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Transcript
Universität Stuttgart
INSTITUT FÜR
NACHRICHTENVERMITTLUNG
UND DATENVERARBEITUNG
Prof. Dr.-Ing. Dr. h. c. mult. P. J. Kühn
Evoluation of Network Technologies
and its Impact on Traffic Engineering
Prof. Dr.-Ing. Dr. h. c. mult. Paul J. Kühn
Institute of Communication Networks and Computer Engineering (IKR)
University of Stuttgart
&
International Advisory Council (IAC)
International Teletraffic Congress (ITC)
[email protected]
Phone: +49-711-6858027, Fax: +49-711-6857983
ITU/ITC Regional Seminar on Network Evoluation to Next Generation Networks
and Fixed Mobile Convergence for CEE, CIS and Baltic States
Moscow, April 27-30, 2004
Outline
1 Network Developments
2 Service Developments
3 Quality of Service
4 Conclusion: General Observations and Research Areas
Institute of Communication Networks and Computer Engineering
University of Stuttgart
Outline
1 Network Developments
- Telecommunication Networks
- Computer Communication Networks
- Technological Developments
Institute of Communication Networks and Computer Engineering
University of Stuttgart
Telecommunication Networks
Mobile Network
Fixed Network
Telefax
MSC
Telephon
BS
Switching
Node
Mobile
Stations
HLR/VLR
SCP
SDP
• 1200 Million Subscribers (Fixed Network)
Annual Growth 10%
• 1400 Million Subscribers (Mobile Networks)
Annual Growth 50%
• Intelligent Network Services (IN)
Institute of Communication Networks and Computer Engineering
University of Stuttgart
Computer Communication Networks
PC
Server
Telephone
Network
Internet
POP
R
R
WS
R
R
R
Intranet
• Probably more than 100 000 Subnetworks
and more than 700 Million Users
• Services: Electronic Mail, Database Access,
File Transfer, Internet Telephony,
Multimedia Communication, World Wide Web,
Peer-to-Peer
Institute of Communication Networks and Computer Engineering
University of Stuttgart
Development of User Numbers
Source: ITU News 2/2002
Mobile Users
Million Users
1500
Fixed Telephone
Network
Subscribers
Internet Users
1000
500
0
1990
1995
2000
Institute of Communication Networks and Computer Engineering
2005
University of Stuttgart
Technological Developments
BS
Ground
Station
ADM
GY
MSC
NG Internet
ATM
Fibre Optic Channels
Photonic
Switch
OCC
Institute of Communication Networks and Computer Engineering
Photonic
Backbone
Mobiles
Fixed
Access Networks
Mobile
Core Networks
Low Earth Orbit
Satellites
University of Stuttgart
Outline
1 Network Developments
- Telecommunication Networks
- Computer Communication Networks
- Technological Developments
2 Service Developments
- Service Categories
- Service and Technology Convergence
- Application Scenarios
Institute of Communication Networks and Computer Engineering
University of Stuttgart
Service Categories
Telecommunication
Telephonie Multimedia-Mail
Telefax
Videoconference
Information
Electronic Newspaper
Tele-Education
E-Mail
Telecooperation
Home Working
Focused
Advertizing
Stored Multimedia
Access
Data Base Access
World Wide Web
Computer
Communication
Video-onDemand
Remote Login
Advanced
Pay-per-view
Data Communication
Distributed
Video Games
Tele-XYZ
e-Business
Portals
Business Applications
Entertainment
Institute of Communication Networks and Computer Engineering
University of Stuttgart
Development Scenario
Service and Technology Convergence
Services
E-mail
File Transfer
VoIP
Web
Audio
Video
Multimedia
Transport
E-Commerce
Games
IP
Technologies
ISDN ATM GSM
B-ISDN
UMTS
LAN MAN WLAN
FR
SDH WDM FTTX HFC
Institute of Communication Networks and Computer Engineering
PC
University of Stuttgart
Application Scenario
Trust Center
Electronic Ticket
Bank
Railway
Booking
Centre
(4)
(3)
(2)
Smart
Card
BSS
MSC
PDA +
Mobile
Phone
Conductor
(1)
Smart
Card
HLR/VLR
Railway Customer
PDA
(5)
ICE
Institute of Communication Networks and Computer Engineering
University of Stuttgart
Application Scenario
Navigation Support
Satellite
Sensor
Radio
Access
Network 1
Fixed Network
Radio
Access
Network 2
MT
...
Federation
Server
Data Base
Systems
MT
Congestion
ahead
Institute of Communication Networks and Computer Engineering
University of Stuttgart
Outline
1 Network Developments
- Telecommunication Networks
- Computer Communication Networks
- Technological Developments
2 Service Developments
- Service Categories
- Service and Technology Convergence
- Application Scenarios
3 Quality of Service (QoS)
- Definition of QoS
- Traditional Solutions
- Challenges for New Services
Institute of Communication Networks and Computer Engineering
University of Stuttgart
Quality-of-Service (QoS) Definition
QoS:
Entirety of all features characterizing the perception
of a service (application) at the user level
("user perceivable criteria")
Features:
Delay (average, peak, distribution, percentile, ...) of
information
Loss (average, peak) of information or of a connection
Resolution, audibility, ... of information content
Reliability, dependability, availability, accountability,
security of service
Quantifyable
QoS (Q2S):
Measurable value ("Metric") in the widest sense
Institute of Communication Networks and Computer Engineering
University of Stuttgart
Factors Influencing QoS
Factor
Reason
• Source Traffic
Coding Scheme, Human Factors
• Network Resources
Capacity Limits, Network Planning
• Operational Strategies
Resource Management
• Network Management
Fault Detection, Resilience
Examples
Institute of Communication Networks and Computer Engineering
University of Stuttgart
Multi-Level Source Model for IP-Applications
Start
Stop
Session
TCP
Flow
Packet/Cell
Institute of Communication Networks and Computer Engineering
University of Stuttgart
Client-Server Communication
Example: Network File System (NFS)
Client
Server
Application
Data Base System
Data Base System
Local
File
System
NFS
Client
NFS
Client
Local
File
System
Request sent to Server Port
Response sent to Client Port
Institute of Communication Networks and Computer Engineering
University of Stuttgart
HTTP Application
User
DNS
Server
WWW
Browser
URL
WWW
Server
DNS Lookup
Response
TCP Connection Setup
GET/Fakultaet/Welcome.html
Presentation of
HTML Page
HTML Page
TCP Connection Release
Institute of Communication Networks and Computer Engineering
University of Stuttgart
Internet Routing
RIP
BGP
RIP
Domain 2
(RIP)
Domain 1
(RIP)
BGP
Domain Router
RIP
OSPF
BGP
Edge Router
Routing Information Protocol
Open Shortest Path First
Border Gateway Protocol
Institute of Communication Networks and Computer Engineering
OSPF
Domain 3
(OSPF)
University of Stuttgart
Traditional Solutions
Example 1: Telecommunication Services
Connection: Reservation of Bandwidth
Network
B
A
Admission Control
Circuit Switching
Traditional Solution is not feasible for many new applications due to:
• Variable bitrate sources (burst traffic)
• Overhead for connection management (delay, state management, ...)
• Integration of many services with quite different characteristics
• Inflexibility with respect to adaptation to application requirements
• Cost
Institute of Communication Networks and Computer Engineering
University of Stuttgart
Traditional Solutions
Example 2: Internet
Network
Datagram
routing
Server
Client
"Best Effort Service": No admission control
No resource reservation
Unpredictable delays and losses
BES is not feasible for many new applications due to:
• No guarantees on QoS
Institute of Communication Networks and Computer Engineering
University of Stuttgart
QoS Management in the Internet
Traffic Classes in the IntServ-Model
• Guaranteed Service
(similar to CBR and rt-VBR)
• Controlled Load Service
(similar to nrt-VBR)
• Best Effort Service
(similar to UBR)
Use of RSVP
Traffic Classes in the DiffServ-Model
• Expedited Forwarding
(Premium Service)
• Assured Forwarding with different Priorities
Hop-by-Hop Control
Institute of Communication Networks and Computer Engineering
University of Stuttgart
IntServ-Model
Source
Router
Router
Destination
PATH Messages
RESV Messages
Soft-State
Soft-State
Periodic Updates
of Soft-State
Reservations
Flow Description by
Flow Specifications (FlowSpec)
Service Class
Reserve Specification (RSpec)
Traffic Specification (TSpec)
Filter Specification (FilterSpec)
Institute of Communication Networks and Computer Engineering
University of Stuttgart
DiffServ Model
Access
Router
Border
Router
Border
Router
Access
Router
Backbone
Internet of ISP
Subnetwork
A
Subnetwork
A
Negotiation of max. Bitrate between User and ISP for Aggregated Traffic Volumes
Classification of Traffic Class by Access Routers
Premium Service:
Separate Queues and Prioritized Transport provide
virtual leased Line Service
Policing Function by Border Router
Assured Service:
Use of Priority to provide QoS for short Bursts
Policing Function and Packet Dropping by Border Router
Appropriate Dimensioning of Transmission Resources by ISP
Per Hop Behaviour (PHB) Routing, Marking of IP Packets within DS-Field
Institute of Communication Networks and Computer Engineering
University of Stuttgart
Tag Switching
R
Tag Distribution
Edge
Router
Edge
Router
S
R
Packet Flow
S
• Detection of flows
• Assignment of flow labels
• Fast switching along pathes
Institute of Communication Networks and Computer Engineering
State-based switching
University of Stuttgart
Peer-to-Peer File Sharing
Server + Client
(Servent)
Overlay
Network
Request
(Query)
Query
Hits
Underlying
unreliable
Internet
(TCP/IP)
Autonomous
System
Autonomous
System
Autonomous
System
Institute of Communication Networks and Computer Engineering
University of Stuttgart
Challenges of NG Internet with Respect to QOS
• Tremendous increase in bandwidth demand in mobile and fixed networks for new applications
Ahead: Japan and Rep. of Korea (70/60 % mobile Internet users;
US/Europe < 10%)
Asia-Pacific Region leading in broadband penetration
• Rapid decrease of internat. bandw. pricing from 111 TUSD (1998) to
10 TUSD (2002) for US-Japan 1Mbps link per year
• NG Internet Technology and broadband access
• Fast routing algorithms
• Convergence of Internet and Mobility
• Adaptive traffic control (e.g., for Peer-to-Peer applications)
• Negotiable QoS Levels and QoS guarantees
• Accounting and charging for highly variable bitrate services
• Ubiquitous computing and ad hoc communication networks
• Adaptation of source coding and network traffic control
• QoS across multiple layers and heterogeneous network technologies
Institute of Communication Networks and Computer Engineering
University of Stuttgart
Research Topics - Communication & Security
Architectures & Protocols
• Unified Communication based on IPv6
• Communication across different Networks
• Mobility Management based on Mobile IP Concepts
• Dynamic Address Management
• Horizontal and Vertical Handover
• Integration of Ad Hoc Networks (infrastructureless)
• Middleware Concepts
Abstraction from Underlying Network Infrastructures
• Design & Implementation
• Standardization
Institute of Communication Networks and Computer Engineering
University of Stuttgart
Research Topics - Communication & Security
Mobility
• Modelling of Mobility of Users and Data
• Modelling of (Communication) Traffic
-spatial and temporal
• Disconnected Operation (information Caching and Fuelling)
• Predictive Information Provision (Hoarding)
• Simulation Methods for Mobility
• Performance
Institute of Communication Networks and Computer Engineering
University of Stuttgart
Research Topics - Security & Privacy
Example
HLR/VLR
BC
MSC
• Tracking of Location May Cause Severe Privacy Problems
• Similar Problems Arise from Recording of User Activities
Institute of Communication Networks and Computer Engineering
University of Stuttgart
Research Topics - Security & Privacy
• Protection Against Concatenation between
Location Data and User Identity
• Methods:
- Pseudonymization
- Authentication
- Multilateral Security concepts:
Negotiation of Protection Aims and Strengths
- Accountability and Non-Repudiation
- Integrity
• Security Protocol Design
Institute of Communication Networks and Computer Engineering
University of Stuttgart
Conclusion (1): General Observations
• Change of Paradigms in the Communication Sector
- heterogeneous network technologies, broad spectrum of applications
- trend directs to IP-based network and transport protocols
- technology push and market pull
• Success Factors
- time to market
- open platforms
- user acceptance
• Design Processes
- limited development periods
- specialization and limitation to core competences ("make or buy?")
- design automation, design platforms and tools
• Standardization and Quality
- proprietary solutions vs. open platforms
- need for standardization
- product quality and quality of service
Institute of Communication Networks and Computer Engineering
University of Stuttgart
Conclusion (2): Research Areas
• Integration of the various Network Technologies
- fixed, mobile and ad hoc networks
- internet and photonic technologies
- support of autoconfiguration and manageability
• Platforms
- advanced middleware concepts
- service creation support
- application programming interfaces
• New Application Paradigms
- location and context based services
- nomadic communications and ubiquitious computing
- overlay networks
• New Business Models
- micropayment
- quality of service
- scalable security
Institute of Communication Networks and Computer Engineering
University of Stuttgart