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AP World History
Chapter 3
Classical Civilization in India and China
Aryan Civilization
• Indo European people who migrated across
Europe and Asia.
• No Archeological record of early Aryans.
• Priests called Vedas kept oral stories that were
passed down for generations.
• The Vedas oral histories were written down
around 1500 B.C.E
Aryan Society
• Aryans loved fighting, drinking, and playing dice.
• They broke their society into four groups.
– Brahmins or Priests.
– Kshatriyas or Warriors.
– Vaisyas or merchants, artists, farmers and herders.
– Sudras or natives conquered by Aryans.
• Later the four groups were divided by economic
• Slowly castes developed subdividing the people.
Aryan Religious Beliefs
• Aryans were polytheistic.
Indra = God of Thunder, War= Weapon Thunderbolt.
Varuna = God of Order.
Agni = God of Fire = Messenger.
Brahman = God of all things.
Mystics = People who seek spiritual things.
Rajahs = Elected warrior leaders.
Nomads to Farmers
• The Aryans began to settle in villages then
• Rajahs became hereditary monarchs.
• By 500 B.C.E many Rajahs controlled a new
civilization of both Aryans and natives.
• Written language of Sanskrit began to appear.
• India’s greatest epic poem.
• Story of Aryans fighting each other.
• Five royal brothers fight one battle that lasts
18 days.
• The hero Rama must rescue Sita his beautiful
bride from the demon king Ravana.
• The monkey general Hanuman helps Rama
rescue Sita.
• Rama = ideal king.
• Sita = ideal women.
Classical Age India
• Alexander the Great.
• We learn about the
Maurya empire from a
Greek diplomat.
Chandragupta, Maurya Empire
• The first leader who conquered northern
• The empire was maintained by a well
organized Bureaucracy.
• The government built roads, harbors,
collected taxes, and had royal courts.
• The most honored Maurya emperor.
• He conquered the Deccan region at the cost of
100,000 dead.
• He then converted to Buddhism.
• He stopped all conquest and became a
• He built stone pillars announcing peace and
prosperity and helped unite a divided people.
• Literature.
– Fables, and folk tales in the Sanskrit language
– Most famous play was Shakuntala.
• Art.
– Murals or wall paintings, Sexually vivid.
• Architecture, stone temples, stupa’s or domes.
– Lots of carvings.
• Physicians.
– Plastic surgery.
– Vaccination of people against small pox.
• Math.
– Concept of Zero.
– Decimal system based on 10.
Kushan Empire
• Nomadic Empire that spread rapidly across
the northern empire.
• The Kushans adopted elements of the
Hellenistic culture of Bactria.
• They adopted the Greek alphabet to suit their
own language
Gupta Destroyed
• About the time of the Roman Empires collapse the
White Huns overran the Gupta empire.
• India split into many kingdoms for almost a 1000
Many Gods or One
• Hinduism has no founder but grew out of
many cultures and people.
• One of the worlds most complex religions.
“God is one, but wise people know it by many
• Brahman is the one god but people worship
him as thousands of different gods.
Hindu Beliefs
• Reincarnation
– Rebirth of the soul.
– Can be reborn up or down in the cast system.
• Gurus
– Great knowledge leads people as a teacher.
• Mystics
– Religious leaders
Varuna God of the Sky
Hindu Sacred Texts
• Bhagavad-Gita.
– Teaches duty over personal desires and ambitions.
The Goal of Life
• Every person on earth has a atman or
• The goal is to achieve moksha or union with
your Brahman.
– You must free yourself of selfish desires.
– It may take several lives to obtain.
– Reincarnation is the rebirth of the soul.
Karma and Dharma
• Karma deals with all actions in this life that
affect his or her status in the next life.
• All existence is ranked. Humans are at the top
then comes animals, plants, and rocks.
• Dharma is the duties that each class of people
must accomplish to progress.
Opposition to the Brahmins
• Some people rejected traditional Hinduism for
a more extreme form.
Early Life
• The early life of Gautama was spent in a
palace surrounded by luxury.
• Prince Gautama married and had a son.
• Gautama was sheltered by his father who did
not want him to become a traveling holy man.
The Search
• Gautama was riding one day and came across a dead
man, a sick person, and an old man.
• He left his family to find a place without suffering.
“why is their so much suffering in life?”
• He sat under a tree for 48 days pondering the
mystery of life.
• he answered the question, his name changed to
Buddha. “the enlightened one.”
• Nirvana and Moksha.
Four Noble Truths
• All life is filled with pain and suffering.
• The cause of suffering is the desire for things
that are really illusions, such as riches, power,
and long life.
• The cure for suffering is to overcome desire.
• Overcome desire by following the Eightfold
Buddhism and Hinduism Compared
• Both Buddhism and Hinduism believe in the
cycle of rebirth.
• Buddhism grew out of Hinduism.
• Both stress non-violence.
Buddhist Sacred Texts
• The Tripitaka or “Three Baskets of Wisdom”
– “Overcome evil with good.”
– “Overcome the liar with truth.”
Two Sects of Buddhism
• Theravada: Followed the original teachings of
Buddha closely.
• Mahayana: Worship Buddha even though
Buddha taught the people not to worship him.
• Afterlife with many heavens and hells.
Decline of Buddhism in India
• Hinduism eventually absorbed some Buddhist
• Hinduism added Buddha to their long list of
• Muslim armies destroyed the few remaining
Buddhist centers of learning in the North.
Priest Morning Rituals
The Upanishads
• The Upanishads are philosophical texts considered to be an
early source of Hindu religion. More than 200 are known.
• All Upanishads have been passed down in oral tradition.
• It presents itself as a guide to a virtuous and gracious living.
• A book on practical advice on sex.
• A stupa is a mound-like structure containing Buddhist relics,
typically the remains of Buddha, used by Buddhists as a place
of worship.
Economy and Society
• arranged marriages
• companionate
• Iron working
• Steel
• Long-distance trade
Indian Influence
• Spread Via trade
• Buddhism
China and India
• Contrasts
• Indian sensuality v. Chinese restraint in art
• India more rigid socially
• Similarities
• large peasant classes
• patriarchy
Classical Civilization China
Zhou dynasty
• Revolt so fierce that the
blood in the streets of
the capital was deep
enough to float blocks of
Zhou Mandate of Heaven
• Mandate of heaven
– Government receives it right to govern by heaven approval.
– The responsibility of people to overthrow governments when
ruler loses the approval of the Gods.
– Governments lose approval if they are unjust and ineffective.
Zhou dynasty:1100-750 B.C.
• Zhou (Pronounced like “Joe”)
• Zhou acquired most of the Shang Culture and Technology
• Last Shang King was said to be a physical giant and monster of
depravity among his cruelties was that he made drinking cups of the
skulls of his vanquished enemies.
• Slaves and Zhou vassals revolted against Shang cruelties. (1050 B.C.)
Heaven Commands Me
• The Justification of the political change of these tough
frontiersman barbarian was that the iniquity of Shang is full
“Heaven commands me to destroy it.”
Zhou Economic Growth
• Iron tools like axes and ox drawn iron plows replaced wooden farm
– Made farming better because farmers could produce more food.
• First time coin money began to be used.
– Made trade better because a merchant could carry money a lot easier then a
herd of cows.
Zhou Political System
• Political system like feudal Europe
– Serfdom and Hereditary Lords
• Land is endowed for oaths of military service.
– Local Lords were culturally and linguistically different.
Zhou Destruction
• 771 Wei Valley capital of Zhou is sacked
– Vassals become rival states.
Qui in the west
Jin in the north
Yan to north east
Chu to the south
Qi to east
– No dominant Chinese culture or National identity
Class Divisions
• A Sharp class division existed between the
landowning aristocracy, educated bureaucrats
and laboring masses.
Warring States 400-225 B.C.E
Chaos and War
• War becomes larger in
scale and more ruthless
• Stronger states
conquered and
absorbed weaker ones.
• In response to crisis
schools of thought were
– Confucianism
– Daoism
– Legalism
• Confucianism
– People could live together peacefully by recognizing
their roles in networks of relationships
– The family is an example of how relationships linked
people together.
Five Great Relationships
• Confucianism
– The five great relationships are those between
Ruler and subject
Father and son
Husband and wife
Elder and younger brother
Friend and friend
Confucianism and Government
• Confucianism
– Each of the five involved both hierarchy and reciprocity.
– In each pair, one role was superior and one, inferior; one role led
and the other followed.
– Yet each involved mutual obligations and responsibilities.
– Failure to properly fulfill one’s role could lead to the abrogation of
the relationship
Effects of Confucianism
• Confucianism
– People not fulfilling their
roles undermined Zhou
– People should engage in
learning both to develop
his personal moral
character and to gain
knowledge that is useful
in serving others.
• Goal was to live in harmony
with nature.
• Rejection of conflict and
– Stressed yielding.
– Water does not resist
but yields.
• Government the cause of
many problems.
• Eventually turned into a
• Legalism was
introduced by the Qin
to gain power and
• Rewards and
Punishments to
produce conformity to
the rule of clear and
well developed laws.
Legalism (Continued)
• Laws were strict, everyone understood their duties and
knew the penalties for failing to fulfill them.
• Some believed human nature was essentially blank and
that people needed careful guidance by strong rulers to live
in an orderly way.
Qin Dynasty: 221-206 B.C.
• Qin with legalism as its ideology succeeded in
ending the Warring states era.
• Qin defeated all it rivals to unite China
• 221 Chu kingdom fell and the King of Qin took the
title of Qin shihuangdi or first Emperor.
Qin Economics
• Qin laid the basis for an enduring imperial order.
• Created unified Administrative system
– Standardized
Weight & measures system
Cart axle width
Qin, Construction
• Standardize people’s thoughts
– Buried hundreds of scholars alive
– Burned books and scholars to eliminate unorthodox ideas.
• Imposed Taxes.
• Massive Terracotta tomb.
Qin,Great Wall
• Great wall of China
– Protected north steppe boarder
– Reportedly 1 million died in the building of the wall
Classical Age China
Han Dynasty 202 B.C to 220 A.D
• Traded with
Rome and Indian
• Accepted
and the Han
Dynasty was less
Han, Sciences
• History records begin to
be kept.
– History of the elite.
• Math, Science,
Geography, and
Sternpost Rudder.
Magnetic Compass.
Paper from wood pulp.
5th century wood block
Han, Medicine
Figured out the function of internal organs.
Figured out the circulation of blood.
Metallic and Ceramic luxury items.
Han, Art
• Silk manufacturing.
• Bronze, Jade, and
Ceramics used for art.
• Poetry.
• Landscape art.
• Instrumental music.
Han, Economics
• Canals Built.
• Road System.
• Markets.
– Scales.
• Iron.
– Plows, Horse harnesses
increase horse power.
• Fertilizer.
– Animal wastes.
Han, Government
• Functioned through complex Bureaucracy.
• Confucius Ideas.
• Tests to be in Bureaucracy.
– Meritocracy, the best regardless of social class.
Han, Foreign Affairs
• Groups that were assimilated
by China.
– White Huns.
– Toba.
• Developed trade contacts
with India.
– Trade Commission sent to
– Nothing of interest in Rome.
• Diffusion of Buddhism.
Han, Problems
Peasant Rebellions.
Disloyal Bureaucracy.
Over Taxation.
Warlords gained more