the roof in a series of turrets. 16. Louis Kahn was born in 1901. He was an American architect. While continuing his private practice, he served as a design critic and professor of architecture at Yale School of Architecture from 1947 to 1957. Kahn created a style that was monumental and monolithic; his heavy buildings for the most part do not hide their weight, their materials, or the way they are assembled. Louis Kahn's works are considered as monumental beyond modernism.