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Origins of the New World Chapter 1 AMH 2010 Derek Wingate Pangaea Peopling of America • The Great Ice Age shaped North America’s geological and human history. • Land Bridge from Asia theory, Ancestors of the Native Americans. • After the Great Ice Age, immigration from Eurasia was halted and America developed in isolation. • Possibly 54 million inhabitants by 1492. • These early people split into countless tribes with different languages and cultures. Example.. Incans, Mayans, and Aztecs. Earliest Americans • Agriculture accounted for the size and scope of the early civilizations in North America such as the Aztec, Incan, and Mayan. • Look at the movie Apopcalypto. • The cultivation of corn slowly made its way into North America. • Compared to Mexico, the native settlements in North America were small and scattered. • Possibly as few as 4 million people. Mound Builders of the Ohio River Valley Early Discoverers of North America Columbus Comes Upon the New World • Renaissance and Reformation flamed an adventurous spirit. • Christopher Columbus, an Italian, set sail for Spain in 1492. • His ships landed in the present day Bahamas on October 12, 1492, after a six week voyage. • Columbus’s discovery put into motion an interdependent global economic system. • Europe provided the markets, the technology, and the capital; Africa furnished the labor; and the New World offered its raw materials. • The world after 1492 would never be the same. When Worlds Collide • Columbus’s voyage opened the flood gates; goods exchanged between the New World and Old World. Columbian Exchange • European explorers brought sugar cane, horses, cattle, and swine with them on their voyages. • Goods from the Old World such as tobacco, maize, beans, tomatoes, and potatoes made it back to Europe. • Positives- agriculture and new races. (Mestizos) • Negatives: disease, death, depopulation. The Spanish Conquistadores • Treaty of Tordesillas (1494): divided the “heathen lands” between Spain and Portugal. • Spain received most of the land while Portugal got Brazil. • Conquistadores=conquerors. • Vasco Nunez Balboa—discovered the Pacific Ocean. • Ferdinand Magellan—circumnavigated the world. • Ponce de Leon: Florida, Fountain of Youth. • Hernando de Soto: Mississippi River, Arkansas. • Encomienda System: allowed government to give Indians to colonist in order to Christianize them (slavery). The Conquest of Mexico • Hernando Cortes set sail from Cuba in 1519 towards Mexico in search of fame and fortune. • Once Cortes landed, he was told of the Aztecs and of the gold they possessed in Tenochtitlan. • Amassed thousand of Indian allies. • Montezuma, Quetzalcoatl. • Smallpox, siege. • Population of Mexico decreased from 20 million to 2 million. Tenochtitlan The Spread of Spanish America • Spain’s American Empire grew massive. • Tremendous building and infrastructure. • Other countries wanted in on North America. • John Cabot: North America • Giovanni da Verrazano: Eastern seaboard • St. Augustine, 1565. • Jacques Cartier: St. Lawrence River. • Father Junipero Serra: San Diego, 1769. The Planting of English America Chapter 2 AMH 2010 Derek Wingate Settlement in the Chesapeake Region • England becomes an international power. • Protestantism and plunder against Spain. • Roanoke Island (Lost Colony), 1585, Sir Walter Raleigh. • Defeat of the Spanish Armada (Spain’s decline in power). • Mobile British population. Jamestown • Virginia Company of London 1606. Investors wanted a quick profit. • May 24, 1607, one-hundred male settlers came ashore. • 1607 through 1609, dozens of settlers died. • Food was abundant, however, they looked for gold instead. • The expedition was saved by John Smith (Pocahontas). • By the winter of 1610, only 60 settlers were left out of 400. • Lord De La Warr. Cultural Clashes in the Chesapeake • The main threat to colonist was the chieftain Powhatan. • The English colonist and the Powahatan’s as they were called had a tenacious relationship. • The arrival of Lord De La Warr began a new era of war against the loosely affiliated Indians under Powahatan. • Lord De La Warr used “Irish tactics” against the Indians. • There were two unsuccessful Powahatan uprisings. • To the English colonist, the indian was a dead one. Plantation Slavery • The West Indies main crop was sugar cane, which was labor intensive time consuming. • By 1640 a quarter of million slaves had been brought to the West Indies. 1700, slaves outnumbered the Colonist. • Barbados Slave Code: defined the legal status of slaves. • Sugar Cane growing took up so much land that the people of the West Indies had to import food from the colonies. • Caribbean islands served as the staging ground for slavery in the English colonies. South Carolina • The English Civil War interrupted colonization. • Carolina Colony 1670. Named for Charles II. • The original settlers of the Carolina Colony came from Barbados and they brought slavery with them. • Used indians to capture other indians as slaves for export. • Rice was the major crop of the Carolina Colony. (African crop) • Angelo-Spanish Wars. North Carolina and Georgia • North Carolina emerged from religious dissenters and poverty stricken people from Virginia who squatted along the vast forest on the border between the two colonies. • North Carolina became official in 1712. Democratic and independent. • Tuscarora and Yamasse Indian Wars. • Georgia (1733). • Buffer colony with Spanish Florida and French Louisiana. • Slavery was outlawed until 1733. (Runaway slaves) • debtors Settling the Northern Colonies Chapter 3 1619-1700 AMH 2010 Derek Wingate The Protestant Reformation • In 1517, a German monk named Martin Luther nailed his protest to a church door in Wittenberg. • John Calvin: Calvinism. Predestination, “visible saints.” • Conversion: receipt of God’s saving grace. • Puritans: wanted purify English Christianity. • Separatist: Puritans who did mix with the damned. • Groups of these separatist were forced or left freely. The Pilgrims and Plymouth • The Pilgrims left England and moved to Holland, but… • Grant from the Virginia Company. • Mayflower landed on the New England Coast in 1620. • Plymouth Rock? Massachusetts Bay Colony • Persecution of non-Separatist Puritans in England 1629. • Great Migration of 1630’s: 70,000 left England, 20,000 to Massachusetts. • City upon a Hill- Theocracy- Covenant with God to enforce God’s laws. • Freeman- adult male church members. Non-church members and women had no voice. • Protestant Work Ethic- serious commitment to work to engagement in worldly pursuits. Trouble in Paradise • Challenges to Puritan authority by the Quakers. • Anne Hutchinson: thwarted Puritan dogma by believing in antinomianism, holy life was sure sign of salvation and that the truly saved need not obey God’s or man’s law. • Roger Williams- Baptist challenged Puritan exploitation of Indians. attacked Puritan Theocracy. banished to the “sewer” of Rhode Island. established complete freedom of religion. Puritans Versus the Indians • Wampanoag Chief Massasoit signed a treaty with the Pilgrims in 1621 and helped them celebrate the first Thanksgiving. • Pequot War (1637) over control of land in Connecticut. Pequots were annihilated. • King Philip’s War- Wampanoags (1675) • The Indian alliance failed, Wampanoag were annihilated. Seeds of Unity and Independence • New England Confederation (1643)- defense against French and Indians. • Massachusetts Bay, Plymouth, Connecticut, New Haven. NOT Rhode Island or Maine. • 1st step toward colonial unity. • After the English Civil War, the King punishes Mass. Bay by granting sea-to-sea charters for Rhode Island and Connecticut, allowing squatter settlements. • In 1684, the King revoked the Massachusetts Bay charter causing disarray and fear. New Netherlands and New Sweden • Dutch West India Company- company fur trade (1623). • Company town, some religious toleration. • New England was hostile to New Amsterdam. • Sweden founded a city on the Delaware River but the Dutch sent a armed group out and overtook it. • The English attacked New Amsterdam in 1664. New York was born Pennsylvania and Delaware • Quakers: simple values, direct link to god. • William Penn received a land grant from the King in 1681. • Pennsylvania was an advertised colony that attracted people from Germany, France, and Holland. • Against African slavery, pacifist, and treated Indians fairly. • In 1703, Delaware received a Charter. • Name comes from Lord De La Warr. • Middle colony. Middle Colonies • New York, New Jersey, Delaware, and Pennsylvania. • Called the bread colonies due to the massive amount of grain grown in the region. • Navigable rivers were plentiful, which allowed the growth of industry. • The soil in the region was very fertile. th 17 American Life In the Chapter 4 1607-1692 AMH 2010 Derek Wingate Century Main Ideas • Life of the Chesapeake • Changes in Society • Southern Economy • Life in New England The Unhealthy Chesapeake • Life in the American wilderness was nasty, brutish, and short. • Ailments such as malaria, dysentery, and typhoid took ten years off the average lifespan. • Half the people born in Maryland and Virginia did not reach the age of 20. • Life expectancy was about 45. • 6 times as many men as women. • Marriages lasted an average of 7 years before a spouse died. The Tobacco Economy • Tobacco cultivation was more important than food. • Widespread tobacco growing exhausted the soil, which led to the need for more land that caused more indian attacks. • Overproduction depressed the price of tobacco ( 1.5 million pounds in the 1630s to 40 million by the end of the century). • More tobacco means more labor. • Where is this labor going to come from? - Indians died to fast - Slaves cost to much - Families procreated to slowly The Tobacco Economy II • The Tobacco growing colonies needed labor. • England had a surplus of labor due to an economic downturn. • Many of these laborers became Indentured Servants. • Freedom Dues • Headright system: paid the cost of the labor and received 50 acres. • Chesapeake Bay area had 100,000 indentured servants. • White slaves Bacon’s Rebellion • Migrating masses of Freedmen drifted about the Chesapeake. • In 1670, the Virginia Assembly disenfranchised the Freedmen. • 1676, led by Francis bacon, a 1000 Virginians broke out of control. • Frontiersmen who had been for westward in search of arable land. • Smoldering resentment against Governor Berkeley's policies. • Attacked Indians, chased Berkeley from Jamestown and burnt the capital to the ground. • The Rebellion fizzled out when Bacon died of disease. • Bacon’s Rebellion excited Virginia. Tensions remained. “A rabble of the basest sort of people.” Gov. Berkeley Colonial Slavery • 300 hundred years after Columbus, 7 million slaves had been brought to the New World. 400, 000 to North America. • Most colonist could not afford slaves. • In 1680, the economy of England improved which caused fewer Indentured Servants to make the journey to the colonies. • After 1700, ten of thousands of slaves had been brought to America. • By 1750, half the population of Virginia was slaves. • Middle passage, 20% mortality rates amongst slaves. Middle Passage Africans in America • The life of the slave was severe. Hard labor drained the life of the slaves. • 10 year lifespan. Slaves that worked the tobacco estates lived longer than in the South. • New imports allowed for a family life amongst slaves. • Slave culture combine African and America cultures that provided for new words in English: goober, gumbo, and voodoo. • Slave revolts. New England Society • Due to the clean air and water, life expectancy in New England was 70 years. • Women married in their early 20s and had children every 2 years till menopause. • 10 pregnancies—8 births. • “New England invented Grandparents.” • Husband voted for entire family. • Women were whipped for committing adultery and forced to were an A sewed to their clothes. Salem Witch Trials • Example of mass hysteria • 19 hung, 1 pressed, and two dogs hung. • Typically women. • Poor farmers accused wives of rich merchants. • Socio-economic rivalries. • Hysterical teenage girls. • Outlawed when governor’s wife was accused. Life in New England • Rocks! • “Puritans did not possess the soil, it possessed them.” • New Englanders turned to the harbors and sea. Shipbuilding. • Less ethically mixed than other areas. • Colonist thought it was virtual duty to improve the land. • Orderly settlements based on charters. • Organized distribution of land. Colonial Society on the Eve of Revolution 1700-1775 Chapter 5 AMH 2010 Derek Wingate Themes • Immigration and population growth • Colonial social and economic structure • Religion in Colonial America • Political developments Population • 1700– 300,000 and 1775– 2.5 million. • 1700– American colonist= 20% of English pop. 1775– 33%. • Colonial America 90% rural, east of mountains. • The most populous colonies in order were Virginia, Massachusetts, North Carolina, and Maryland. • Proper cities in the colonies: Philadelphia, New York, Boston, and Charleston (population). America as a Melting Pot • 6% of the population was German. • 7% Scot-Irish. Very individualistic and defiant. • 5% French Huguenots, Welsh, Dutch, Swedes, Jews, Irish, Swiss, and Scot Highlanders. • 20% African, 90% slaves in the south. • Many of these groups escaped from Europe for various reasons. Religious and government persecution. • New societies intermarried. Honored Professions • Ministry at the top. • Physicians and lawyers at the bottom. • Barbers and physicians were interchangeable. • Disease was a constant problem. Bleeding. • Lawyers were often classed with idlers. • Lawyers: windbags, drunkards, and brothel keepers. The Structure of Colonial Society • Not titled nobility dominated society. • Underclass was not a threat. • Upward mobility and openness was remarkable. American Workers • Agriculture was the top industry. • 90% are farmers -Tobacco in Maryland and Virginia. -Grain in the Middle Colonies. - Fishing in all colonies. • Coastal commerce developed in 18th century - Trade in wood products. - Food. - Fish( whaling). Triangular Trade • Molasses from the West Indies to New England or Europe. • Rum from New England/ Europe to Africa. • Slaves from Africa to West Indies= Middle Passage (Horrific conditions). • Profits made on each leg of the Journey. Small Scale Industry • Manufacturing was of secondary importance in the colonies. • Surprising variety of small enterprises. • Lumbering was the most important manufacturing activity. • Europe was deforested. • Colonial naval stores: tar, pitch, rosin, and turpentine. • Trees were marked for future use by the King were branded. • Colonist would be fined for cutting them down. Transportation • Land transportation was difficult and dangerous. • Roads were a cloud of dust in summer and a quagmire in the winter. • Not uncommon for travelers to make a will and pray with the family before leaving. • It took Benjamin Franklin 9 days to travel from Boston to Philadelphia. • News of the Declaration of Independence took 29 days to travel from Philadelphia to Charleston. • By the mid- 1700’s plank roads and a mail system. • Taverns. Religion • More religious toleration in the colonies. • The Congregational Church (Puritans) and the Anglican Church were the two dominant tax funded churches. • Congregational Church– New England. • Anglican Church– southern colonies. • Only a minority of people belonged to this institutions. • Most people did not attend church. • These two churches were tax supported. Tended to be pro-monarchy because of this fact. The Great Awakening • A rousing religious revival started by Jonathon Edwards ( “Sinners in the Hands of an Angry God.”) Hell paved with the skulls of unbaptized children. - Individual free will, not predestination, determined salvation. - 1730’s revival meetings awakened passions, seized by the spirit, making a personal decision for God. • George Whitefield– a gifted orator who travelled the country preaching fire and brimstone. • Old lights vs. new lights. Colonial Politics • Peter Zenger’s freedom of the press trial in 1734. - Criticized Governor, who charged him with libel. - Zenger said it was the truth. - Royal judges were suspicious, but Zenger was found not guilty a jury. • 1775: 8 royal colonies, 3 proprietary colonies, and 2 charter colonies. • Local governments were varied with county governments in the south and town meetings in New England. • Voting requirements disenfranchised half the population of white males. The Duel for North America 1608-1763 Chapter 6 AMH 2010 Derek Wingate Themes • French colonies and Anglo-French Rivalry. • French and Indian (1754-63). • Treaty of Paris and its aftermath. • French threat declines= less need for English direction. France In Canada (New France) • Latecomer for real estate in the New World. • Samuel de Champlain, Quebec 1608, “Father of New France.” • Commercial companies failed, which led to royal leadership. • Huron vs. Iroquois, French chose sides, led to consequences. • New Orleans (1718) control of Mississippi. Anglo-French Rivalry • British colonist vs. coureurs de bois • Series of conflicts during this time: - King William’s War. - Queen Anne’s War. - War of Jenkin’s Ear (1739), confined to Caribbean and Georgia. - King George’s War, drunken New Englanders vs. French. • These conflicts were the result of the various European powers (Britain, France, and England) pushing for land. George Washington Inaugurates War with France • Ohio Valley Country. Westward push by British colonist ran into French settlers. • Land-grabbing/ cut throat fur trading. British colonist were fed up! • The French attempted to cement their land claims by building a string of forts, Fort Duquesne (Pittsburgh) and Fort Necessity. • In 1754, the Governor of Virginia sent a 21 year old George Washington and 150 militia men to the area around Fort Duquesne. • Firing first Washington and his men beat back a small French patrol. However, the French came back with reinforcements and forced Washington to surrender. Global War and Colonial Disunity • The French and Indian War (Seven Years War) went undeclared for two years after Washington’s men had fired the first shot. • A far flung war fought in Europe, West Indies, Philippines, Africa, and the ocean. • The American colonist, however, suffered from a lack of unity. • Albany Plan of union )17540 < Keep Iroquois loyal to the British < Colonial unity < Benjamin Franklin submitted a plan for home rule General Braddock’s Expedition 1755 • General Braddock and 2000 men were sent to capture Fort Duquesne. • A large part of his force was made up of colonial militia (buckskins). • A road had to be hacked out of the forest in order to drag cannons. • Indian tactics versus parade-ground tactics. • The French and allied indian forces defeated the British and Braddock was killed. • The frontier from Pennsylvania to North Carolina was left wide open to indian attacks. • British launch an invasion of Canada. Pitt’s Palms of Victory • Prime Minister William Pitt “Great Commoner.” • English gain a base in Nova Scotia in 1758. • Attack Quebec (1759) General James Wolfe killed. • Montreal 1760, Control of St. Lawrence River. • European allies fight French in Europe. Death of General Wolfe Treaty of Paris 1763 • Canada to Britain • Florida to Britain for Cuba • India to British • Spain gets New Orleans, all of trans-Mississippi Louisiana • Britain become the premier power in the world. • French did receive some islands in the Caribbean and some not to be fortified fishing outpost in New Foundland. Colonial Restlessness • The French and Indian War provided the colonist with experience and self-esteem. • The war also showed the colonist that Britain was nit invincible. • Colonial aspirations of self rule? • As the war had progressed there was friction between colonist scum and British snobbery. • The Colonist, however, believed they deserved credit not contempt. • Britain did not recognize any colonial militia rank above captain. • George Washington was a colonel. The Colonial Response • No French? No problem! Time to Expand! • Pontiac Uprising 1763, captured fort at Detroit. • Problems with the Indians hindered Great Britain’s new lands. • Proclamation of 1763, no colonial settlements past the Appalachian Mountains. • The Proclamation of 1763 angered the colonist. • The colonist had a new vision for America. • However, the British were in no mood to deal with them. The British Response • Costly war: colonist should share tax burden. • Need for Imperial integration= tighter control of colonies(enforcement). • British tax burden is not oppressive. • Opposite response of colonist. Test 1 • Test 1 covers chapters 1-6. • There are 55 questions on the test. • BRINGS PENCILS BECAUSE IT’S A SCANTRON TEST. • If you would like a copy of the power point sent to you. Give me your email address before you leave.