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Chapter 4 First Age of
1570 BC – 200 BC
Egyptians & Nubians
Nomadic Invaders Rule Egypt
 Hyksos ruled Egypt from 1640 to
1570 BC
► Had
Hebrews Migrate to Egypt
 Arrived around 1650 BC
Expulsion Slavery
 By 1600 BC, the Egyptians grew
► Under
Queen Ahhotep & Pharaoh
 Drove Hyksos out
The New Kingdom in Egypt
1570-1075 BC
 Built an empire: control of several
peoples or states under one ruler
Hatshepsut's Prosperous Rule
 began rule in 1472 BC
 Encouraged trade instead of war
 major trade expedition to Punt
Thutmose the Empire Builder
 Stepson-may have murdered
 Thutmose III armies took Syria &
n part of Euphrates
Pushed into Nubia
► Conquered an empire
 no longer isolated
The New Kingdom
Egyptians & Hittites
 Conflict over Syria &
 Battle at Kadesh-1285
 Peace treaty
► became
Age of Builders
 Hidden tombs in
desert cliffs
 Valley of Kings near
 Ramses built
 tomb found in 199550 of his 52 sons
buried with him
The Empire Declines
Invasions by “Sea
 Palestinian revolts
& Libyan invaders
Empire Fades
 never recovered
power/ prestige
 Libyans ruled950 to 730 BC
► Adopted
Egyptian culture
 Nubians did too
Kushites Conquer Nile
Egypt dominated
Nubia & Kush for
Conquered Egypt
Interaction of Nubia
& Egypt
 Forced rule on Nubia
during New Kingdom
 Heavily influenced
 Nubian princes lived
in Egypt- adopted
their culture
 Regained
independence around
1200 BCE
► Piankhi
Egypt-751 BCC
 overthrew Libyan
 United Nile River
 Began 25th dynasty
of Egypt
► Erected
in Kush to celebrate
 Assyrians conquered
Egypt- 671 BCEended dynasty
Golden Age of Meroë
► Kushite
royal family
moved to Meroë
► Wealth of Kush
 Traded with Africa, India,
 Plentiful rainfall & iron
► The
Decline of Meroë
 Declined around 250 to
150 BC
 Another city, Aksum,
dominated their trade
The Assyrians
Mighty Military Machine
 Learned to fight while defending their
 Most feared/hated empire in region
 Foot soldiers, chariots, iron weapons,
► Treated People poorly
 Burned cities, tortured/killed captives,
heavy taxes
 Deported entire populations
 One king, Sennacherib, claimed to
destroy 89 cities and 820 villages
► Military Organization and Conquest
 Nineveh the capital
 Start conquering 900 BC
► Well equipped with iron weapons
 Tiglath-pileser & Ashurbanipal led
The Assyrians
Empire Expands
Conquered Syria, Palestine, Babylonia,
Anatolia, and Egypt
Assyrian Rule
 Peaked around 650 BC
 Royal Roads
 Divided empire into provinces w/ local
 Well organized military
 State of the art technology
Ruled through fear/terror
 Left markers so others wouldn’t revolt
 Destroyed cities-exiled people who
refused to pay tribute
 Burned cities, hung skin on walls, piled
 Built large library at Nineveh
Empire Crumbles
Enemies formed alliance- conquered
Nineveh in 612 BC
Babylon reborn under Chaldeans
Started a revival for Babylon
 Built into a monumental city
Reached height under King
Nebuchadnezzar II (605-562)
 Extended empire
 Deported Jews
 Built Hanging Gardens
Loved astronomy & maps
Poor harvest & slow trade hurt them
The Persians
Rise of Persia
 Modern day Iran
Cyrus I. was founder
Conquered the Medes in 540s
 Swept down from mountains of Iran in
539 BC
 Cyrus II conquered Babylon
Allowed Jews to return to homeland in
538 BCE-allowed to rebuild temple
 Eventually took over Mesopotamia, Syria,
Canaan, Phoenicia, Lydia, and Greek citystates of Asia Minor (Ionia)
 Tolerant to others cultures
 Allowed to retain their own language,
religions, and customs
Killed in battle on eastern border
Persian Rule
Cambyses and Darius
 Conquered Egypt in 525 BC
► Ruled harshly, unlike his father
► Died eight years later, revolts
 Darius seized the throne with the
help of the Ten Thousand
Immortals in 522 BC
 Spent the next three years putting
down revolts
 Then began conquering
Empire went from the Nile to
the Indus River, 3,000 miles
with 50 million people
Persian Rule
Divided it into provinces or
 Military officials & tax
collectors were “eyes &
ears” of king
 People paid tribute &
 Crushed rebellion quickly
 Brought artisans from all
over empire to build
 Encouraged trade: used
 Royal Road- 1,677 miles stops every 14 miles with
food, water, horses
 Messengers could travel in 7
Persian Legacy:
 Before 500s BCE,
 570 BCE, Zoroaster
reformed religion
 Strict moral code
 Struggle between good &
evil-human choice
 Ahura Mazda: good,
Ahriman: Bad
 achings linked to glorifying
 Pomp & pageantry
 Zoroaster influenced
Judaism, Christianity,
Islam: heaven, hell, Last
Political Order
 Tolerance & good govt.
brought order & stability to
the region
Unification of China
Confucius and the Social Order
 Born Kongfuzi in 551 BC
Confucius Urges Harmony
 Good govt. & social harmony achieved if
people used ethics
 Reciprocity
Golden Rule
Five Relationships
 For moral behavior
 Learn by example
 Stressed filial piety
Family a mini society
 After his death, 479 BC, work collected
into The Analects
Confucian Ideas About Govt.
 Education could transform anyone into a
 Laid the groundwork for bureaucracy
A trained civil service
Rejected Confucianism
 Strict laws/harsh
 Hanfeizi
 Humans evil by nature
 Favored by Qin Emperor
 Helped unify China
 Too harsh, never used
A. Confucius cont.
Harmony w/ nature
4. Taoist Ideas
 Laozi, 500s BC
 Could be a Taoists and
► Govt.
vs. individual
5. Yin and Yang
 Two opposing forces
 Yin: cool, dark, female,
 Yang: warm, light, male,
 Need balance
The Qin Dynasty
Local lords revolted against the Zhou
1. A New Emperor
By 221 BC, Qin wiped out the Zhou
 Qin Shi Huangdi
United the area under a strong, central govt.
 Attacked invaders north of the Huang He and
pushed as far south as Vietnam
 36 Military districts, standardized coins, laws,
and writing
 Commanded all nobles live in his capital
Uprooted 120,000 families
 Forced labor for roads and canals
 Legalists murdered hundreds of Confucian
scholars to prevent criticism
Burned useless books
B. The Qin cont.
2. A Program of Centralization
 Built a network of 4,000 miles of roads
Trade boomed
 Set standards throughout China for
writing, law, currency, and weights
and measures
3. Great Wall of China
 300,000 troops worked to build the
4,000 mile wall
 Keep Mongolians out
 Thousands died
4. The Fall of the Qin
Cruel tyrant
210 BC, Qin died, so did the dynasty
Peasants rebelled against the son
By 202 BC, the Han Dynasty replaced
the Qin