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AP World History
Chapter 3
Classical Civilization in India and China
Aryan Civilization
• Indo European people who migrated across
Europe and Asia.
• No Archeological record of early Aryans.
• Priests called Vedas kept oral stories that were
passed down for generations.
• The Vedas oral histories were written down
around 1500 B.C.E
Aryan Society
• Aryans loved fighting, drinking, and playing dice.
• They broke their society into four groups.
– Brahmins or Priests.
– Kshatriyas or Warriors.
– Vaisyas or merchants, artists, farmers and herders.
– Sudras or natives conquered by Aryans.
• Later the four groups were divided by economic
status.
• Slowly castes developed subdividing the people.
Aryan Religious Beliefs
• Aryans were polytheistic.
•
•
•
•
•
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Indra = God of Thunder, War= Weapon Thunderbolt.
Varuna = God of Order.
Agni = God of Fire = Messenger.
Brahman = God of all things.
Mystics = People who seek spiritual things.
Rajahs = Elected warrior leaders.
Nomads to Farmers
• The Aryans began to settle in villages then
cities.
• Rajahs became hereditary monarchs.
• By 500 B.C.E many Rajahs controlled a new
civilization of both Aryans and natives.
• Written language of Sanskrit began to appear.
Mahabharata
• India’s greatest epic poem.
• Story of Aryans fighting each other.
• Five royal brothers fight one battle that lasts
18 days.
Ramayana
• The hero Rama must rescue Sita his beautiful
bride from the demon king Ravana.
• The monkey general Hanuman helps Rama
rescue Sita.
• Rama = ideal king.
• Sita = ideal women.
Classical Age India
• Alexander the Great.
• We learn about the
Maurya empire from a
Greek diplomat.
Chandragupta, Maurya Empire
• The first leader who conquered northern
India.
• The empire was maintained by a well
organized Bureaucracy.
• The government built roads, harbors,
collected taxes, and had royal courts.
Ashoka
• The most honored Maurya emperor.
• He conquered the Deccan region at the cost of
100,000 dead.
• He then converted to Buddhism.
• He stopped all conquest and became a
vegetarian.
• He built stone pillars announcing peace and
prosperity and helped unite a divided people.
Advances
• Literature.
– Fables, and folk tales in the Sanskrit language
– Most famous play was Shakuntala.
• Art.
– Murals or wall paintings, Sexually vivid.
• Architecture, stone temples, stupa’s or domes.
– Lots of carvings.
• Physicians.
– Plastic surgery.
– Vaccination of people against small pox.
• Math.
– Concept of Zero.
– Decimal system based on 10.
Kushan Empire
• Nomadic Empire that spread rapidly across
the northern empire.
• The Kushans adopted elements of the
Hellenistic culture of Bactria.
• They adopted the Greek alphabet to suit their
own language
Gupta Destroyed
• About the time of the Roman Empires collapse the
White Huns overran the Gupta empire.
• India split into many kingdoms for almost a 1000
years.
Many Gods or One
• Hinduism has no founder but grew out of
many cultures and people.
• One of the worlds most complex religions.
“God is one, but wise people know it by many
names.”
• Brahman is the one god but people worship
him as thousands of different gods.
Hindu Beliefs
• Reincarnation
– Rebirth of the soul.
– Can be reborn up or down in the cast system.
• Gurus
– Great knowledge leads people as a teacher.
• Mystics
– Religious leaders
Varuna God of the Sky
Hindu Sacred Texts
• Bhagavad-Gita.
– Teaches duty over personal desires and ambitions.
The Goal of Life
• Every person on earth has a atman or
Brahman.
• The goal is to achieve moksha or union with
your Brahman.
– You must free yourself of selfish desires.
– It may take several lives to obtain.
– Reincarnation is the rebirth of the soul.
Karma and Dharma
• Karma deals with all actions in this life that
affect his or her status in the next life.
• All existence is ranked. Humans are at the top
then comes animals, plants, and rocks.
• Dharma is the duties that each class of people
must accomplish to progress.
Opposition to the Brahmins
• Some people rejected traditional Hinduism for
a more extreme form.
Early Life
• The early life of Gautama was spent in a
palace surrounded by luxury.
• Prince Gautama married and had a son.
• Gautama was sheltered by his father who did
not want him to become a traveling holy man.
The Search
• Gautama was riding one day and came across a dead
man, a sick person, and an old man.
• He left his family to find a place without suffering.
“why is their so much suffering in life?”
• He sat under a tree for 48 days pondering the
mystery of life.
• he answered the question, his name changed to
Buddha. “the enlightened one.”
• Nirvana and Moksha.
Four Noble Truths
• All life is filled with pain and suffering.
• The cause of suffering is the desire for things
that are really illusions, such as riches, power,
and long life.
• The cure for suffering is to overcome desire.
• Overcome desire by following the Eightfold
Path.
Buddhism and Hinduism Compared
• Both Buddhism and Hinduism believe in the
cycle of rebirth.
• Buddhism grew out of Hinduism.
• Both stress non-violence.
Buddhist Sacred Texts
• The Tripitaka or “Three Baskets of Wisdom”
– “Overcome evil with good.”
– “Overcome the liar with truth.”
Two Sects of Buddhism
• Theravada: Followed the original teachings of
Buddha closely.
• Mahayana: Worship Buddha even though
Buddha taught the people not to worship him.
• Afterlife with many heavens and hells.
Decline of Buddhism in India
• Hinduism eventually absorbed some Buddhist
ideas.
• Hinduism added Buddha to their long list of
Gods.
• Muslim armies destroyed the few remaining
Buddhist centers of learning in the North.
Priest Morning Rituals
The Upanishads
• The Upanishads are philosophical texts considered to be an
early source of Hindu religion. More than 200 are known.
• All Upanishads have been passed down in oral tradition.
Kamasutra
• It presents itself as a guide to a virtuous and gracious living.
• A book on practical advice on sex.
Stupa’s
• A stupa is a mound-like structure containing Buddhist relics,
typically the remains of Buddha, used by Buddhists as a place
of worship.
Economy and Society
Patriarchal
• arranged marriages
• companionate
Textiles
• Iron working
• Steel
• Long-distance trade
Indian Influence
• Spread Via trade
• Buddhism
China and India
• Contrasts
• Indian sensuality v. Chinese restraint in art
• India more rigid socially
• Similarities
• large peasant classes
• patriarchy
Classical Civilization China
Zhou dynasty
• Revolt so fierce that the
blood in the streets of
the capital was deep
enough to float blocks of
wood.
Zhou Mandate of Heaven
• Mandate of heaven
– Government receives it right to govern by heaven approval.
– The responsibility of people to overthrow governments when
ruler loses the approval of the Gods.
– Governments lose approval if they are unjust and ineffective.
Zhou dynasty:1100-750 B.C.
• Zhou (Pronounced like “Joe”)
• Zhou acquired most of the Shang Culture and Technology
• Last Shang King was said to be a physical giant and monster of
depravity among his cruelties was that he made drinking cups of the
skulls of his vanquished enemies.
• Slaves and Zhou vassals revolted against Shang cruelties. (1050 B.C.)
Heaven Commands Me
• The Justification of the political change of these tough
frontiersman barbarian was that the iniquity of Shang is full
“Heaven commands me to destroy it.”
Zhou Economic Growth
• Iron tools like axes and ox drawn iron plows replaced wooden farm
tools.
– Made farming better because farmers could produce more food.
• First time coin money began to be used.
– Made trade better because a merchant could carry money a lot easier then a
herd of cows.
Zhou Political System
• Political system like feudal Europe
– Serfdom and Hereditary Lords
• Land is endowed for oaths of military service.
– Local Lords were culturally and linguistically different.
Zhou Destruction
• 771 Wei Valley capital of Zhou is sacked
– Vassals become rival states.
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•
•
•
•
Qui in the west
Jin in the north
Yan to north east
Chu to the south
Qi to east
– No dominant Chinese culture or National identity
Class Divisions
• A Sharp class division existed between the
landowning aristocracy, educated bureaucrats
and laboring masses.
Warring States 400-225 B.C.E
Chaos and War
• War becomes larger in
scale and more ruthless
• Stronger states
conquered and
absorbed weaker ones.
• In response to crisis
schools of thought were
introduced
– Confucianism
– Daoism
– Legalism
Confucianism
• Confucianism
– People could live together peacefully by recognizing
their roles in networks of relationships
– The family is an example of how relationships linked
people together.
Five Great Relationships
• Confucianism
– The five great relationships are those between
•
•
•
•
•
Ruler and subject
Father and son
Husband and wife
Elder and younger brother
Friend and friend
Confucianism and Government
• Confucianism
– Each of the five involved both hierarchy and reciprocity.
– In each pair, one role was superior and one, inferior; one role led
and the other followed.
– Yet each involved mutual obligations and responsibilities.
– Failure to properly fulfill one’s role could lead to the abrogation of
the relationship
Effects of Confucianism
• Confucianism
– People not fulfilling their
roles undermined Zhou
regime.
– People should engage in
learning both to develop
his personal moral
character and to gain
knowledge that is useful
in serving others.
Daoism
• Goal was to live in harmony
with nature.
• Rejection of conflict and
strife.
– Stressed yielding.
– Water does not resist
but yields.
• Government the cause of
many problems.
• Eventually turned into a
religion.
Legalism
• Legalism was
introduced by the Qin
to gain power and
Stability.
• Rewards and
Punishments to
produce conformity to
the rule of clear and
well developed laws.
Legalism (Continued)
• Laws were strict, everyone understood their duties and
knew the penalties for failing to fulfill them.
• Some believed human nature was essentially blank and
that people needed careful guidance by strong rulers to live
in an orderly way.
Qin Dynasty: 221-206 B.C.
• Qin with legalism as its ideology succeeded in
ending the Warring states era.
• Qin defeated all it rivals to unite China
• 221 Chu kingdom fell and the King of Qin took the
title of Qin shihuangdi or first Emperor.
Qin Economics
• Qin laid the basis for an enduring imperial order.
• Created unified Administrative system
– Standardized
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•
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Weight & measures system
Cart axle width
Coinage
Writing
Qin, Construction
• Standardize people’s thoughts
– Buried hundreds of scholars alive
– Burned books and scholars to eliminate unorthodox ideas.
• Imposed Taxes.
• Massive Terracotta tomb.
Qin,Great Wall
• Great wall of China
– Protected north steppe boarder
– Reportedly 1 million died in the building of the wall
Classical Age China
Han Dynasty 202 B.C to 220 A.D
• Traded with
Rome and Indian
Empires.
• Accepted
Confucianism
and the Han
Dynasty was less
cruel.
Han, Sciences
• History records begin to
be kept.
– History of the elite.
• Math, Science,
Geography, and
Astronomy.
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–
–
–
Sternpost Rudder.
Magnetic Compass.
Paper from wood pulp.
5th century wood block
printing.
Han, Medicine
•
•
•
•
Acupuncture.
Figured out the function of internal organs.
Figured out the circulation of blood.
Metallic and Ceramic luxury items.
Han, Art
• Silk manufacturing.
• Bronze, Jade, and
Ceramics used for art.
• Poetry.
• Landscape art.
• Instrumental music.
Han, Economics
• Canals Built.
• Road System.
• Markets.
– Scales.
• Iron.
– Plows, Horse harnesses
increase horse power.
• Fertilizer.
– Animal wastes.
Han, Government
• Functioned through complex Bureaucracy.
• Confucius Ideas.
• Tests to be in Bureaucracy.
– Meritocracy, the best regardless of social class.
Han, Foreign Affairs
• Groups that were assimilated
by China.
– White Huns.
– Toba.
• Developed trade contacts
with India.
– Trade Commission sent to
Rome.
– Nothing of interest in Rome.
• Diffusion of Buddhism.
Han, Problems
•
•
•
•
Peasant Rebellions.
Disloyal Bureaucracy.
Over Taxation.
Warlords gained more
power.