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Origins of the New World
Chapter 1
AMH 2010
Derek Wingate
Peopling of America
• The Great Ice Age shaped North America’s geological and human
• Land Bridge from Asia theory, Ancestors of the Native Americans.
• After the Great Ice Age, immigration from Eurasia was halted and
America developed in isolation.
• Possibly 54 million inhabitants by 1492.
• These early people split into countless tribes with different languages
and cultures. Example.. Incans, Mayans, and Aztecs.
Earliest Americans
• Agriculture accounted for the size and scope of the early civilizations
in North America such as the Aztec, Incan, and Mayan.
• Look at the movie Apopcalypto.
• The cultivation of corn slowly made its way into North America.
• Compared to Mexico, the native settlements in North America were
small and scattered.
• Possibly as few as 4 million people.
Mound Builders of the Ohio River Valley
Early Discoverers of North America
Columbus Comes Upon the New World
• Renaissance and Reformation flamed an adventurous spirit.
• Christopher Columbus, an Italian, set sail for Spain in 1492.
• His ships landed in the present day Bahamas on October 12, 1492,
after a six week voyage.
• Columbus’s discovery put into motion an interdependent global
economic system.
• Europe provided the markets, the technology, and the capital; Africa
furnished the labor; and the New World offered its raw materials.
• The world after 1492 would never be the same.
When Worlds Collide
• Columbus’s voyage opened the flood gates; goods exchanged
between the New World and Old World.
Columbian Exchange
• European explorers brought sugar cane, horses, cattle, and swine with
them on their voyages.
• Goods from the Old World such as tobacco, maize, beans, tomatoes,
and potatoes made it back to Europe.
• Positives- agriculture and new races. (Mestizos)
• Negatives: disease, death, depopulation.
The Spanish Conquistadores
• Treaty of Tordesillas (1494): divided the “heathen lands” between Spain
and Portugal.
• Spain received most of the land while Portugal got Brazil.
• Conquistadores=conquerors.
• Vasco Nunez Balboa—discovered the Pacific Ocean.
• Ferdinand Magellan—circumnavigated the world.
• Ponce de Leon: Florida, Fountain of Youth.
• Hernando de Soto: Mississippi River, Arkansas.
• Encomienda System: allowed government to give Indians to colonist in
order to Christianize them (slavery).
The Conquest of Mexico
• Hernando Cortes set sail from Cuba in 1519 towards Mexico in search
of fame and fortune.
• Once Cortes landed, he was told of the Aztecs and of the gold they
possessed in Tenochtitlan.
• Amassed thousand of Indian allies.
• Montezuma, Quetzalcoatl.
• Smallpox, siege.
• Population of Mexico decreased from 20 million to 2 million.
The Spread of Spanish America
• Spain’s American Empire grew massive.
• Tremendous building and infrastructure.
• Other countries wanted in on North America.
• John Cabot: North America
• Giovanni da Verrazano: Eastern seaboard
• St. Augustine, 1565.
• Jacques Cartier: St. Lawrence River.
• Father Junipero Serra: San Diego, 1769.
The Planting of English America
Chapter 2
AMH 2010
Derek Wingate
Settlement in the Chesapeake Region
• England becomes an international power.
• Protestantism and plunder against Spain.
• Roanoke Island (Lost Colony), 1585, Sir Walter Raleigh.
• Defeat of the Spanish Armada (Spain’s decline in power).
• Mobile British population.
• Virginia Company of London 1606. Investors wanted a quick profit.
• May 24, 1607, one-hundred male settlers came ashore.
• 1607 through 1609, dozens of settlers died.
• Food was abundant, however, they looked for gold instead.
• The expedition was saved by John Smith (Pocahontas).
• By the winter of 1610, only 60 settlers were left out of 400.
• Lord De La Warr.
Cultural Clashes in the Chesapeake
• The main threat to colonist was the chieftain Powhatan.
• The English colonist and the Powahatan’s as they were called had a
tenacious relationship.
• The arrival of Lord De La Warr began a new era of war against the
loosely affiliated Indians under Powahatan.
• Lord De La Warr used “Irish tactics” against the Indians.
• There were two unsuccessful Powahatan uprisings.
• To the English colonist, the indian was a dead one.
Plantation Slavery
• The West Indies main crop was sugar cane, which was labor intensive
time consuming.
• By 1640 a quarter of million slaves had been brought to the West
Indies. 1700, slaves outnumbered the Colonist.
• Barbados Slave Code: defined the legal status of slaves.
• Sugar Cane growing took up so much land that the people of the
West Indies had to import food from the colonies.
• Caribbean islands served as the staging ground for slavery in the
English colonies.
South Carolina
• The English Civil War interrupted colonization.
• Carolina Colony 1670. Named for Charles II.
• The original settlers of the Carolina Colony came from Barbados and
they brought slavery with them.
• Used indians to capture other indians as slaves for export.
• Rice was the major crop of the Carolina Colony. (African crop)
• Angelo-Spanish Wars.
North Carolina and Georgia
• North Carolina emerged from religious dissenters and poverty
stricken people from Virginia who squatted along the vast forest on
the border between the two colonies.
• North Carolina became official in 1712. Democratic and independent.
• Tuscarora and Yamasse Indian Wars.
• Georgia (1733).
• Buffer colony with Spanish Florida and French Louisiana.
• Slavery was outlawed until 1733. (Runaway slaves)
• debtors
Settling the Northern Colonies
Chapter 3
AMH 2010
Derek Wingate
The Protestant Reformation
• In 1517, a German monk named Martin Luther nailed his protest to a
church door in Wittenberg.
• John Calvin: Calvinism. Predestination, “visible saints.”
• Conversion: receipt of God’s saving grace.
• Puritans: wanted purify English Christianity.
• Separatist: Puritans who did mix with the damned.
• Groups of these separatist were forced or left freely.
The Pilgrims and Plymouth
• The Pilgrims left England and moved to Holland, but…
• Grant from the Virginia Company.
• Mayflower landed on the New England Coast in 1620.
• Plymouth Rock?
Massachusetts Bay Colony
• Persecution of non-Separatist Puritans in England 1629.
• Great Migration of 1630’s: 70,000 left England, 20,000 to
• City upon a Hill- Theocracy- Covenant with God to enforce God’s laws.
• Freeman- adult male church members. Non-church members and
women had no voice.
• Protestant Work Ethic- serious commitment to work to engagement
in worldly pursuits.
Trouble in Paradise
• Challenges to Puritan authority by the Quakers.
• Anne Hutchinson: thwarted Puritan dogma by believing in
antinomianism, holy life was sure sign of salvation and that the truly
saved need not obey God’s or man’s law.
• Roger Williams- Baptist
challenged Puritan exploitation of Indians.
attacked Puritan Theocracy.
banished to the “sewer” of Rhode Island.
established complete freedom of religion.
Puritans Versus the Indians
• Wampanoag Chief Massasoit signed a treaty with the Pilgrims in 1621
and helped them celebrate the first Thanksgiving.
• Pequot War (1637) over control of land in Connecticut. Pequots were
• King Philip’s War- Wampanoags (1675)
• The Indian alliance failed, Wampanoag were annihilated.
Seeds of Unity and Independence
• New England Confederation (1643)- defense against French and
• Massachusetts Bay, Plymouth, Connecticut, New Haven. NOT Rhode
Island or Maine.
• 1st step toward colonial unity.
• After the English Civil War, the King punishes Mass. Bay by granting
sea-to-sea charters for Rhode Island and Connecticut, allowing
squatter settlements.
• In 1684, the King revoked the Massachusetts Bay charter causing
disarray and fear.
New Netherlands and New Sweden
• Dutch West India Company- company fur trade (1623).
• Company town, some religious toleration.
• New England was hostile to New Amsterdam.
• Sweden founded a city on the Delaware River but the Dutch sent a
armed group out and overtook it.
• The English attacked New Amsterdam in 1664. New York was born
Pennsylvania and Delaware
• Quakers: simple values, direct link to god.
• William Penn received a land grant from the King in 1681.
• Pennsylvania was an advertised colony that attracted people from
Germany, France, and Holland.
• Against African slavery, pacifist, and treated Indians fairly.
• In 1703, Delaware received a Charter.
• Name comes from Lord De La Warr.
• Middle colony.
Middle Colonies
• New York, New Jersey, Delaware, and Pennsylvania.
• Called the bread colonies due to the massive amount of grain grown
in the region.
• Navigable rivers were plentiful, which allowed the growth of industry.
• The soil in the region was very fertile.
American Life In the
Chapter 4
AMH 2010
Derek Wingate
Main Ideas
• Life of the Chesapeake
• Changes in Society
• Southern Economy
• Life in New England
The Unhealthy Chesapeake
• Life in the American wilderness was nasty, brutish, and short.
• Ailments such as malaria, dysentery, and typhoid took ten years off
the average lifespan.
• Half the people born in Maryland and Virginia did not reach the age
of 20.
• Life expectancy was about 45.
• 6 times as many men as women.
• Marriages lasted an average of 7 years before a spouse died.
The Tobacco Economy
• Tobacco cultivation was more important than food.
• Widespread tobacco growing exhausted the soil, which led to the need for
more land that caused more indian attacks.
• Overproduction depressed the price of tobacco ( 1.5 million pounds in the
1630s to 40 million by the end of the century).
• More tobacco means more labor.
• Where is this labor going to come from?
- Indians died to fast
- Slaves cost to much
- Families procreated to slowly
The Tobacco Economy II
• The Tobacco growing colonies needed labor.
• England had a surplus of labor due to an economic downturn.
• Many of these laborers became Indentured Servants.
• Freedom Dues
• Headright system: paid the cost of the labor and received 50 acres.
• Chesapeake Bay area had 100,000 indentured servants.
• White slaves
Bacon’s Rebellion
• Migrating masses of Freedmen drifted about the Chesapeake.
• In 1670, the Virginia Assembly disenfranchised the Freedmen.
• 1676, led by Francis bacon, a 1000 Virginians broke out of control.
• Frontiersmen who had been for westward in search of arable land.
• Smoldering resentment against Governor Berkeley's policies.
• Attacked Indians, chased Berkeley from Jamestown and burnt the
capital to the ground.
• The Rebellion fizzled out when Bacon died of disease.
• Bacon’s Rebellion excited Virginia. Tensions remained.
“A rabble of the basest sort of
people.” Gov. Berkeley
Colonial Slavery
• 300 hundred years after Columbus, 7 million slaves had been brought
to the New World. 400, 000 to North America.
• Most colonist could not afford slaves.
• In 1680, the economy of England improved which caused fewer
Indentured Servants to make the journey to the colonies.
• After 1700, ten of thousands of slaves had been brought to America.
• By 1750, half the population of Virginia was slaves.
• Middle passage, 20% mortality rates amongst slaves.
Middle Passage
Africans in America
• The life of the slave was severe. Hard labor drained the life of the
• 10 year lifespan. Slaves that worked the tobacco estates lived longer
than in the South.
• New imports allowed for a family life amongst slaves.
• Slave culture combine African and America cultures that provided for
new words in English: goober, gumbo, and voodoo.
• Slave revolts.
New England Society
• Due to the clean air and water, life expectancy in New England was 70
• Women married in their early 20s and had children every 2 years till
• 10 pregnancies—8 births.
• “New England invented Grandparents.”
• Husband voted for entire family.
• Women were whipped for committing adultery and forced to were an
A sewed to their clothes.
Salem Witch Trials
• Example of mass hysteria
• 19 hung, 1 pressed, and two dogs hung.
• Typically women.
• Poor farmers accused wives of rich merchants.
• Socio-economic rivalries.
• Hysterical teenage girls.
• Outlawed when governor’s wife was accused.
Life in New England
• Rocks!
• “Puritans did not possess the soil, it possessed them.”
• New Englanders turned to the harbors and sea. Shipbuilding.
• Less ethically mixed than other areas.
• Colonist thought it was virtual duty to improve the land.
• Orderly settlements based on charters.
• Organized distribution of land.
Colonial Society on the Eve of
Chapter 5
AMH 2010
Derek Wingate
• Immigration and population growth
• Colonial social and economic structure
• Religion in Colonial America
• Political developments
• 1700– 300,000 and 1775– 2.5 million.
• 1700– American colonist= 20% of English pop. 1775– 33%.
• Colonial America 90% rural, east of mountains.
• The most populous colonies in order were Virginia,
Massachusetts, North Carolina, and Maryland.
• Proper cities in the colonies: Philadelphia, New York, Boston,
and Charleston (population).
America as a Melting Pot
• 6% of the population was German.
• 7% Scot-Irish. Very individualistic and defiant.
• 5% French Huguenots, Welsh, Dutch, Swedes, Jews, Irish, Swiss, and
Scot Highlanders.
• 20% African, 90% slaves in the south.
• Many of these groups escaped from Europe for various reasons.
Religious and government persecution.
• New societies intermarried.
Honored Professions
• Ministry at the top.
• Physicians and lawyers at the bottom.
• Barbers and physicians were interchangeable.
• Disease was a constant problem. Bleeding.
• Lawyers were often classed with idlers.
• Lawyers: windbags, drunkards, and brothel keepers.
The Structure of Colonial Society
• Not titled nobility dominated
• Underclass was not a threat.
• Upward mobility and openness
was remarkable.
American Workers
• Agriculture was the top industry.
• 90% are farmers
-Tobacco in Maryland and Virginia.
-Grain in the Middle Colonies.
- Fishing in all colonies.
• Coastal commerce developed in 18th century
- Trade in wood products.
- Food.
- Fish( whaling).
Triangular Trade
• Molasses from the West Indies to New England or
• Rum from New England/ Europe to Africa.
• Slaves from Africa to West Indies= Middle Passage
(Horrific conditions).
• Profits made on each leg of the Journey.
Small Scale Industry
• Manufacturing was of secondary importance in the colonies.
• Surprising variety of small enterprises.
• Lumbering was the most important manufacturing activity.
• Europe was deforested.
• Colonial naval stores: tar, pitch, rosin, and turpentine.
• Trees were marked for future use by the King were branded.
• Colonist would be fined for cutting them down.
• Land transportation was difficult and dangerous.
• Roads were a cloud of dust in summer and a quagmire in the winter.
• Not uncommon for travelers to make a will and pray with the family
before leaving.
• It took Benjamin Franklin 9 days to travel from Boston to Philadelphia.
• News of the Declaration of Independence took 29 days to travel from
Philadelphia to Charleston.
• By the mid- 1700’s plank roads and a mail system.
• Taverns.
• More religious toleration in the colonies.
• The Congregational Church (Puritans) and the Anglican Church were
the two dominant tax funded churches.
• Congregational Church– New England.
• Anglican Church– southern colonies.
• Only a minority of people belonged to this institutions.
• Most people did not attend church.
• These two churches were tax supported. Tended to be pro-monarchy
because of this fact.
The Great Awakening
• A rousing religious revival started by Jonathon Edwards ( “Sinners in
the Hands of an Angry God.”) Hell paved with the skulls of unbaptized
- Individual free will, not predestination, determined salvation.
- 1730’s revival meetings awakened passions, seized by the spirit,
making a personal decision for God.
• George Whitefield– a gifted orator who travelled the country
preaching fire and brimstone.
• Old lights vs. new lights.
Colonial Politics
• Peter Zenger’s freedom of the press trial in 1734.
- Criticized Governor, who charged him with libel.
- Zenger said it was the truth.
- Royal judges were suspicious, but Zenger was found not guilty
a jury.
• 1775: 8 royal colonies, 3 proprietary colonies, and 2 charter colonies.
• Local governments were varied with county governments in the south
and town meetings in New England.
• Voting requirements disenfranchised half the population of white
The Duel for North America
Chapter 6
AMH 2010
Derek Wingate
• French colonies and Anglo-French Rivalry.
• French and Indian (1754-63).
• Treaty of Paris and its aftermath.
• French threat declines= less need for English direction.
France In Canada
(New France)
• Latecomer for real estate in the New World.
• Samuel de Champlain, Quebec 1608, “Father of New
• Commercial companies failed, which led to royal leadership.
• Huron vs. Iroquois, French chose sides, led to consequences.
• New Orleans (1718) control of Mississippi.
Anglo-French Rivalry
• British colonist vs. coureurs de bois
• Series of conflicts during this time:
- King William’s War.
- Queen Anne’s War.
- War of Jenkin’s Ear (1739), confined to Caribbean and Georgia.
- King George’s War, drunken New Englanders vs. French.
• These conflicts were the result of the various European powers
(Britain, France, and England) pushing for land.
George Washington Inaugurates War with
• Ohio Valley Country. Westward push by British colonist ran into
French settlers.
• Land-grabbing/ cut throat fur trading. British colonist were fed up!
• The French attempted to cement their land claims by building a string
of forts, Fort Duquesne (Pittsburgh) and Fort Necessity.
• In 1754, the Governor of Virginia sent a 21 year old George
Washington and 150 militia men to the area around Fort Duquesne.
• Firing first Washington and his men beat back a small French patrol.
However, the French came back with reinforcements and forced
Washington to surrender.
Global War and Colonial Disunity
• The French and Indian War (Seven Years War) went undeclared for
two years after Washington’s men had fired the first shot.
• A far flung war fought in Europe, West Indies, Philippines, Africa, and
the ocean.
• The American colonist, however, suffered from a lack of unity.
• Albany Plan of union )17540
< Keep Iroquois loyal to the British
< Colonial unity
< Benjamin Franklin submitted a plan for home rule
General Braddock’s Expedition
• General Braddock and 2000 men were sent to capture Fort Duquesne.
• A large part of his force was made up of colonial militia (buckskins).
• A road had to be hacked out of the forest in order to drag cannons.
• Indian tactics versus parade-ground tactics.
• The French and allied indian forces defeated the British and Braddock
was killed.
• The frontier from Pennsylvania to North Carolina was left wide open
to indian attacks.
• British launch an invasion of Canada.
Pitt’s Palms of Victory
• Prime Minister William Pitt “Great Commoner.”
• English gain a base in Nova Scotia in 1758.
• Attack Quebec (1759) General James Wolfe killed.
• Montreal 1760, Control of St. Lawrence River.
• European allies fight French in Europe.
Death of General Wolfe
Treaty of Paris 1763
• Canada to Britain
• Florida to Britain for Cuba
• India to British
• Spain gets New Orleans, all of trans-Mississippi Louisiana
• Britain become the premier power in the world.
• French did receive some islands in the Caribbean and some
not to be fortified fishing outpost in New Foundland.
Colonial Restlessness
• The French and Indian War provided the colonist with experience and
• The war also showed the colonist that Britain was nit invincible.
• Colonial aspirations of self rule?
• As the war had progressed there was friction between colonist scum
and British snobbery.
• The Colonist, however, believed they deserved credit not contempt.
• Britain did not recognize any colonial militia rank above captain.
• George Washington was a colonel.
The Colonial Response
• No French? No problem! Time to Expand!
• Pontiac Uprising 1763, captured fort at Detroit.
• Problems with the Indians hindered Great Britain’s new lands.
• Proclamation of 1763, no colonial settlements past the Appalachian
• The Proclamation of 1763 angered the colonist.
• The colonist had a new vision for America.
• However, the British were in no mood to deal with them.
The British Response
• Costly war: colonist should share tax burden.
• Need for Imperial integration= tighter control of
• British tax burden is not oppressive.
• Opposite response of colonist.
Test 1
• Test 1 covers chapters 1-6.
• There are 55 questions on the test.
• If you would like a copy of the power point sent to you. Give me your
email address before you leave.