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Transcript
Chromalox Technical Documents
Technical
Technical Information
Three Phase Equations & Heater Wiring Diagrams
Typical Heater Wiring Diagrams
Three phase heating circuits are most efficient
when operated under balanced conditions. If
it is necessary to operate an unbalanced load,
the equations below can be used to calculate
the circuit values for open three phase Delta or
Wye circuits. The terms used in the equations
are identified below:
VL =
VP =
IL =
ILL =
IP =
WT =
R1 =
Rc =
Line Voltage
Phase (Element) Voltage
Line Current (Amps)
Line Current (Unbalanced Phase)
Phase Current (Amps)
Total Watts
R2 = R3 = Element Resistance
Circuit Resistance in Ohms Measured
from Phase to Phase
The following diagrams show typical heater
wiring schematics.
Fused Disconnect
Switch
1or 3
Phase Power Source
L1
1 Phase
Power
Source
L2
Heater(s)
VP
IP
ILL
VL
2VL x IL
IL
2VP x IP
VL =
WT =
IL =
ILL =
VP
2 (VL2 ÷ R1)
IP
1.73 X IP
The loss of a phase or failure of an element in
a three (3) element Delta circuit will reduce the
wattage output by 33%.
3Ø Open Wye
R2
IP
IL
VL ÷ 2
IL x VL
IL
VL2 ÷ WC
3 Phase
Power L2
Source
L1
Fused
Disconnect
Switch
VL = VP X 2
WT = VL2 ÷ 2R1
IL = IP
The loss of a phase or failure of an element in
a three (3) element Wye circuit will reduce the
wattage output by 50%. Heating elements are
basically in series on single phase power.
DPST Thermostat
Heater(s)
Three Phase AC heater circuit where line voltage and
current do not exceed thermostat rating. Circuit does not
have a “positive” off.
1 or 3
Phase
Power
Source
Fused Disconnect
Switch
L3
L2
L1
L1
L2
Sensor
T/C or RTD
Electronic
Temperature Control
1 or 3
Phase
Power
Source
High Speed
Fuses
L3
L2
L1
SCR Power
Controller
Heater(s)
Sensor T/C
or RTD
Single or Three Phase AC heater circuit using an
electronic temperature controller and a SCR (solid state)
power controller. Controller must be rated the same voltage
as the heater circuit. Control circuit requires over-current
protection. All electrical wiring to electric heaters must be
installed in accordance with the National Electrical Code or
local electrical codes by a qualified person.
Wiring & Ambient Temperatures
L3
VP
VL
R1
VP =
WT =
IP =
RC =
Heater(s)
Single Phase AC circuits where line voltage and current
do not exceed thermostat rating.
R2
VP =
WT =
IP =
WC =
Fused Disconnect
Switch
VL
Circuit
Breaker
Electronic
Temperature
Control
1 Phase L1
Power
Source L2
Heater(s)
Single or Three Phase AC heater circuit using electronic
temperature controllers and contactors. Controller and
contactor holding coil must be rated for the same voltage
as the heater circuit. Control circuit requires over- current
protection.
Single Phase 120 VAC heater circuit where line voltage
and current do not exceed thermostat rating.
3Ø Open Delta
R1
Fused
Disconnect
Switches
SPST
Thermostat
DPST
Thermostat
IL
Contactor
L3
L2
L1
Contactor
Heater(s)
DPST
Thermostat
Single or Three Phase AC heater circuit where line voltage and current exceed thermostat rating. Separate control circuit can use a single pole or double pole thermostat.
Control circuit requires over-current protection.
WARNING — Hazard of Electric Shock. Any
installation involving electric heaters must be
effectively grounded in accordance with the
National Electrical Code to eliminate shock
hazard.
Ambient temperatures must be considered
when selecting wiring materials for electric
heater circuits. Heating equipment and processes may cause associated wiring to operate
well above ambient temperatures. These
temperatures may result from heat conducted
from the heater terminals, radiation from
heated surfaces or simply high ambient air
temperatures. Nickel plated copper or nickel
alloy conductors with high temperature insulation should always be used in high temperature areas. Outside these areas, conventional
wiring materials can usually be used. 60°C
building wire is usually not suitable unless
otherwise indicated.
Wiring in Severe Conditions
Moist or wet locations require gasketed terminal and junction boxes to protect equipment
and wiring. Rigid conduit is recommended.
Hazardous Locations require the use of approved explosion-proof terminal and junction
boxes. Rigid conduit or mineral insulated (MI)
cable is mandatory in Division 1 areas. Some
Hazardous Locations may require conduit
seals (EYS) adjacent to the equipment.
I-37
TECHNICAL
INFORMATION
Open Delta & Wye