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Chapter 4
Chapter 4: First Age of Empires, 1570 B.C. – 200 B.C.
How did the first large empires in Africa and Asia develop?
-
Egypt and Nubia developed ________________________________________________________
-
The Assyrian Empire used its _____________________________________________ to gain
power
-
Persian rule was characterized by its _____________________________________________
-
Chinese ____________________________________ helped lay the foundation of Chinese
government
Section 1: The Egyptian and Nubian Empires
Nomadic Invaders Rule Egypt
Invaders
-
About 1640 B.C., Asian warriors, the Hyksos, use ________________________________
_______________________________________________
Hebrews Migrate to Egypt
-
_____________________________ move to ________________________ from Canaan around
1650 B.C.
-
Egyptians _______________________ the presence of Hebrews and Hyksos in Egypt
Expulsion and Slavery
-
Egyptians drive out the ____________________________________________
-
Hebrews lose _____________________________________ of Hyksos; are _________________
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Chapter 4
The New Kingdom of Egypt
Technological Changes
-
About 1570 to 1075 B.C. pharaohs create _______________________________________,
a powerful empire
-
Army uses _______________________________________________________________________ to
conquer other lands
Hatshepsut’s Prosperous Rule
-
Hatshepsut—_____________________ whose reign most noted for her ______________
__________________________________________, not war
Thutmose the Empire Builder
-
Thutmose III, Hatshepsut’s ____________________________, expands Egypt’s empire
-
Invades _____________________________________________________________________—region
around the upper Nile River
-
Egypt most _________________________________________________________ during reign of
_____________________________________ pharaohs
The Egyptians and the Hittites
-
Around 1285 B.C. Egyptians battle the ______________________________ in Palestine
-
Egypt’s pharaoh, _______________________, and the Hittite king sign a peace treaty
An Age of Builders
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New Kingdom pharaohs built ______________________________________________________
____________________________________________________
-
_____________________________________________________________ near Thebes is home to
____________________________________________________
-
Ramses II builds impressive temples with enormous _________________________ of
himself
2
Chapter 4
The Empire Declines
Invasion by Land and Sea
-
“Sea Peoples” (___________________________________________) cause great destruction
in Egypt
-
Libyan raids on villages and Palestine rebellions _________________________________
Egypt’s Empire Fades
-
Weakened empire breaks into _____________________________________________________
-
From around 950 to 730 B.C. __________________________________________ rule Egypt,
erect cities
The Kushites Conquer the Nile Region
Egypt and Kush
-
From 2000 to 1000 B.C., Egypt dominates kingdom of ___________________________
The People of Nubia
-
Live ____________________________________ near division of Blue Nile and White Nile
-
Nile River is a great ___________________________________________ for goods and ideas
-
Nubians link Egypt and Mediterranean to _________________________________________
through trade
The Interaction of Egypt and Nubia
-
Egyptian culture influences ____________________ and beyond to ___________________
__________________________
-
About 1200 B.C., Nubia gains independence but keeps Egyptian culture
3
Chapter 4
Piankhi Captures the Egyptian Throne
-
In 751 B.C., Kushite king Piankhi conquers _______________________, ousts Libyans
-
______________________________ overcome Kushites and take Egypt
The Golden Age of Meroë
Meroë
-
Kushites settle Meroë; join in trade with __________________________________________
The Wealth of Kush
-
Meroë becomes important center for ______________________________________________
-
Iron products transported to _____________________________________, exchanged for
__________________________________________
The Decline of Meroë
-
Meroë ___________________ from about 250 B.C. to A.D. 150, then __________________
-
____________________________, 400 miles southeast, dominates North African trade
-
Has port on Red Sea, defeats Meroë in A.D. 350
Section 2: The Assyrian Empire
A Mighty Military Machine
Assyria
-
Assyria uses ___________________________________________ to acquire empire across
Southwest Asia
4
Chapter 4
The Rise of a Warrior People
-
After invasions in Mesopotamia, Assyrians develop _____________________________
-
Assyrian king Sennacherib _________________________________________________________
Military Organization and Conquest
-
Glorified armies wear ______________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________
-
Use iron weapons, _____________________________________________________________, and
brute force to conquer cities
-
____________________________________________________ captive peoples to distant lands
The Empire Expands
Kings of Assyria
-
Defeat ______________________________________________________________________ between
850 and 650 B.C.
Assyrian Rule
-
Creates ___________________________________________________ over local governors of
dependent regions
-
Collects ___________________________________________________ from conquered lands
Assyrian Culture
-
Rulers build great cities, including capital at ____________________________________
-
Carved sculptures of _______________________________________________________ and the
lion hunt
-
King Ashurbanipal builds library of ______________________________________________;
Epic of Gilgamesh
5
Chapter 4
The Empire Crumbles
Early Warnings
-
Empire spread thin, ________________________________________________________________,
Ashurbanipal dies
Decline and Fall
-
Army of Medes and Chaldeans destroys Nineveh (612 B.C.); ____________________
_____________________________
Rebirth of Babylon Under the Chaldeans
-
Chaldeans make Babylon ___________________________________ of own empire
-
King Nebuchadnezzar builds legendary ___________________________________________
___________________________________
-
Builds tall ________________________________; astronomers make discoveries about
______________________________________________
-
Chaldean Empire falls to ______________________; they adopt Assyrian inventions
Section 3: The Persian Empire
The Rise of Persia
The Persian Homeland
-
Persia (ancient Iran) has ____________________________________________________________
-
Medes and Persians rose to power there
6
Chapter 4
Cyrus the Great Founds an Empire
-
Starting in 550 B.C., Persian _____________________________________________ conquers
neighboring lands
-
Governs with ___________________________________ toward conquered peoples
-
Honors ______________________________________________, including religious ones
-
Allows ____________________ to return to _____________________ to rebuild temple of
Jerusalem
Persian Rule
Cambyses and Darius
-
Cyrus’s son, Cambyses, conquers Egypt but ______________________________________
-
Darius seizes control, ____________________________________________________; expands
empire to India
Provinces and Satraps
-
Darius divides empire into _________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________
-
Appoints satraps—____________________________________________—to rule each area
-
Build _____________________________ to make communication within empire easier
-
Issues __________________________________ that can be used throughout the empire
The Persian Legacy
Zoroaster
-
Persian thinker called Zoroaster develops _______________________________________
7
Chapter 4
Zoroaster’s Teachings
-
Life is a battleground between ____________________________________________________
-
______________________________________ will judge us by how well we fight for good
-
Zoroastrianism influenced _________________________________________________________
Section 4: The Unification of China
Confucius and the Social Order
Zhou Dynasty
-
Lasted 1027 to 256 B.C.; ancient values ____________________ near end of dynasty
Confucius Urges Harmony
-
End of Zhou Dynasty is time of _____________________________
-
Scholar Confucius wants to _________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________
-
Stresses ______________________________________________________________________________,
including _____________________
-
Promotes filial piety—respect for __________________________________________________
-
Hopes to reform society by promoting ____________________________________________
Confucian Ideas About Government
-
Thinks ___________________________________________ can transform people
-
Teachings become foundation for bureaucracy, a ________________________________
____________________________
-
Confucianism is an __________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________, not a religion
8
Chapter 4
-
Chinese government and social order is based on _______________________________
Other Ethical Systems
Daoists Seek Harmony
-
Laozi teaches that people should follow the ______________________________________
-
Believes that universal force called ____________________________ guides all things
-
Daoism philosophy is to ____________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________________________
-
Daoists influence ____________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________________________
Legalists Urge Harsh Rule
-
Legalism emphasizes the __________________________________________________________;
stifles _____________________________
-
Teaches that obedience should be ________________________________, disobedience
_________________________________
I Ching and Yin and Yang
-
I Ching (The Book of Changes) offers ______________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________________________________
-
Concept of yin and yang—two powers represent _______________________________
____________________________________
-
Yin: __________________________________________________________________________________;
yang: _________________________________________________________________________________
-
I Ching and yin and yang explain how people ____________________________________
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Chapter 4
The Qin Dynasty Unifies China
The Qin Dynasty
-
_____________________________________ replaces Zhou Dynasty in third century B.C.
A New Emperor Takes Control
-
Emperor Shi Huangdi _______________ China, ends fighting, conquers new lands
-
Creates __________________________________________________________________ controlled
by Qin officials
-
With ______________________________ prime minister, _____________________ Confucian
scholars, burns ___________________________
-
Establishes an ____________________________, a government with unlimited power
A Program of Centralization
-
Shi Huangdi builds ________________________________________________________________;
increases ___________________________
-
Sets standards for ___________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________________________
-
Harsh rule includes _________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________________________
Great Wall of China
-
Emperor forces peasants to build ____________________________________ to keep out
invaders
The Fall of the Qin
-
Shi Huangdi’s son loses the throne to _____________________________________________;
Han Dynasty begins
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